Chronic gastric inflammation developing after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is responsible for either dyspeptic symptom relevant to gastritis/peptic ulcer or gastric tumorigenesis, in which acid suppressants, especially proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), play role in relieving dyspepsia as well as the eradication regimen. Among several mediators engaged in propagating gastric inflammation after H. pylori infection, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) might be the principal one, and several prescriptions have been made for decreasing the COX-2 levels. Multiple line of evidence are available for anti-inflammatory action of PPIs beyond acid suppression, but revaprazan, a novel acid pump antagonist launched in clinic, has also been suggested to exert significant anti-inflammatory actions as much as PPI. In the current study, we hypothesized that revaprazan could regulate H. pylori-driven COX-2 expression as one of its anti-inflammatory pharmacological actions. The changes of gastric COX-2 expression as well as responsible transcription factors were measured after H. pylori infection in the presence or absence of revaprazan. Infection of AGS cells with H. pylori induced significant up-regulation of COX-2 in time- and concentration-dependent manners, which was mediated by Akt phosphorylation. Revaprazan treatment significantly inhibited IkappaB-alpha degradation as well as Akt inactivation, resulting in attenuation of H. pylori-induced COX-2 expression. Additional rescuing action of revaprazan against H. pylori-induced cytotoxicity was noted. In conclusion, revaprazan imposed significant anti-inflammatory actions on H. pylori infection beyond acid suppression.
Milk provides a well-balanced source of amino acids and other ingredients. One of the functional ingredients in milk is lactoferrin (LF). LF presents a wide variety of bioactivities and functions as a radical scavenger in models using iron-ascorbate complexes and asbestos. Human clinical trials of oral LF administration for the prevention of colon polyps have been successful and demonstrated that dietary compounds exhibit direct interactions. However, antioxidative properties of LF in distant organs require further investigation. To study the antioxidant property of LF, we employed bovine lactoferrin (bLF) using the rat model of ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA)-induced renal tubular oxidative injury. We fed rats with bLF (0.05%, w/w) in basal chow for 4 weeks and sacrificed them after Fe-NTA treatment. After intraperitoneal administration of 9.0 mg iron/kg Fe-NTA for 4 and 24 h, bLF pretreatment suppressed elevation of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. In addition, we observed protective effects against renal oxidative tubular damage and maintenance of antioxidant enzyme activities in the bLF-pretreated group. We thus demonstrated the antioxidative effect of bLF against Fe-NTA-induced renal oxidative injury. These results suggest that LF intake is useful for the prevention of renal tubular oxidative damage mediated by iron.
Seirogan, a wood creosote, has been used as an antidiarrhetic drug in Asian countries including Japan for many years. This antidiarrhetic has recently been used as a sugar-coated pill because Seirogan has a strong smell. The strong smell of the uncoated form of Seirogan may modulate the defense systems of animals because the sense of smell is important for the detection of toxic metabolites in foods contaminated with pathogens. This study examined the effect of the sugar-coated and uncoated forms of this antidiarrhetic on the immunological response and inflammatory reactions in mice that had been sensitized with either fluorescein isothiocyanate or oxazolone. The sensitization of mice with either FITC or oxazolone markedly increased the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and mucosal IgA and elicited severe inflammation in the colon by a mechanism that could be suppressed by exposure of animals to the smell of uncoated Seirogan as effectively as the oral administration of the agent. Dermal inflammation in the FITC- and oxazolone-sensitized mice was also suppressed effectively either by the exposure to the smell or oral administration of the agent. Biochemical and histochemical analyses revealed that the elevated levels of plasma tumor necrosis factor-α and mucosal IgA were significantly decreased by exposure to the smell of uncoated Seirogan as well as by oral administration of the agent. Exposure of mice to the smell of Seirogan but not oral administration of the agent selectively increased plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol, particularly in the sensitized animals. These observations suggest that exposing the animals to the smell of Seirogan per se activated the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and systemically modulated immunological reactions to suppress the allergic reactions.
