Because application of cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet (CAPPJ) to biological samples have taken large attentions, it is important to examine the effects of various CAPPJ parameters on the generation of reactive species. Here, we investigated the generation of reactive species in water by CAPPJ irradiation by changing the following parameters: irradiation time, sample volume, and irradiation distance between the sample surface and plasma jet tip. We measured 1) change in the ESR signal intensity of 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetrametylpeperidine-1-oxyl (Tempol), 2) spin-trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), 3) Fricke dosimeter reaction, and 4) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation induced by CAPPJ irradiation. By the experiment of volume dependency, it is suggested that the reactive species detected in water are formed largely in the plasma gas phase. The reduction of ESR signal intensity of Tempol and the formation of DMPO-OH were strongly dependent on irradiation distance, but the relationship between H2O2 generation and distance was weak. The formation of species that oxidize Fe2+ to Fe3+ was shown by the Fricke dosimeter reaction, and reactions at irradiation distances longer than 3 cm were mainly attributable to H2O2. It may be possible to apply different reactive species to the samples by changing the CAPPJ irradiation distance.
Glucose converted from a diet has been considered a high-risk factor of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is not clear how it increases the risk of T2DM. Here, we investigated the effect of high-glucose administration on glucose tolerence in wild-type and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) knockout mice. Mice were intragastrically administered with high-glucose. The level of fasting blood glucose, insulin and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured, and insulinogenic index and HOMA-IR were calculated at 1 week. To understand mechanism of glucose action, we also assessed blood glucose, glucagon-like peptide-1 and inflammatory cytokines levels at different time windows following high-glucose load. Our results show that 20 g/kg glucose load leads to glucose tolerance impairment and insulin resistance in wild-type mice. Following 20 g/kg glucose load, the levels of plasma interlukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased significantly in wild-type mice, but not in TLR4 knockout mice. Moreover, 20 g/kg glucose load also impaired glucose-induced GLP-1 secretion in wild-type and TLR4 knockout mice. Our results indicate that high-glucose load leads to glucose intolerance with insulin resistance through impairment of GLP-1 secretion, increase of blood glucose levels via activating TLR4 and increasing levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in mice.
Peritoneal dissemination describes a state where tumor cells spread to the surface of the peritoneum and become engrafted. Peritoneal dissemination reduces the quality of life and prognosis of cancer patients. Currently, there are few effective therapies or preventative treatments for peritoneal dissemination. The aim of this study was to evaluate a ketogenic diet, characterized by high fat, moderate protein and low carbohydrate content, as a novel therapy in a mouse model of peritoneal dissemination. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with colon 26, a murine colon adenocarcinoma cell line, to induce experimental peritoneal dissemination. After tumor inoculation, mice were fed a regular or ketogenic diet. A longer survival time and better health status score, related to improved behavior, was observed in the ketogenic diet group compared with the regular diet group. In addition, the weight of ascites was significantly smaller and the anemia symptoms, number of red blood cell, hemoglobin and hematocrit, were improved in the ketogenic diet group compared with the regular diet group. However, the tumor weight was not significantly smaller in the ketogenic diet group compared with the regular diet group. These data suggest that a ketogenic diet might be a potential preventive therapy for peritoneal dissemination.
Differences in the culturing conditions of mesenchymal stem cells used in regenerative medicine may affect their differentiation ability, genome instability, and therapeutic effects. In particular, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured under hypoxia are known to proliferate while maintaining an undifferentiated state and the use of deferoxamine, a hypoxia mimetic reagent, has proven to be a suitable strategy to maintain the cells under hypoxic metabolic state. Here, the deferoxamine effects were investigated in mesenchymal stem cells to gain insights into the mechanisms regulating stem cell survival. A 12-h deferoxamine treatment reduced proliferation, oxygen consumption, mitochondrial activity, and ATP production. Microarray analysis revealed that deferoxamine enhanced the transcription of genes involved in glycolysis and the HIF1α pathway. Among the earliest changes, transcriptional variations were observed in HIF1α, NUPR1, and EGLN, in line with previous reports showing that short deferoxamine treatments induce substantial changes in mesenchymal stem cells glycolysis pathway. NUPR1, which is induced by stress and involved in autophagy-mediated survival, was upregulated by deferoxamine in a concentration-dependent manner. Consistently, NUPR1 knockdown was found to reduce cell proliferation and increase the proapoptotic effect of staurosporine, suggesting that deferoxamine-induced NUPR1 promotes mesenchymal stem cell survival and cytoprotective autophagy. Our findings may substantially contribute to improve the effectiveness of mesenchymal stem cell-based regenerative medicine.
