Fisetin was reported to have an anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity as a novel anti-cancer agent in various cancer cell lines. However, the possible molecular targets for the anti-cancer effect of fisetin in human head and neck cancer (HNCC) have not yet been clarified. In this study, the influence of fisetin on the growth and apoptosis of HNCCs were examined. In HSC3 cells, fisetin treatment reduced the viability and induced apoptosis. Through the results from the screening of the expression profile of apoptosis-related genes, sestrin 2 (SESN2) was functionally involved in fisetin-mediated apoptosis showing the knockdown of SESN2 by siRNA clearly restored fisetin-induced apoptosis. In addition, fisetin reduced the protein expression levels of phospho-mTOR (p-mTOR) and Mcl-1, which are the downstream molecules of SESN2. It also induced PARP cleavage by inducing an increase in the expression levels of SESN2 together with reducing mTOR and Mcl-1 proteins in other three HNCCs (MC3, Ca9.22, and HN22). Taken together, our findings suggest that the anti-cancer effect of fisetin on HNCCs is associated with SESN2/mTOR/Mcl-1 signaling axis.
The effect of two factors, storage and the bacterial DNA extraction method, that potentially affect the 16S rRNA-based profiling of the microbiota in the feces of Japanese adults, were evaluated. Profiles of the microbiota in feces stored in DESS (DMSO-EDTA-salt solution) for 1, 2 and 3 weeks at room temperature, and for 3 weeks at 4°C were compared with those in fresh feces and feces stored in guanidine thiocyanate solution for 3 weeks at 4°C. None of the storage variables (preservation solution, temperature and duration) considerably affected α- and β-diversity of the fecal microbiota and OTU profiles. Regarding the bacterial DNA extraction methods, four were evaluated; A) silica membrane DNA purification combined with bead-beating bacterial disruption, B) magnetic bead DNA purification combined with bead-beating bacterial disruption, C) manual DNA purification using phenol-chloroform and ethanol precipitation combined with enzymatic bacterial lysis, and D) DNA extraction by a commercially available DNA stool kit. While methods A, B, and C did not markedly affect α- and β-diversity of the fecal microbiota and the OTU profiles, method D noticeably altered both α- and β-diversity. In addition, method D caused significant changes in the abundance of two predominant genera; Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium.
Nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor activation inhibits fatty acid synthesis through the liver X receptor-α-sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c pathway universally in animals, but also has human-specific crosstalk with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α. The effects of farnesoid X receptor-ligands on both the synthesis and degradation of fatty liver through nuclear receptor-related regulation were investigated in both human and murine hepatocytes. A fatty liver culture cell model was established using a synthetic liver X receptor-α-ligand (To901317) for both human and mouse non-neoplastic hepatocytes. The hepatocytes were exposed to natural or synthetic farnesoid X receptor-ligands (bile acids, GW4064, obeticholic acid) together with or after To901317. Cellular triglyceride accumulation was significantly inhibited by the farnesoid X receptor-ligands along with inhibition of lipogenic genes and up-regulation of farnesoid X receptor-target small heterodimer partner in both human and mouse cells. The accumulated triglyceride was significantly degraded by the farnesoid X receptor-ligands only in the human cells accompanied with the up-regulations of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and fatty acid β-oxidation. Farnesoid X receptor-ligands can be therapeutic agents for treating human fatty liver through dual effects on inhibition of lipogenesis and on enhancement of lipolysis.
The anti-oxidant system is affected not only by aging but also many lifestyle factors. We aimed to clarify the determinants of medical check-up items affecting the anti-oxidant system. We studied 959 Japanese individuals who underwent anti-aging health check-ups (mean age: 61.1 years) at Tokai University from 2006 to 2016. As parameters of oxidative stress, we measured serum total anti-oxidant status, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and isoprostane. Anti-aging health check-up data and lifestyle information were collected from participants in this study. Step-wise multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify determinants that influence serum total anti-oxidant status, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and isoprostane, respectively. Serum total anti-oxidant status was significantly correlated with uric acid, vitamin A, folate, and valine. 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine was significantly correlated with age, ferritin, drinking habit, and vitamin Eα. Isoprostane was significantly correlated with vitamin Eα, γ-glutamyltransferase, ferritin, and smoking habit. The strong antioxidant powers of uric acid and vitamins were confirmed. It was suggested that branched-chain amino acids themselves such as valine or peptides containing them may possess antioxidant ability because of its strong correlation. Uric acid, ferritin, and γ-glutamyltransferase, which are common items measured in medical checkups, can be informative in predicting the oxidative stress situation in a general medical examination.
