Oxidative status of albumin was not a useful biomarker for oxidative stress in practical use due to time-consuming measuring method. We evaluated oxidized, human nonmercaptalbumin measured more quickly than ever by a novel method using anion-exchange HPLC. In 60 subjects taking a general health examination, mean serum human nonmercaptalbumin level was 25.1 ± 3.0% with no gender difference but positive correlation with age. There were no links between human nonmercaptalbumin and C-reactive protein, γ-glutamyltransferase or iron, reportedly associated with oxidative stress. Human nonmercaptalbumin correlated with systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and body mass index among physical findings. Positive correlations were observed between human nonmercaptalbumin and AST, LDH, BUN, or creatinine, suggesting that oxidative stress may link with liver injury and renal function. Human nonmercaptalbumin correlated with uric acid in female but not in male, suggesting that higher uric acid levels may be associated with increased oxidative stress only in female. As another gender difference, white blood cell counts correlated with human nonmercaptalbumin in female, while the parameters for red blood cells correlated with human nonmercaptalbumin in male. In conclusion, serum human nonmercaptalbumin level in healthy subjects was approximately 25% as previously reported. Oxidative stress may be closely associated with hypertension, obesity, liver injury, renal function, and anemia.
Soy isoflavone has benefits for metabolic syndrome but the mechanism is not completely understood. This study was designed to determine the effects of soy isoflavone on hepatic fat accumulation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats induced by high fat diet (HFD). Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with a normal fat diet (control), HFD (NAFLD model), HFD with 10 or 20 mg/kg soy isoflavone daily for 12 weeks. Hepatic and serum lipid contents, liver histopathological examination, serum alanine transaminase (ALT), protein and mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, fatty acid synthase (FAS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α were assayed respectively. Our study found that soy isoflavone reduced HFD-induced lipid accumulation in liver, serum ALT and improved liver lobule structure. In addition, the expression of SREBP-1c and FAS was lower, whereas protein level of PPARα was higher in two soy isoflavone groups than that of the HFD group. Collectively, these results demonstrate that soy isoflavone is capable of alleviating hepatic steatosis and delaying the progression of NAFLD via inhibiting lipogenesis and promoting fatty acid oxidation in liver.
The recent widespread consumption of Western diets and food additives worldwide is associated with excessive inorganic phosphate intake. However, researchers have known little about the impact of dietary phosphate intake on the development of inflammatory bowel disease to date. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary phosphate on intestinal inflammation in experimental colitis. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different phosphate diets (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% phosphate) with or without dextran sulfate sodium. For in vitro study, the effects of phosphate on proinflammatory cytokine induction and reactive oxygen species production in RAW264.7 macrophage were examined. Dietary phosphate exacerbated intestinal inflammation in experimental colitis in a dose-dependent manner, as assessed by the clinical disease activity score, colon length, and histology. Furthermore, the high phosphate diet increased myeloperoxidase activity and proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression through the activation of nuclear factor κB in the inflamed colon. In addition, high phosphate loading in RAW264.7 cells directly enhanced reactive oxygen species production and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression. Our results demonstrated that the high phosphate diet exacerbated intestinal inflammation in experimental colitis. These findings have important therapeutic implications for inflammatory bowel disease patients.
Fasting-refeeding in mice induces transient hyperproliferation of colonic epithelial cells, which is dependent on the lactate produced as a metabolite of commensal bacteria. We attempted to manipulate colonic epithelial cell turnover with intermittent fasting to prompt recovery from acute colitis. Acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium in the drinking water for 5 days. From day 6, mice were fasted for 36 h and refed normal bait, glucose powder, or lactylated high-amylose starch. On day 9, colon tissues were subjected to analysis of histology and cytokine expression. The effect of lactate on the proliferation of colonocytes was assessed by enema in vivo and primary culture in vitro. Intermittent fasting resulted in restored colonic crypts and less expression of interleukin-1β and interleukin-17 in the colon than in mice fed ad libitum. Administration of lactate in the colon at refeeding time by enema or by feeding lactylated high-amylose starch increased the number of regenerating crypts. Addition of lactate but not butyrate or acetate supported colony formation of colonocytes in vitro. In conclusion, intermittent fasting in the resolution phase of acute colitis resulted in better recovery of epithelial cells and reduced inflammation.