The antidiabetic effects of lactic acid bacteria were investigated using mice. In Experiment 1, normal ICR mice were loaded with sucrose or starch with or without viable Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG cells. GG significantly inhibited postprandial blood glucose levels when administered with sucrose or starch. In Experiment 2, KK-Ay mice, a model of genetic type 2 diabetes, were given a basal diet containing viable GG cells or viable Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus cells for 6 weeks. Viable GG cells significantly inhibited fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose in a glucose tolerance test and HbA1c. Such effects were not shown by viable L. bulgaricus cells. In Experiment 3, the KK-Ay mice were given a basal diet containing viable GG cells or heat-treated GG cells for 3 weeks. The viable GG cells significantly suppressed fasting blood glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but the heat-treated GG showed no effects. These results demonstrated that GG decreased the postprandial blood glucose in ICR mice, and that the antidiabetic activity of lactic acid bacteria on the KK-Ay mice differed depending on the bacterial strain and whether the bacterium is viable when it arrives in the intestine. In the present study, we conclude that the antidiabetic activity may result from continuous inhibition of the postprandial blood glucose through suppression of glucose absorption from the intestine. These findings indicate that specific strains of lactic acid bacterium can be expected to be beneficial for the management of type 2 diabetes.
In this study we tried to confirm the effect of an astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract on cognitive function in 96 subjects by a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. Healthy middle-aged and elderly subjects who complained of age-related forgetfulness were recruited. Ninety-six subjects were selected from the initial screen, and ingested a capsule containing astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract, or a placebo capsule for 12 weeks. Somatometry, haematology, urine screens, and CogHealth and Groton Maze Learning Test were performed before and after every 4 weeks of administration. Changes in cognitive performance and the safety of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract administration were evaluated. CogHealth battery scores improved in the high-dosage group (12 mg astaxanthin/day) after 12 weeks. Groton Maze Learning Test scores improved earlier in the low-dosage (6 mg astaxanthin/day) and high-dosage groups than in the placebo group. The sample size, however, was small to show a significant difference in cognitive function between the astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract and placebo groups. No adverse effect on the subjects was observed throughout this study. In conclusion, the results suggested that astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract improves cognitive function in the healthy aged individuals.
The association of vascular reactivity between diabetes and periodontal disease has not been clarified. Gingival blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry for 31 weeks in Wistar rats, Wistar rats orally challenged with Porphyromonas gingivalis (Wistar rats + Porphyromonas gingivalis), Goto-Kakizaki rats, and Goto-Kakizaki rats orally challenged with Porphyromonas gingivalis (Goto-Kakizaki rats + Porphyromonas gingivalis). Effects of alveolar bone resorption on periodontal tissue was enhanced in Wistar rats + Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Goto-Kakizaki rats, with this effect being significantly enhanced by Goto-Kakizaki rats + Porphyromonas gingivalis. Using the L-band electron spin resonance technique, we succeeded in measuring oxidative stress as decay rate constant (K1 and K2) of 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidin-1-yloxy in the oral and maxillofacial region of the animal models. The decay rate constant (K1) of 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidin-1-yloxy was significantly greater in the oral and maxillofacial region of Goto-Kakizaki rats + Porphyromonas gingivalis compared to Wistar rats, Wistar rats + Porphyromonas gingivalis and Goto-Kakizaki rats groups. Gingival reactive hyperemia was attenuated by periodontal disease, and this effect was also remarkable in the diabetes mellitus model. Taken together, we found that vascular endothelial function was decreased in diabetes mellitus and/or periodontal disease animal models due to increasing oxidative stress in the gingival circulation.
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of the first-line Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication regimen composed of proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, with those of a regimen composed of proton pump inhibitor, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. Data of patients, who were administered the first-line H. pylori eradication regimen at Tokyo Medical Center between 2008 and 2011, were reviewed. All patients had H. pylori gastritis without peptic ulcer disease. The 7-day triple regimen composed of lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin was administered to 55 patients, and that composed of omeprazole, metronidazole, and amoxicillin was administered to 55 patients. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol eradication rates were 74.5 and 80.4%, respectively, for the regimen of lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, whereas the corresponding rates were 96.4 and 100%, respectively, for the regimen of omeprazole, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. In conclusion, first-line H. pylori eradication therapy composed of omeprazole, metronidazole, and amoxicillin was significantly more effective than that composed of lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, without differences in tolerability.
