Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated as one of the major underlying mechanisms behind many acute and chronic diseases. However, the measurement of free radicals or their end products is complicated. Isoprostanes, derived from the non-enzymatic peroxidation of arachidonic acid are now considered to be reliable biomarkers of oxidant stress in the human body. Isoprostanes are involved in many of the human diseases such as type 2 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes elevated levels of F2-Isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) have been observed. The measurement of bioactive F2-IsoPs levels offers a unique noninvasive analytical tool to study the role of free radicals in physiology, oxidative stress-related diseases, and acute or chronic inflammatory conditions. Measurement of oxidative stress by various other methods lacks specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to shed light on the implemention of F2-IsoPs measurement as a gold-standard biomarker of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetics.
Our previous studies have demonstrated that lansoprazole inhibits acute inflammatory reactions as well as intestinal mucosal injuries induced by ischemia-reperfusion or indomethacin administration in rats. Thus, proton pump inhibitors such as lansoprazole have been demonstrated to prevent gastrointestinal mucosal injury by mechanisms independent of acid inhibition. In our in vitro study, lansoprazole induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) on rat gastric epithelial cells (RGM-1 cells), and exerted anti-inflammatory effect on the dependent of HO-1 expression. Furthermore, NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) played an important role in HO-1 expression induced by lansoprazole. In this review, we focused on lansoprazole-induced HO-1 expression, its anti-inflammatory action, and the role of Nrf2 in its expression.
Cellular events for neural progenitor cells, such as proliferation and differentiation, are regulated by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic cell signals. Folate plays a central role in central nervous system development, so folate, as an extrinsic signal, may affect neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of folate deficiency on the cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and homocysteine concentrations in NSCs. NSCs were isolated from fetal rats and identified as NSCs by their expression of immunoreactive nestin. Cell proliferation was quantitated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptotic cells were detected and confirmed by flow cytometric analysis. We measured homocysteine concentrations in NSCs by high performance liquid chromatography and detected the expression of caspase-3 by western blot method. Folate deficiency not only decreased cell proliferation, but also increased the apoptotic rate of NSCs as demonstrated by the increased expression of early apoptotic markers such as caspase-3, compared to control group (p<0.05). Furthermore, There was a statistically significant increase in homocysteine concentration during folate deficiency in NSCs (p<0.05). These data suggest that folate affects the cell proliferation, apoptosis and homocysteine generation in NSC cells.
An oxidized frying oil (OFO) diet has been reported to induce an increase in lipid peroxidation and a reduction in vitamin E status in animal tissues. This study was performed to investigate how vitamin E metabolism is influenced by OFO. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups, a control group (CO) and two OFO-fed groups (OF and OFE). The diet of the OFE group was supplemented with an extra 50 mg/kg of α-tocopherol acetate and thus contained twice as much vitamin E as that of the OF group. After six weeks on these diets, liver α-tocopherol levels in the OF group were the significantly lowest among the three groups. Excretion of the α-tocopherol metabolite, α-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman (α-CEHC) in the urine was significantly lower in the OF group than in the other two groups. There were no significant differences in protein levels of α-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) and multidrug resistance protein among the three groups. Protein levels of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) 3A, CYP4A, and catalase were markedly increased in both groups on the OFO diet. This suggests that an OFO diet may interfere with medicine metabolism and needs further investigation.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of rice bran oil (RBO) on lipid metabolism and insulin resistance in rats with streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Rats were divided into two groups: the control group (15% soybean oil, contains 0 g γ-oryzanol and 0 g γ-tocotrienol/150 g oil for 5 weeks) and the RBO group (15% RBO, contains 5.25 g γ-oryzanol and 0.9 g γ-tocotrienol/150 g oil for 5 weeks). Compared with the control group, the RBO group had a lower plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration, ratio of total to high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, hepatic cholesterol concentration, and area under the curve for insulin. The RBO group had a higher high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and greater excretion of fecal neutral sterols and bile acid than did the control group. RBO may improve lipid abnormalities, reduce the atherogenic index, and suppress the hyperinsulinemic response in rats with streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced T2DM. In addition, RBO can lead to increased fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion.