Prebiotic dietary water-soluble fiber obtained from partially hydrolyzed guar gum was added to diets of children with autism spectrum disorders who presented constipation symptoms. Supplementation with partially hydrolyzed guar gum altered gut microbiota and significantly increased the frequency of defecation per week and altered the gut microbiota. In addition, supplementation with partially hydrolyzed guar gum significantly (p<0.05) decreased and tended to decrease (p = 0.07) the concentrations of serum interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, respectively. More importantly, supplementation with partially hydrolyzed guar gum significantly ameliorated behavioral irritability as per the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, Japanese Version. The present study demonstrated that supplementation with partially hydrolyzed guar gum to diets of constipated autism spectrum disorders children helped improve constipation and gut dysbiosis symptoms, which in turn helped attenuate the level of serum inflammation cytokines and behavioral irritability.
Maslinic acid, derived from olive fruit, reduces pro-inflammation cytokines, which are involved in muscle fiber atrophy. Therefore, the maslinic acid ingestion may enhance the muscular response to resistance training through anti-inflammatory action. We therefore conducted a parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that examined whether a combination of maslinic acid supplementation and resistance training improve mobility functions in community-dwelling elderly persons. Over a 12-week period, 36 participants underwent moderate resistance training and are assigned to the maslinic acid supplementation (n = 17, 60 mg/day) or the placebo (n = 19) group. At baseline and at 12-weeks, we assessed body composition, grip strength, walking speed, leg strength, mobility functions, and knee pain scores. Following the 12-weeks, skeletal muscle mass, segmental muscle mass (right arm, left arm, and trunk) and knee pain score of the right leg were significantly improved in the maslinic acid group, while there was no change or parameters had worsened in the placebo group. Grip strength of the better side significantly increased only in the maslinic acid group. These results suggest that maslinic acid supplementation combined with moderate resistance training may increase upper muscle mass and grip strength, and reduce knee pain, could be effective for preventing mobility-related disability in elderly persons. Clinical trial registration number: UMIN000017207.
Few studies have investigated the host-microbe metabolic axis in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to determine and compare the nutrient intakes and metabolic markers and to elucidate the relationships among these factors in Japanese T2DM patients and control individuals. Fifty-nine Japanese T2DM patients and 59 matched healthy control individuals participated in this study. We examined the differences regarding the participants’ dietary habits, microbiota, and fecal short-chain fatty acids, and analyzed the relationships between the gut microbiota and blood metabolic markers in the T2DM patients and the control subjects. The T2DM patients consumed more carbohydrates, and had lower fecal propionate and butyrate concentrations, larger fecal populations of Bifidobacterium spp. and bacteria of the order Lactobacillales, and smaller fecal Bacteroides spp. populations than the control individuals. In the T2DM patients, the level of Bifidobacterium spp. correlated negatively with the carbohydrate intake and the level of bacteria of the order Lactobacillales correlated negatively with the protein intake. T2DM patients have gut dysbiosis that may contribute to disease onset and influence its prognosis. Furthermore, homeostatic disturbances in the gut-related metabolism may underlie the pathogenesis of T2DM.
Heart failure is a major manifestation of thiamine deficiency; beriberi. Even thiamine insufficiency, milder than deficiency, may be associated with increased heart failure risk. In this cross-sectional study, the relationship between thiamine insufficiency and heart failure was investigated in the Japanese institutionalized elderly from April to November 2017. Fifty-five subjects in four care facilities were evaluated for their whole blood thiamine and plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentrations. Mean whole blood thiamine concentration was 88.7 ± 22.3 nmol/L in men and 92.0 ± 16.5 nmol/L in women, and significantly and negatively correlated with plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentrations (r = −0.378, p = 0.007). In the multiple regression analysis adjusted by age, sex, body mass index, and eGFR, whole blood thiamine concentration was a significant negative contributor (standardized coefficient β = −0.488, p = 0.001) to plasma brain natriuretic peptide. In the logistic regression analysis adjusted by the same variables, whole blood thiamine concentration significantly contributed to plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration higher than over 40 pg/ml (OR: 0.898, 95%CI: 0.838–0.962). Whole blood thiamine concentration in subjects with diuretics was significantly lower than those without it (p = 0.023). Thiamine insufficiency was related to increased plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration and may increase the risk of heart failure.