We previously reported that probucol, a lipid lowering agent, protected mice from malaria infection via depletion in plasma α-tocopherol. The antioxidant α-tocopherol in host circulation is necessary for the malaria parasites to protect themselves from oxidative stress in erythrocytes where high amounts of reactive oxygen species are generated. To assess the potential for the clinical application of probucol as an anti-malarial therapy, it was necessary to determine the effects of probucol by using primate experiments. Here we verified that probucol induces an α-tocopherol decrement in cynomolgus macaque erythrocytes and plasma. After 2 weeks of probucol administration at doses of 200 or 400 mg/kg/day, the α-tocopherol contents in erythrocytes tended to decrease. The contents of hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids and 7β-hydroxycholesterol, peroxidation products derived from linoleic acid and cholesterol, respectively, increased in erythrocytes. On the other hand, plasma α-tocopherol concentration showed a marginal decrement. Plasma lipid peroxidation products were transiently increased in the early stages of probucol administration. No adverse effects were observed throughout the experiment, although the dosage of probucol was higher than the clinical maximum dosage. Considering that malaria proliferates in erythrocytes, probucol-induced disruption of redox homeostasis in erythrocytes could be effective in the inhibition of parasite proliferation.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) root (or rhizome) has been reported to have antioxidant properties such as reactive oxygen species scavenging activities. Using multiple free-radical scavenging method, we have newly determined the scavenging abilities of ginger roots against five reactive oxygen species, i.e., HO•, O2−•, RO•, tert-BuOO•, and 1O2. After heating grated ginger roots at 80°C for 2 h, nearly 50% decrease in scavenging ability was recorded against 1O2 and tert-BuOO•. Conversely, the O2−• scavenging ability increased by about 56% after heat treatment. Based on the antioxidant activity measurement of the ginger’s components, i.e., 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and zingerone, active species acting as antioxidant capacity of ginger was shown. Additionally, ginger’s antioxidant capacity was quantitatively compared with that of rosemary extract, indicating that rosemary is peroxyl specific scavenger while ginger has higher scavenging ability against HO• and 1O2.
We investigated the physiological activity of an oil rich in γ-linolenic acid of evening primrose origin (containing 42.6% γ-linolenic acid) affecting hepatic fatty acid metabolism, and serum lipid levels in genetically hyperlipidemic mice deficient in apolipoprotein E expression. Male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (BALB/c.KOR/StmSlc-Apoeshl) were fed experimental diets containing 100 g/kg of palm oil (saturated fat), safflower oil (rich in linoleic acid), γ-linolenic acid oil (rich in γ-linolenic acid), or fat mixtures composed of safflower and γ-linolenic acid oils (65:35 and 30:70, w/w) for 20 days. γ-Linolenic acid oil, compared with palm and safflower oils, strongly and dose-dependently increased the activity and mRNA levels of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes. In general, safflower and γ-linolenic acid oils, compared with palm oil, reduced the activity and mRNA levels of lipogenic enzymes. However, these oils were equivalent in reducing the parameters of lipogenesis, excluding malic enzyme and pyruvate kinase. The diets containing safflower and γ-linolenic acid oils, compared with the palm oil diet, significantly decreased serum triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels. The decreases were greater with γ-linolenic acid oil than with safflower oil. γ-Linolenic acid oil exerted strong serum lipid-lowering effects in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice apparently through the changes in hepatic fatty acid metabolism.
Scdachitin is a polymethoxyflavone (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6,8,3-trimethoxyflavone) that is found in the peel of Citrus sudachi. We examined the effect of sudachitin on immune response in ovalbumin-immunized BALB/c mice. Treatment with sudachitin increased ovalbumin-specific IL-4 and IL-10 productions. In addition, mice that received sudachitin showed higher levels of ovalbumin-specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG l production than did control mice. The antibody response to the thymus-independent antigen 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl Ficoll was not different in the control and sudachitin groups, suggesting that sudachitin does not directly stimulate antibody production. An in vitro study showed that treatment of sudachitin enhanced the ability of antigen presentation in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Furthermore, CD11c+ cells that had been treated with sudachitin showed increased expression of co-stimulatory molecules. The results indicate that sudachitin regulates immune function both in vivo and in vitro.