Patients with post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) suffer from whole body ischemia/reperfusion injury similar to that experienced by newborn babies. Increased oxidative stress was confirmed in PCAS patients (n = 40) at the time of hospitalization by a significant increase in the percentage of the oxidized form of coenzyme Q10 in total coenzyme Q10 compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 55). Tissue oxidative damage in patients was suggested by the significant increase in plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) and the significant decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in total FFA. A greater decrease in free cholesterol (FC) compared to cholesterol esters (CE) was observed. Therefore, the FC/CE ratio significantly increased, suggesting deficiency of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase secreted from the liver. Time course changes of the above parameters were compared among 6 groups of patients divided according to outcome severity. Rapid declines of FC and CE were observed in patients who died within a day, while levels remained unchanged in patients discharged in a week. These data suggest that liver function is one of the key factors determining the survival of patients. Interestingly, therapeutic hypothermia treatment enhanced the increment of plasma ratio of coenzyme Q10 to total cholesterol at the end of rewarming.
We investigated the impact of combined effect of body mass index and waist-to-height ratio on risk of diabetes. Overweight and abdominal obesity were defined as body mass index ≥23 kg/m2 and waist-to-height ratio ≥0.5, respectively. We divided participants into four groups according to presence of overweight and/or abdominal obesity. About 20% individuals with overweight did not complicated with an abdominal obesity. Among 3,737 participants, 286 participants had diabetes at baseline-examination. Adjusted odds ratios for prevalence of diabetes compared with non-overweight participants without abdominal obesity were as follow: 1.87 (95% confidence interval 1.09–3.14, p = 0.024) in non-overweight participants with abdominal obesity, 1.51 (0.87–2.55, p = 0.141) in overweight participants without abdominal obesity and 3.25 (2.37–4.52, p<0.001) in overweight participants with abdominal obesity. In the follow-up examination, 86 participants were diagnosed as diabetes among 2,263 participants. Adjusted odds ratios for incident diabetes were as follow: 2.59 (0.98–6.44, p = 0.056) in non-overweight participants with abdominal obesity, 1.65 (0.64–4.00, p = 0.288) in overweight participants without abdominal obesity and 2.77 (1.55–5.15, p<0.001) in overweight participants with abdominal obesity. Non-overweight individuals with abdominal obesity as well as overweight individuals with abdominal obesity was associated with diabetes compared with non-overweight individuals without abdominal obesity.
Beneficial effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension trial (DASH) diet on features of metabolic syndrome have been indicated in clinical studies. In this study, we aimed to assess possible association of DASH diet score and the risk of insulin resistance in an Iranian population. In this prospective cohort study, 927 adult men and women, were recruited. Fasting serum insulin and glucose were measured at baseline and again after 3 years. Usual dietary intakes were measured using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and DASH score was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the occurrence of the insulin resistance across tertiles of DASH diet. To investigate possible superiority of DASH score over other scoring system, we also assessed the association of healthy eating index and Mediterranean diet score with the risk of insulin resistance. Mean age of the participants was 40.34 ± 12.14 years old. The incidence rate of insulin resistance was 12.8%. Participants with higher DASH score had also higher intakes of potassium, calcium, magnesium, fiber, and lower intakes of cholesterol (p<0.05). After 3-years of follow-up, a significant negative association was observed between DASH score and the risk insulin resistance in the highest compared to the lowest tertile (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.20–0.76, p for trend = 0.007). There was no significant association between healthy eating index and Mediterranean diet score with the incidence of insulin resistance. In conclusion, adherence to the DASH dietary pattern may be associated with a lower risk of insulin resistance and its related metabolic outcomes.
Small dense LDL particles (sd-LDL) and body shape index (ABSI), were evaluated in 228 women, living in Naples, Italy (Progetto ATENA). Serum cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA, Apo B, hs-CPR and sd-LDL were measured. LDL particle separation was performed by Lipoprint System: seven LDL subfractions were obtained and LDL score (% of sd-LDL particles) calculated. ABSI was calculated according to Krakauer’s formula: ABSI (m11/6 kg−2/3). The association between sd-LDL and ABSI was evaluated taking into account different adjustment models. Women with elevated levels of ABSI show the following OR of having high LDL score: 2.39, p = 0.002; unadjusted; 2.47, p = 0.002; adjusted for age; 2.13, p = 0.011; adjusted for age and Apo B; 1.93, p = 0.026; adjusted for age and Apo B and triglycerides. ABSI was associated with elevated LDL score independently of age, Systolic pressure, Apo B and triglycerides. Median of LDL diameter decreased among ABSI quartiles: quartile I: 271.5 nm, quartile II: 270.7 nm, quartile III 270.5 nm, quartile IV 269.4 nm; Kruskall Wallis Test: p = 0.016. These results are in line with the hypothesis that ABSI could be a marker of visceral abdominal associated to adverse metabolic changes including presence of elevated sd-LDL, a risk factor for premature cardiovascular disease.