We have developed a method to determine serum scavenging-capacity profile against multiple free radical species, namely hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, alkoxyl radical, alkylperoxyl radical, alkyl radical, and singlet oxygen. This method was applied to a cohort of chronic kidney disease patients. Each free radical species was produced with a common experimental procedure; i.e., uv/visible-light photolysis of free-radical precursor/sensitizer. The decrease in free-radical concentration by the presence of serum was quantified with electron spin resonance spin trapping method, from which the scavenging capacity was calculated. There was a significant capacity change in the disease group (n = 45) as compared with the healthy control group (n = 30). The percent values of disease’s scavenging capacity with respect to control group indicated statistically significant differences in all free-radical species except alkylperoxyl radical, i.e., hydroxyl radical, 73 ± 12% (p = 0.001); superoxide radical, 158 ± 50% (p = 0.001); alkoxyl radical, 121 ± 30% (p = 0.005); alkylperoxyl radical, 123 ± 32% (p>0.1); alkyl radical, 26 ± 14% (p = 0.001); and singlet oxygen, 57 ± 18% (p = 0.001). The scavenging capacity profile was illustrated using a radar chart, clearly demonstrating the characteristic change in the disease group. Although the cause of the scavenging capacity change by the disease state is not completely understood, the profile of multiple radical scavenging capacities may become a useful diagnostic tool.
Parkinson’s disease is a major neurodegenerative disease involving the selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and α-synuclein containing Lewy bodies formation in the substantia nigra. Although α-synuclein is a key molecule for both dopaminergic neuron death and the formation of inclusion bodies, the mechanism of α-synuclein induction of Parkinson’s disease-related pathogenesis is not understood. In the present study, we found that the interaction between dopamine and α-synuclein requires the oxidation of dopamine. Furthermore, we examined the protective effect of chlorogenic acid, a major polyphenol contained in coffee, against α-syn and dopamine-related toxicity. Chlorogenic acid inhibits several DA/α-synuclein-related phenomenon, including the oxidation of dopamine, the interaction of oxidized dopamine with α-synuclein, and the oligomerization of α-synuclein under dopamine existing conditions in vitro. Finally, we showed that the cytoprotective effect against α-synuclein-related toxicity in PC12 cells that can be controlled by the Tet-Off system. Although the induction of α-synuclein in catecholaminergic PC12 cells causes a decrease in cell viability, chlorogenic acid rescued this cytotoxicity significantly in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that the interaction of oxidized DA with α-synuclein may be a novel therapeutic target for Parkinson’s disease, and polyphenols, including chlorogenic acid, are candidates as protective and preventive agents for Parkinson’s disease onset.
Safe and effective methods for oral bacterial disinfection have been desired, since bacteria cause many infectious diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, and endodontic infections. Singlet oxygen (1O2) is attractive, because it is toxic to prokaryotic cells, but not to eukaryotic cells. We selected irradiation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a source of 1O2, because it has been used in sunscreens and cosmetic products without complications. In order to establish the optimal oral photodynamic therapy conditions, we measured the rate of 1O2 formation from the irradiated anatase or rutile forms of TiO2 using 365 or 405 nm lamps. The rate of 1O2 formation decreased in the following order: anatase, 365 nm > rutile, 405 nm > rutile, 365 nm > anatase, 405 nm. Therefore, we concluded that irradiation of the rutile form of TiO2 by a 405 nm lamp is the most favorable photodynamic therapy condition, because visible light is more desirable than UV light from the viewpoint of patient safety. We also confirmed that there was no direct HO• formation from the irradiated TiO2.
Homocysteine is involved in a one-carbon transfer reaction, which is important for DNA synthesis and methylation. High level of plasma homocysteine, biochemical marker of folate status, is known to be a risk factor for cancer. However, it is inconclusive as to whether plasma homocysteine concentration can predict colorectal adenoma. We conducted a case-control study to determine whether hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for adenoma. Data from 1,039 subjects who underwent a colonoscopy and plasma homocysteine concentration determination during health examinations at single center over a two-year period were analyzed. The subjects were classified into two groups (422 adenoma and 617 controls). Subjects defined as having advanced adenomas were those with more than three adenomas, over 1 cm in size, high grade dysplasia, or villous components. Male, old age, high body mass index, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, smoking, fasting glucose, and past history of colon polyps were significantly associated with adenoma according to multiple logistic regression. According to subgroup analysis by gender, plasma homocysteine concentration was not associated with adenoma in males; however, a high plasma homocysteine concentration significantly increased the risk of adenoma as well as advanced adenoma in females. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for colorectal adenoma in women.
