Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India's 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense opportunities for Observational Therapeutics and Reverse Pharmacology. Evidence-based herbals are widely used in the diverse systems and manufactured, as per the pharmacopoeial guidelines, by a well-organised industry. Significant basic and clinical research has been carried out on the medicinal plants and their formulations, with the state-of-the-art methods in a number of Institutes/Universities. There are some good examples. Indian medicinal plants also provide a rich source for antioxidants that are known to prevent/delay different diseased states. The antioxidant protection is observed at different levels. The medicinal plants also contain other beneficial compounds like ingredients for functional foods. Hence, the global knowledge about Ayurveda and Indian herbals will hopefully be enhanced by information on the evidence-base of these plants. This will yield rich dividends in the coming years.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology and is mainly characterized by the progressive erosion of cartilage leading to chronic polyarthritis and joint distortion. Although the exact pathogenesis of the disease has yet not been elucidated, however, studies suggest that cellular proliferation of synoviocytes result in pannus formation which damages the cartilage and bone. Recent reports also support the role of free radicals in its pathogenesis. Apart from the conventional treatment strategies using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs and glucocorticoids, newer and safer drugs are continuously being searched, as long term usage of these drugs have resulted in adverse effects. Alternative medicine provides another approach for treatment of RA and currently a number of medicinal plants are under scientific evaluation to develop a novel drug. There is a dire need to investigate the complete therapeutic potential and adverse effects, if any, of these herbals for providing newer and safer treatment options with minimum side effects. In this review we have tried to explore various Indian ancient Ayurvedic, Unani and Tibbi, as also some Chinese and Korean, herbals for their potential to treat RA.
Neutrophil accumulation within epithelial crypts and in the intestinal mucosa directly correlates with clinical disease activity and epithelial injury in ulcerative colitis (UC). Current advances have defined the mechanisms by which neutrophils are activated or migrate across mucosal epithelia. A better understanding of this process will likely provide new insights into novel treatment strategies for UC. Especially, activated neutrophils produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species within intestinal mucosa, which induce oxidative stress. In clinically, we have succeeded to develop a novel granulocytes adsorptive apheresis therapy for UC. In this article, we discuss current advances to define the role of neutrophils-dependent oxidative stress in UC.
Oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) contributes to the pathology of atherosclerosis. Antioxidants may protect LDL against oxidative modification. Acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic agent, has significant antioxidant properties. However, there is little evidence to suggest that acetaminophen acts as an antioxidant for LDL oxidation in vivo. In this study, we investigated the in vivo effect of acetaminophen on LDL oxidation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The oxidative modification of LDL was identified by conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). In the cholesterol group which rabbits were fed a diet contained 1% g cholesterol for 8 weeks, TBARS contents and conjugated diene levels in the plasma and isolated LDL samples significantly increased compared with the control rabbits (p<0.05). However, in the cholesterol + acetaminophen group, the TBARS contents and conjugated diene levels were significantly lower than that of the cholesterol group (p<0.05). The results from in vitro studies also demonstrated that the LDL isolated from serum was oxidized by Cu++ ions and this oxidation reduced in the presence of acetaminophen. The reduced oxidative modification of LDL by acetaminophen may be of therapeutic value in preventing the development and progression of atherosclerosis.
Chronic exposure of humans to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water is associated with skin lesions, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, blackfoot disease and a high risk of cancer. Arsenic induces single strand breaks, DNA-protein crosslinks and apurinic sites in DNA, which are prerequisites for induction of cancer. Amelioration of such damages with natural compounds could be an effective strategy to combat arsenic toxicity. Curcumin is the active ingredient of turmeric, a common household spice, which is a rich source of polyphenols and this compound has been extensively studied as a chemopreventive agent against many types of cancer. The present study investigates whether curcumin could counteract the DNA damage caused by arsenic as assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) using peripheral blood lymphocytes, from healthy donors. It was observed that DNA damage induced by arsenic could be efficiently reduced by curcumin and the effect was more pronounced when lymphocytes were pre-incubated with curcumin prior to arsenic insult. Arsenic caused DNA damage by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and enhancement of lipid peroxidation levels. Curcumin counteracted the damage by quenching ROS, decreasing the level of lipid peroxidation and increasing the level of phase II detoxification enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Curcumin also enhanced the DNA repair activity against arsenic induced damage. The expression of polymerase, a repair enzyme, was found to be highly elevated when arsenite induced damaged cells were allowed to repair in presence of curcumin. Results indicate that curcumin has significant role in confronting the deleterious effect caused by arsenic, which could be an economic mode of arsenic mitigation among rural population in West Bengal, India.
