Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid have beneficial effects in many inflammatory disorders. Although the mechanism of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid action is still not fully defined in molecular terms, recent studies have revealed that, during the course of acute inflammation, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived anti-inflammatory mediators including resolvins and protectins are produced. This review presents recent advances in understanding the formation and action of these mediators, especially focusing on the LC-MS/MS-based lipidomics approach and recently identified bioactive products with potent anti-inflammatory property.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a key component of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain and is one of the most important cellular antioxidants. We previously reported that glycoprotein saposin B (SapB) binds CoQ10 in human cells. To elucidate the physiological role of SapB and its precursor, prosaposin (Psap), we prepared stable transfectants of HepG2 that overexpress wild-type human Psap (Wt-Tf). We also established a SapB domain mutated Psap (Mt-Tf) in which cysteine198 was replaced with serine to disrupt three dimensional protein structure by the loss of S-S bridging. Psap knockdown (KD) strains were also examined. Western blotting analysis confirmed overexpression or knockdown of Psap in these HepG2 cells. The cellular ratios of CoQ10 to free cholesterol (FC) significantly decreased in the order of Wt-Tf>parental>Mt-Tf>KD. Additionally, the ratios of CoQ10/FC in mitochondrial fractions decreased in the order of Wt-Tf>parental>KD. These data indicate that Psap and/or SapB regulate CoQ10 levels in HepG2 cells, especially in their mitochondria.
With the aim of developing effective anti-inflammatory drugs, we have been investigating the biochemical effects of shikonin of ”Shikon” roots, which is a naphthoquinone with anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. Shikonin scavenged reactive oxygen species like hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion (O2•−) and singlet oxygen in previous studies, but its reactivity with reactive oxygen species is not completely understood, and comparison with standard antioxidants is lacking. This study aimed elucidation of the reactivity of shikonin with nitric oxide radical and reactive oxygen species such as alkyl-oxy radical and O2•−. By using electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry, shikonin was found unable of reacting with nitric oxide radical in a competition assay with oxyhemoglobin. However, shikonin scavenged alkyl-oxy radical from 2,2'-azobis(2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride with oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC of 0.25 relative to Trolox, and showed a strong O2•−-scavenging ability (42-fold of Trolox; estimated reaction rate constant: 1.7 × 105 M−1s−1) in electron paramagnetic resonance assays with CYPMPO as spin trap. Concerning another source of O2•−, the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (Nox2), shikonin inhibited the Nox2 activity by impairing catalysis when added before enzyme activation (IC50: 1.1 µM; NADPH oxidation assay). However, shikonin did not affect the preactivated Nox2 activity, although having potential to scavenge produced O2•−. In conclusion, shikonin scavenged O2•− and alkyl-oxy radical, but not nitric oxide radical.
In recent years, the number of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus has been increasing worldwide. In particular, type 2 diabetes mellitus, a lifestyle-related disease, is recognized as a serious disease with various complications. Many types of pharmaceutics or specific health foods have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus. At the same time, the relationship between diabetes mellitus and α-lipoic acid has been recognized for many years. In this study, we found that the α-lipoic acid γ-cyclodextrin complex exhibited an HbA1c lowering effect for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus in animal models. Moreover, in this study, we investigated the activation of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis, in the liver of KKAy mice by using α-lipoic acid and the α-lipoic acid γ-cyclodextrin complex. Our results show that the α-lipoic acid γ-cyclodextrin complex strongly induced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Thus, we concluded that intake of the α-lipoic acid γ-cyclodextrin complex exerted an antidiabetic effect by suppressing the elevation of postprandial hyperglycemia as well as doing exercise.
We have established a novel method to evaluate the redox properties of tea polyphenols by HPLC-coulometric-array analysis. We plotted the quantity of electricity (µC) on the vertical axis and the electric potential (mV), adjusted with the associated palladium reference electrode, on the horizontal axis to provide ”quantity versus potential (QP) plot”. The patterns of the plots correspond to the derivative of a hydrodynamic voltammogram or a current-voltage curve, with the electric potentials of the peaks in the QP plot corresponding to the half-wave potentials in the current-voltage curve. We confirmed that catechins and theaflavins are oxidized depending on the electric potentials of their partial structures, and found that all compounds showing a peak at 0 mV in the QP plots produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) during the autoxidation process.
Antioxidant, anti-glycation and anti-inflammatory activities of fresh and conserved peach fruits (Prunus persica L. Batsch) were compared. Fresh peach pulps, peels, preserve peach pulps and the preserve syrup were prepared at equal concentrations. Rat liver, kidney and brain cortex tissue slices were pre-incubated with peach samples, subjected to oxidative stress with FeSO4 and hydrogen peroxide. Fresh peach pulps and peel conferred higher protection against cytotoxicity and oxidative stress than preserve peach pulps in most tissues. Release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β was also significantly decreased by Fresh peach pulps and peel, followed by preserve peach pulps. Total phenolic determination and HPLC analysis of carotenoids showed that the content of secondary metabolites in Fresh peach pulps and peel is significantly higher than in preserve peach pulps, while the syrup had only small or trace amounts of these compounds. Fresh peach pulps and Peel demonstrated high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects preventing against induced damage.