Chlorella is a unicellular green alga that contains high levels of proteins, vitamins and minerals. The present study investigated the effects of a 4-week Chlorella-derived multicomponent supplementation on maximal oxygen uptake and circulating vitamin B2 levels in healthy men. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups: placebo or Chlorella. Prior to the intervention, we observed that the intake of several minerals and soluble vitamins did not satisfy the nutrient requirements of either group by assessing the frequency of daily food intake. There was a significant negative relationship between the pre-intervention maximal oxygen uptake and serum vitamin B2 concentrations in all subjects (r = −0.372). Maximal oxygen uptake significantly increased after Chlorella supplementation (before vs after, 42.1 ± 1.5 vs 44.9 ± 1.6 ml/kg/min), while serum vitamin B2 concentrations did not (14.6 ± 0.9 vs 14.0 ± 0.9 µg/L). In conclusion, Chlorella-derived multicomponent supplementation increases maximal oxygen uptake in individuals with an insufficient micronutrient status, although there was no association between the increase in aerobic capacity and serum levels of vitamin B2.
There was not available data about the overlap between functional dyspepsia (FD) and pancreatic diseases. We aimed to determine whether epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) accompanying with pancreatic enzyme abnormalities were associated with early chronic pancreatitis proposed by Japan Pancreas Society (JPS) using endosonography. We enrolled 99 consecutive patients presenting with typical symptoms of FD, including patients with postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) (n = 59), EPS with pancreatic enzyme abnormalities (n = 41) and EPS without pancreatic enzyme abnormalities (n = 42) based on Rome III criteria. Gastric motility was evaluated using the 13C-acetate breath test. Early chronic pancreatitis was detected by endosonography and graded from 0 to 7. The ratio of female patients among EPS patients (34/41) with pancreatic enzyme abnormalities was significantly (p = 0.0018) higher than the ratio of female EPS patients (20/42) without it. Postprandial abdominal distention and physical component summary (PCS) scores in EPS patients with pancreatic enzyme abnormalities were significantly disturbed compared to those in EPS patients without it. Interestingly, AUC5 and AUC15 values (24.85 ± 1.31 and 56.11 ± 2.51, respectively) in EPS patients with pancreatic enzyme abnormalities were also significantly (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively) increased compared to those (19.75 ± 1.01 and 47.02 ± 1.99, respectively) in EPS patients without it. Overall, 64% of EPS patients with pancreatic enzyme abnormalities were diagnosed by endosonography as having concomitant early chronic pancreatitis proposed by JPS. Further studies are warranted to clarify how EPS patients with pancreatic enzyme abnormalities were associated with early chronic pancreatitis proposed by JPS.
Down syndrome, caused by trisomy 21, is characterized by congenital abnormalities as well as mental retardation. From the neonatal stage through adolescence, patients with Down syndrome often have several complications. Thus, it is important to attain knowledge of the prevalence of these comorbidities in children with Down syndrome. We, therefore, evaluated the biochemical data, thyroid function, and anthropometric parameters, and analyzed the association among them in Japanese children and early adolescents with Down syndrome. There was no difference in the prevalence of obesity and overweight between boys and girls. The level of uric acid was higher in boys than in girls. Moreover, the prevalence of hyperuricemia was also higher in boys than in girls (approximately 32% and 10%, respectively). The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in children with Down syndrome was approximately 20%, with no significant sex differences. The levels of uric acid and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate were positively associated with age, while the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine had a negative association with age. Overall, children with Down syndrome, exhibit a higher incidence of hyperuricemia. Therefore, uric acid levels, as well as thyroid function, from childhood to early adulthood should be monitored in this patient cohort.
The aim of this study was to investigate the change in the energy metabolism and invasiveness in the perioperative period of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer. Fifty-two consecutive patients were enrolled into the study between July 2013 and May 2014 and examined resting energy expenditure using an indirect calorimeter, body weight and basal energy expenditure using the Harris–Benedict equation before and after endoscopic submucosal dissection. Resting energy expenditure/body weight and resting energy expenditure/basal energy expenditure were 20.2 ± 3.0 kcal/kg/day and 0.96 ± 0.11 on the day of endoscopic submucosal dissection, whereas one day after the endoscopic submucosal dissection they were 21.7 ± 3.2 kcal/kg/day and 1.03 ± 0.14, showing significant increases (p<0.001, respectively). The stress factor on the postoperative day 1 was computed as 1.07. This increase was low in comparison to that experienced for surgery, suggesting that the degree of perioperative invasiveness in patients receiving endoscopic submucosal dissection is lower in comparison to that during surgery (The study of the resting energy metabolism and stress factor using an indirect calorimeter in the perioperative period of endoscopic operation: UMIN000027135).