There is limited evidence examining the association between B vitamin supplementation and improved endothelial function via lowering plasma homocysteine levels. This study investigated whether low-dose B vitamin supplementation improves endothelial dysfunction in Japanese adults with one or more components of metabolic syndrome. A randomized, controlled, crossover trial, without a washout period or blinding of subjects, was conducted from May-September, 2010. The subjects were 127 Japanese men and women aged 40–65 years who had at least one component of metabolic syndrome without medication. Participants took a supplement drink for two months but were divided into early intervention or later intervention groups. The flow-mediated dilatation, plasma homocysteine level, serum B-vitamins, and vitamin C levels were measured. A significant increase in serum B vitamins and vitamin C levels, and a reduction in plasma homocysteine levels were observed. The mean serum homocysteine level pre- and post-intervention was 9.8 and 8.2 µmol/L in the early intervention group and 10.8 and 7.4 µmol/L in the later intervention group (p<0.01). However, no significant changes in flow-mediated dilatation was found. Low-dose multivitamin supplementation including B vitamins is associated with a significant reduction in plasma homocysteine levels among patients with one or more components of metabolic syndrome. This study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) centre, and has the identifier UMIN000004436.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of sex on serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activities and on its relationship with cardiovascular disease risk factors such as overall and central obesity. Arylesterase and lactonase activities of PON1 were assessed in 374 women and 92 men. Both arylesterase and lactonase activities were significantly higher in women compared to men (p<0.001), irrespectively of confounders such as high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, age, smoking and body mass index or waist circumference. Sex also strongly influenced the interplay between PON1 and both fat measures, with only the arylesterase showing a significant and independent inverse correlation with the former parameter (r = −0.248, p<0.001) and the risk of overall obesity (odds ratio: 0.559, 95% confidence interval: 0.340–0.919) in women, but not in men; conversely, neither of the two activities remained associated with waist circumference in men or women after full adjustment. Noteworthy, the association between arylesterase and BMI in the female subsample was significant among women younger than forty-five years (r = −0.453, p<0.001, R2 = 0.207). In conclusion, our study suggests that sex might chiefly influence PON1 activity and its contribution to cardiovascular disease risk. Further studies are needed to confirm and clarify our preliminary findings.
Small bowel capsule endoscopy can detect subtle mucosal lesions in pediatric patients with Crohn’s disease, and our aim was to evaluate its application in established ileocolonic Crohn’s disease. Colonic inflammation was evaluated with the colonic Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn’s Disease (SES-CD) (excluding the score of the terminal ileum). Small bowel inflammation was evaluated with the Lewis score and/or Capsule Endoscopy Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CECDAI). A Lewis score <135 was defined as small bowel inactive. A colonic SES-CD of 0 (colonic inactive group) was observed in 22/42 procedures (52.4%), and active small bowel lesions were observed in 11/22 procedures (50.0%). The Lewis score was lower in the colonic inactive group compared to the colonic active group. Correlations between the colonic SES-CD, the Lewis score and CECDAI were weak. The Lewis score and CECDAI in the colonic inactive group had significant correlation with fecal calprotectin levels. We suggest that Crohn’s disease patients without both colonic active lesions and elevation of fecal calprotectin levels may not need to receive small bowel capsule endoscopy due to low incidence of lesions in small bowel.
Fecal calprotectin level in ulcerative colitis patients is correlated with endoscopic findings. However, its association with various ulcerative colitis disease types has not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the correlation of fecal calprotectin level with endoscopic findings as compared to blood biomarkers according to ulcerative colitis disease type. Fecal calprotectin as well as the blood biomarkers: C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood count (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), hemoglobin, platelet count (PLT), and serum albumin (Alb) were measured in patients who underwent a complete colonoscopy. Disease type was divided into proctitis, left-sided colitis, and extensive colitis. Correlations of fecal calprotectin and blood biomarker levels with Mayo endoscopic subscore were analyzed. A total of 186 colonoscopy examinations were performed in 124 patients with ulcerative colitis. Fecal calprotectin level showed a significant correlation with Mayo endoscopic subscore regardless of disease type (proctitis, r = 0.54, p<0.01; left-sided colitis, r = 0.75, p<0.01; extensive colitis, r = 0.78, p<0.01), and clearly discriminated inactive (Mayo endoscopic subscore 0) from active stages (Mayo endoscopic subscore 1–3). On the other hand, none of the examined blood biomarkers showed a correlation with Mayo endoscopic subscore in the proctitis group, while weak correlations of several biomarkers (CRP, WBC, ESR, PLT and Alb) with Mayo endoscopic subscore were found in left-sided colitis and extensive colitis cases. This is the first report to elucidate the capabilities of fecal calprotectin and blood biomarkers as endoscopic surrogate markers according to ulcerative colitis disease type.