This study aimed to investigate the preventive effects of green tea fractions (GTFs) on rat model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to daily cycles of 80% oxygen (20.5 h), ambient air (0.5 h), and progressive return to 80% oxygen (3 h) until postnatal day 12 (P12), then the rats were placed in ambient air until P18. The green tea was fractionated by DM-A50, DM-W, M-B, and M-W. The rats were treated once daily from P6 to P17 by gastric gavage of GTFs (0.05 or 0.01 g/ml) or distilled water (DW) at 50 μl/10 g body weight. On P18, the rats were sacrificed and the retinal samples were collected. The retinal neovascularization (NV) was scored and avascular areas (AVAs) were measured as a % of total retinal area (%AVAs) in ADPase stained retinas. The NV scores in 0.01 g/ml M-W were significantly lower than those in DW. The %AVAs in 0.05 g/ml DM-A50 and in 0.05 g/ml and 0.01 g/ml M-W were significantly lower than those in DW. There were less catechins, and less caffeine in M-W fraction compared with other GTFs, suggesting components of green tea except for catechins and caffeine might suppress the neovascularization in rat model of OIR.
The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of an oxidative stress, C-reactive protein (CRP) and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) biomarkers in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The study population contained 100 patients with AMI and 40 healthy subjects. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Total antioxidant status (TAC) was assayed with colorimetric method. CRP and NT-proBNP was quantitated by immunoassay. MDA, CRP and NT-proBNP levels were found significantly high in patients with AMI as compared to healthy controls (p<0.01). Patients were divided into six groups based on the presence of disease history before AMI. In patients with non-disease before AMI. MDA, CRP and NT-proBNP levels were lowest among the patient groups. MDA levels in patients with hyperlipidemia/ diabetes/renal disease were higher than the other groups. TAC levels in patients with hypertension were lower than as compared to healthy controls (p<0.05). CRP levels in hypertension + hyperlipidemia patients and NT-proBNP levels in cardiovascular + hypertension patients were found high as compared to other patient groups. It is concluded that serum levels of MDA, CRP and NT-proBNP were significantly increased in patients with AMI and these markers were strongly predictive in AMI.
Apoptosis plays critical role in diabetic cardiomyopathy and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is one of intrinsic apoptosis pathways. For previous studies have shown that endoplasmic reticulum become swell in diabetic myocardium and ERS was involved in diabetes mellitus and heart failure, this study aimed to demonstrate whether ERS was induced in myocardium of streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. We established type 1 diabetic rat model with STZ intraperitoneal injection, used echocardiographic evaluation, hematoxylin-eosin staining and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated DNA nick-end labeling staining to identify the existence of diabetic cardiomyopathy and enhanced apoptosis in the diabetic heart. We performed immunohistochemistry, Western blot and real time PCR to analysis two hallmarks of ERS, glucose regulated protein78 (Grp78) and Caspase12. We found both Grp78 and Caspase12 had enhanced expression in protein and mRNA levels in diabetic myocardium than normal rat's, and Caspase12 was activated in diabetic heart. Those results suggested that ERS was induced in STZ-induced diabetic rats' myocardium, and ERS-associated apoptosis took part in the pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
We have proposed that diacylglycerol hydroperoxide-induced unregulated signal transduction causes oxidative stress-related diseases. In this study, we investigated which molecular species of diacylglycerol hydroperoxide activated human peripheral neutrophils. All diacylglycerol hydroperoxides, diacylglycerol hydroxides, and diacyglycerols tested in the present study induced superoxide production by neutrophils. The ability to activate neutrophils among molecular species containing the same fatty acid composition was as follows; diacylglycerol hydroperoxide>diacylglycerol hydroxide≥diacylglycerol. The diacylglycerol hydroperoxide composed of linoleate was a stronger activator for neutrophils than that composed of arachidonate. 1-Palmitoyl-2-linoleoylglycerol hydroperoxide (PLG-OOH) was the strongest stimulator for neutrophils. We reconfirmed that PLG-OOH activated protein kinase C (PKC) in neutrophils. PLG-OOH induced the phosphorylation of p47phox, a substrate of PKC and a cytosolic component of NADPH oxidase, in neutrophils, as did N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine or 4β-phorbol-12β-myristate-13α-acetate. Moreover, the time course of p47phox phosphorylation was comparable to that of superoxide production. These results suggest that PLG-OOH activated intracellular protein kinase C. PLG-OOH, produced via an uncontrolled process, can act as a biological second messenger to cause inflammatory disease from oxidative stress.