Indigenous opportunistic bacteria on the interior of the Peyer’s patches play a key role in the development of the mucosal immune, but their population composition has been ignored. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the changes in the composition of indigenous opportunistic bacteria in the Peyer’s patches are associated with obesity. C57BL/6J-male mice had been fed either a control diet or a high-fat diet. After 25 weeks, mice in high-fat diet exhibit either an obesity-prone (OP) or an obesity-resistant (OR) phenotype. Control diet group (CT) and OR group had a significant larger bacteria diversity than that in the OP group. Allobaculum and Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in high-fat diet induced OP mice compared with CT and OR mice, whereas Rhizobium and Lactococcus was significantly increased. The result of quantitative real-time PCR was consistent with that of 454 pyrosequencing. Significant correlations between mRNA expression of inflammation marks and the top 5 abundance genera bacteria on the interior of Peyer’s patches were observed by Pearson’s correlation analysis. Taken together, the indigenous opportunistic bacteria on the interior of Peyer’s patches plays a major role in the development of inflammation for an occurrence of obesity.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of abundant breast milk intake on rats model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Neonatal Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assigned to expand litters of 7 pups/litter (7-rats group) and 14 pups/litter (14-rats group). They were exposed to 80% oxygen from postnatal day (P) 0 to P12. Body weights were measured daily. At P13 and 18, rats were sacrificed, and the blood and eyes were collected. Retinal neovascularization (NV) score, total retinal area (TRA), avascular area (AVA), and vascularized area (VA) were measured in ADPase stained retinas. Retinal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) were measured using ELISA. Body weight gain was significantly greater in 7-rats group from P2. Serum IGF-1 levels at P13 and 18 were significantly higher in 7-rats group. Retinal VEGF and TRA at P18 were significantly larger in 7-rats group. NV score at P18 tended to be higher in 7-rats group. There was no significant difference in VA between the 2 groups at P13 and 18. Excess breast milk intake in OIR rat pups caused body weight gain and retinal development, whereas there was less effect on retinal vascularization in our study.
Depression has been reported to be more prevalent among diabetic patients than non-diabetic individuals. Although depression and diabetes are causally and bi-directionally related, the influence of food intake frequency on depressive symptoms in diabetic patients has not been fully evaluated. This cross-sectional study analyzed data obtained from 89 patients with type 2 diabetes who completed self-administered questionnaires regarding food intake frequency, diabetic variables, physical activity and depressive states. The prevalence of a ”definite” depressive state was 16.9%. The duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c levels, diabetic microvascular complications and physical activity levels were similar between depressed and non-depressed patients. Daily intakes of total lipids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid energy ratios were significantly lower, and the carbohydrate energy ratio was significantly higher in depressed than in non-depressed patients. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with depressive symptoms, but no significant association was found between tea or green tea consumption and depressive symptoms. The logistic regression analysis showed that coffee consumption was an independent predictor of non-depressed status in diabetic patients. This might be due to biologically active compounds containing in coffee other than caffeine.
Chlorella, a unicellular green alga, contains a variety of nutrients including amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. A previous animal study found that maximal swimming time in mice increased after 14 days on a diet including Chlorella powder compared to no change in swimming performance on a normal diet. However, it is currently unknown whether Chlorella-derived multicomponent supplementation increases aerobic endurance capacity in humans. We investigated the effects of Chlorella-derived supplementation on peak oxygen uptake during incremental maximal cycling in young individuals using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study design. Seven men and three women (mean age, 21.3 year) were allocated to placebo or Chlorella tablets (15 tablets × twice per day) for 4 weeks, with at least a 6-week washout period between trials, in a randomized order. Peak oxygen uptake significantly increased after Chlorella supplementation (before vs after, 37.9 ± 1.9 vs 41.4 ± 1.9 ml/kg/min, p = 0.003), but not with placebo (39.4 ± 2.2 vs 40.1 ± 2.1 ml/kg/min, p = 0.38). The change in peak oxygen uptake over the 4-week trial was significantly greater in the Chlorella trial than in the placebo trial (3.5 ± 0.9 vs 0.7 ± 0.8 ml/kg/min, p = 0.03). These results suggest that Chlorella-derived multicomponent supplementation increases aerobic endurance capacity in young individuals.
The relationships between the serum mineral concentrations and the endoscopic findings of esophageal varices have been poorly investigated. In this study, we investigated hepatitis virus-positive patients who had undergone a liver biopsy (n = 576) and 75 patients with compensated cirrhosis in order to evaluate the association of the zinc value with the severity of liver fibrosis and esophageal varices. The mean zinc values decreased with the progression of fibrosis (METAVIR score; F0–1: 71.3 ± 11.3, F2: 68.9 ± 11.7, F3: 66.3 ± 11.8, F4: 63.9 ± 15.0). In the hepatitis virus-related compensated cirrhosis, the mean zinc value decreased with the severity of varices (patients without varices: 66.3 ± 12.6, patients with low-risk varices: 62.5 ± 13.7, patients with high-risk varices: 55.6 ± 13.0). The zinc value was significantly lower in patients with varices than in those without varices (59.3 ± 13.6 vs 66.3 ± 12.6, p<0.05). The zinc value was also significantly lower in the patients with a high risk of bleeding than in those with a low risk (55.6 ± 13.0 vs 64.6 ± 13.1, p<0.01). These findings suggest that the zinc value is not only an indicator of an abnormal metal metabolism, but is also a simple parameter associated with hepatitis virus-related various conditions, including the degree of liver fibrosis and the severity of esophageal varices in compensated cirrhosis.