We examined whether non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems are disrupted in the brain of rats with water-immersion restraint stress. When rats were exposed to water-immersion restraint stress for 1.5, 3 or 6 h, the brain had decreased ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione contents and increased lipid peroxide and nitric oxide metabolites contents at 3 h and showed further changes in these components with a reduction of vitamin E content at 6 h. Increased serum levels of stress markers were found at 1.5, 3 or 6 h of WIRS. Oral pre-administration of L-ascorbic acid (1.5 mmol/kg) or vitamin E (0.5 mmol/kg) to rats with 6 h of water-immersion restraint stress attenuated the increases in lipid peroxide and nitric oxide metabolites contents and the decrease in vitamin E content in the brain. Pre-administered L-ascorbic acid attenuated the decreases in brain ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione contents at 6 h of water-immersion restraint stress, while pre-administered vitamin E enhanced the decreases in those contents. Pre-administered L-ascorbic acid or vitamin E did not affect the increased serum levels of stress markers in rats with 6 h of water-immersion restraint stress. These results indicate that water-immersion restraint stress causes disruption of non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems through enhanced lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide generation in the brain of rats with water-immersion restraint stress.
An impaired generation of nitric oxide has been associated with diabetic renal disease. In order to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms into how nitric oxide synthesis is impaired in diabetic renal disease, we examined changes in activities and expressions of some renal enzymes involved in nitric oxide production during the development of diabetic nephropathy in type II diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats. Ten-week old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (n = 40) and control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats (n = 20) were given drinking water containing 20% sucrose to accelerate the development of diabetic nephropathy. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats developed diabetic nephropathy in an age-dependent manner. Renal nitric oxide synthase activities in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats gradually declined with the progression of diabetic mellitus and were significantly lower than those of age-matched Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats after 22 weeks of age. The lower activities of renal nitric oxide synthase in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were correlated with relatively higher levels of renal free asymmetric dimethylarginine, an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and were also correlated with decreased activities of dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase which metabolizes asymmetric dimethylarginine to citrulline. These results imply that dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase dysregulation may play an important role in the development of diabetic nephropathy by increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine levels, which leads to inhibition of renal nitric oxide synthesis.
Metabolic syndrome is one of the major factors to increase the incidence of heart failure. In our study, we compared plasma fatty acid compositions among heart failure patients with and without Metabolic syndrome. Fatty acid (FA) composition of plasma phospholipids was analyzed and the activities of desaturase were estimated as the ratio of substrate and product fatty acids in 85 stable heart failure patients. Fatty acid and estimated desaturase activities were further examined for their associations with Metabolic syndrome components. Heart failure patients with Metabolic syndrome showed significant changes in fatty acid composition in comparison to those without Metabolic syndrome, which had a decreased proportion of lauric acid (C12:0) and an increased proportion of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C20:3n-6). Also, estimated desaturase activities (D5D and D6D) were closely related to Metabolic syndrome condition among heart failure patients. The content of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid showed positive correlations with BMI, waist circumference, and plasma triglyceride levels. D6D were positively associated with plasma triglyceride levels, whereas D5D showed a negative correlation with plasma triglyceride levels and waist circumferences. The content of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid as well as estimated D6D and D5D were altered in heart failure patients with Metabolic syndrome.
Fructooligosaccharides stimulate the growth of Bifidobacteria, which cleave isoflavone glycosides to yield corresponding aglycones, and convert metabolites by enhancing enterohepatic recirculation of isoflavones in rats. In the present study, we determined the synergistic effect of dietary isoflavone glycosides and fructooligosaccharides on postgastrectomy osteopenia in rats. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were gastrectomized (n = 20) or sham operated, (control, n = 5) and then randomly assigned to 5 diet groups: sham-a purified diet control, gastrectomized-control, gastrectomized-isoflavone (0.2% isoflavone glycosides), gastrectomized-fructooligosaccharides (7.5% fructooligosaccharides), and isoflavone and fructooligosaccharides (0.2% isoflavone glycosides + 7.5% fructooligosaccharides). After 6 weeks, the rats were killed and biological samples were collected. In gastrectomized rats, fructooligosaccharides prevented femoral bone fragility, but isoflavone without fructooligosaccharides did not inhibit postgastrectomy osteopenia. Isoflavone and fructooligosaccharides exhibited a synergistic in the distal metaphyseal trabecular bone, indicated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Moreover, fructooligosaccharides increased calcium absorption and equol production from daidzein in gastrectomized rats. These results indicate that isoflavone alone did not inhibit postgastrectomy osteopenia, but the combination of isoflavone and fructooligosaccharides improved the inhibition of trabecular bone loss by increasing calcium absorption and equol production through fructooligosaccharides supplementation.
Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 2011; 50(2): 145–151. (Received 2 April 2011; Accepted 3 September 2011).
This article was withdrawn by the Editorial Committee on July 5, 2012, because it was constituted a breach of journal’s ethical policy.