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is toxic and causes cell death. However, this effect is inhibited by reaction with taurine, which generates taurine chloramine (TauCl), thereby protecting the cells from HOCl-generated toxicity. TauCl has been shown to inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators like O2•−, H2O2 and NO. In this study, RAW 264.7 macrophages treated with TauCl were protected from death caused by H2O2. TauCl increased the expression of peroxiredoxin-1, thioredoxin-1 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1, the anti-oxidant enzymes normally induced by activation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). TauCl increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and binding to the anti-oxidant response element. These data suggest that TauCl produced abundantly in the activated neutrophils and released to surrounding cells in the inflamed tissues may induce the expression of cytoprotective anti-oxidant enzymes. Elevation of HO activity via induction of HO-1 expression within neighboring cells may provide protection from cytotoxicity caused by inflammatory oxidants like H2O2.
Serum prealbumin level is useful for assessment of changes in nutritional status but it is markedly affected by the inflammation. In this study, we examined the efficacy of the corrected rapid turnover protein increment index (CRII) for prealbumin, which is calculated as [prealbumin level/C-reactive protein (CRP) level on the assessment day]/[prealbumin level/CRP level on the day of starting nutritional care], for prediction of improvement of nutritional status in patients with malnutrition. The subjects were 50 hospitalized patients with low albuminemia, who were receiving nutritional care. Serum concentrations of albumin, prealbumin and CRP were measured every week for 5 weeks. We defined patients whose serum albumin level was elevated by more than 0.2 g/dl after 5 weeks as those showing improved nutritional status. There was a significant difference in the prealbumin level between improved and unimproved patients at 5 weeks after the start of nutritional support. On the other hand, the prealbumin CRII value showed a significant difference between the groups at 1 and 2 weeks after the start of nutritional support. In conclusion, assessment of prealbumin CRII is useful for early prediction of improved nutritional status in patients with malnutrition.
Effect of caffeic acid on the formation of hydroxyl radicals was examined during xanthone-mediated photosensitization. The reaction was performed on irradiation (λ = 365 nm) of the standard reaction mixture containing 15 μM xanthone, 0.1 M 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) and 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with spin trapping. Caffeic acid inhibited the formation of hydroxyl radicals. Caffeic acid hardly scavenged both hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals under conditions employed in this paper in spite of its ability to act as a hydrogen donor or a reagent for the aromatic hydroxylation, because high concentration of DMPO trapped hydroxyl radicals overwhelmingly. Furthermore, caffeic acid inhibited the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the standard reaction mixture with EDTA under UVA irradiation. Accordingly, the inhibitory effect of caffeic acid on the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the standard reaction mixture under UVA irradiation is not due to its ability to chelate iron. Thus, the inhibitory effect of caffeic acid seems to occur in the standard reaction mixture under UVA irradiation through a novel antioxidation activity, i.e., ability to quench the exited xanthone.
Fatty liver is commonly associated with alcohol or metabolic syndrome. We aimed to examine the longitudinal aspects of fatty liver, and clarify the independent predictors for the development or regression of fatty liver. In the present study, the clinical features of 1578 Japanese adults (1208 men and 370 women; 35 to 69 years of age) who visited our center both in 2000 and 2007–2008 were recorded and compared, including liver status diagnosed by ultrasonography. Of the 1578 participants, 217 (13.8%) showed fatty liver development, and 74 (4.7%) showed fatty liver regression. Logistic regression analysis revealed that body mass index and percentage body fat were strongly associated with the development or regression of fatty liver. Metabolic syndrome-related disorders such as serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, and fasting blood glucose were also associated with clinical course to some degree. However, the history of alcohol intake, the presence of metabolic syndrome, blood pressure, and habitual physical exercise were not independent predictors for the development or regression of fatty liver. Our present data suggest that control of body weight in men and the percentage body fat in women are particularly important for the prevention or treatment of fatty liver.
To evaluate the latent risk of acidosis in commercially available total parenteral nutrition (TPN) products, three types of commercially available TPN products were compared in postoperative patients. Sixty-four hospitalized patients with gastro-intestinal disease who undertook curative gastro intestinal resection were studied prospectively and administered with TPN solutions. Three types of commercially available TPN products were assigned randomly to eligible patients. Serial studies of blood acid-base status, serum electrolytes, and urinary acid-base status were conducted in the three groups administered with different TPN solutions. Patients received appropriate electrolytic solutions on the operation day and TPN solution from 2 to 7 days after operation. There were no differences among any of the serum electrolytes in the three groups. In one group, urinary pH decreased slightly and urinary net acid excretion (NAE) increased significantly after administration. This TPN product contains about 40 mEq/L of non-metabolizable acid to avoid the Maillard reaction that produces a complex of glucose and amino acids. Urinary NAE did not change in the other two groups. These TPN products do not use non-metabolizable acid to adjust pH. The present results suggest that the non-metabolizable acid may be a risk factor of metabolic acidosis.