The present study investigated the acute effect of a footbath on increases in arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion in healthy young women. Nine healthy young women (aged 18.4 ± 0.2 years; mean ± SE) completed three trials in random order. They started a footbath before 75-g oral glucose ingestion, a footbath after 75-g oral glucose ingestion and no footbath (control) trials. Aortic (carotid–femoral) and leg (femoral–ankle) pulse wave velocity, the carotid augmentation index, carotid, brachial and ankle blood pressure, heart rate, blood glucose levels, insulin levels and sublingual temperature were measured before (baseline) and at 15, 30, 60 and 90 min after the 75-g oral glucose ingestion. Aortic pulse wave velocity and brachial systolic blood pressure did not change from baseline to after the 75-g oral glucose ingestion in all trials. Leg pulse wave velocity and ankle systolic blood pressure were increased from baseline to after the 75-g oral glucose ingestion in the footbath after glucose ingestion and control trials, but not in the footbath before glucose ingestion trial. These results suggest that a footbath effectively suppresses the increase in leg arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion when implemented before glucose ingestion.
Resistance to anti-fungal drugs has become the main cause for increasing incidence rate of Candida infections in pediatric intensive care units (PICU). Zinc supplementation has been shown to exhibit beneficial effects on many pediatric illnesses. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of zinc supplementation on prevalence of candidemia and candiduria infections in PICU. 724 eligible children between 1 to 5 years old admitted in PICU were randomly assigned into either zinc supplementation group or placebo group. Primary endpoints were the number of Candida infections, length of PICU stay and cases of patient death 14 days after enrollment. Secondary endpoints were the incidence rates of candidemia and candiduria. The incidences of candiduria and candidemia were significantly lower in the zinc group than the placebo group. The length of PICU stay and cases of patient death were obviously lowered in the zinc group compared to the placebo group. In conclusion, zinc supplementation shows beneficial clinical efficacy in reducing Candida infections among PICU patients on broad-spectrum antibiotics with critical illnesses.
Vonoprazan, a potassium-competitive acid blocker, is a new class of acid-suppressing agent. The acid-inhibitory effect of vonoprazan has been well-documented. However, there is no report on the extent to which the amount of gastric acid secretion is suppressed, not pH measurement, by the use of vonoprazan. The aim of this study was to evaluate this suppression effect. This was a single-arm, interventional pilot study involving 7 healthy Japanese men. The subjects were administered 20 mg vonoprazan for 6 days. The amount of gastric acid secretion was determined using the calcium carbonate breath test. The acid outputs were defined as the maximum Δ13C‰ (Δ13C max) and area under the curve (AUC) during the 30 min sampling period. The Δ13C max and AUC values significantly decreased on the administration of 20 mg vonoprazan. The AUC dropped by approximately 78% on day 1 and by 84% on day 6 and subsequently returned to the control level after cessation of vonoprazan therapy (reduction by 68% on day 7 and by 42% on day 8). In conclusion, the amount of gastric acid secretion rapidly decreased by the administration of vonoprazan; this inhibitory effect was found to be potent and long-lasting. (UMIN ID: UMIN000025469)
This study aimed to elucidate whether changes in serum opsonic activity measured by lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence are useful for estimating physical stress during the perioperative period of gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection. Serum opsonic activity in the peripheral blood of 87 patients was examined in the morning of the day of endoscopic submucosal dissection, the next day, and at 4 days after endoscopic submucosal dissection. Peak height and area under the curve for lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence were 106.1 ± 22.7% and 102.0 ± 24.7% on the day of endoscopic submucosal dissection, which increased significantly to 113.6 ± 29.4% and 111.0 ± 29.1% on the next day (both p<0.01), and 112.4 ± 27.0% and 110.0 ± 28.1% at 4 days after endoscopic submucosal dissection (both p<0.01), respectively. In contrast, significant changes were not observed in peak height and area under the curve for luminol-dependent chemiluminescence during the perioperative period of endoscopic submucosal dissection. This difference suggests that serum opsonic activity during the perioperative period of gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection is associated with the production of substances with lower oxidizing potential. (The study of changes in neutrophil function and physical stress during the perioperative period of endoscopic operation: UMIN000034514)