Anticancer drugs have been reported to damage the intestinal mucosa. We evaluated the effects of caloric intake on the mucosal morphology and immune cells in rats treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Rats were received a liquid diet plus 5-FU treatment for 8 days as follows: Low calorie group (25 kcal/day with 5-FU), Normal calorie group (50 kcal/day with 5-FU), and Control group (50 kcal/day with saline). The mucosal morphology, cell numbers and phenotypes of spleen and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) were assessed. As compared with the control group, the villus heights were significantly lower in the Low calorie group, but not significantly lower in the Normal calorie group. The total cell yield from the spleen, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells decreased in the Low and Normal calorie group, but these changes were less pronounced in Normal calorie group. The total cell yield from the IEL also decreased in the Low calorie group, but not in the Normal calorie group. Our study demonstrated that sufficient caloric intake attenuated the damages in intestinal morphology and in the immune cell numbers. Clinically, nutritional support would be expected to be one approach to reducing the risk of bacterial translocation or infection induced by chemotherapy.
The aim of this study was to compare the potency of intestinal lipid absorption in Zucker obese rats compared with Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Six male Zucker obese (fa/fa) and six male SD rats baring intestinal lymph fistulae were used in this study. After 24 h recovery, rats were infused inraduodenally with a lipid emulsion containing 40 μmol triolein (labeled with glycerol tri[3H-oleate]), 7.8 μmol phosphatidyl choline in 3 ml phosphate buffered saline at a rate of 3 ml/h for 8 h. Lymph samples were collected and the radioactive lipid content determined. Apolipoprotein B (apo B) level in the lymph was evaluated. The Zucker obese rats transported more radioactive lipid into the lymph compared with the SD rats, particularly in the early phase of lipid absorption. Lymph apo B levels in the intestinal mucosa were significantly increased compared with the SD rats. In conclusion, this study indicated that lipid absorption and transport in Zucker obese rats is concomitant with increased apo B levels in the mesenteric lymph, indicating that the increase in lipid absorption may be responsible, at least in part, for obesity progression and hyperlipidemia.
Pathogenic bacterial components play critical roles in initiation of gastrointestinal inflammation via activation of intracellular signaling pathways which induce proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β. Lansoprazole (LANSO), a proton pump inhibitor, has been widely used for the treatment of peptic ulcers and reflux esophagitis due to its potent acid-suppressive effect. It has also been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. In this study we investigated the effects of LANSO on the production of TNF-α and IL-1β induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Helicobacter pylori water-soluble extract (HpWE) in the human monocytic cell line (THP-1). LANSO (100 μM) significantly reduced mRNA expression and production of TNF-α and IL-1β by THP-1 cells stimulated by LPS and HpWE. LANSO inhibited phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitory factor κB-α (IκB-α) and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) induced by LPS and HpWE in THP-1 cells. These findings suggest that LANSO exerts anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing induction of TNF-α and IL-1β via inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and ERK activation.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in fermented drinking water prepared from sodium glutamate, vinegar, and dried bonito (FDWG) compared with placebo [vinegar and dried bonito without GABA (FDW)] and its safety in normotensive and mildly or moderately hypertensive volunteers. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study was conducted involving volunteers with normal (group-N) and mildly or moderately high (group-H) blood pressure (BP). After a pretreatment period of 2 weeks (weeks –2), the subjects received FDWG or FDW for 12 weeks followed by 4 weeks of no intake (weeks 16). In group-H, both FDWG and FDW significantly decreased systolic (SBP, −7.6 ± 4.0 and −5.5 ± 1.5 mmHg, p<0.05, respectively) and diastolic (DBP, −10.6 ± 4.0 and −7.6 ± 1.7 mmHg, p<0.01, respectively) BP compared to the baseline (0-week) value at 12 weeks, respectively. There were no abnormal changes in hematological or blood chemistry variables, urinalysis, heart rate, or body weight in the study groups. These findings indicated that vinegar and dried bonito with or without GABA might have an effect on BP in mildly or moderately hypertensive patients.
This study examined the effect of cellcultured Acanthopanax senticosus (A. senticosus) extract on the antioxidative defense system, oxidative stress and cell membrane fluidity in the liver of type 2 diabetes in the C57BL/6J mouse as an animal which is genetically prone to develop insulin resistance and obesity/diabetes. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided, control diet (N-C), high fat diet (DM-C), control diet plus A. senticosus extract (N-CASM), and high fat diet plus A. senticosus extract (DM-CASM). The mice were orally administered an A. senticosus extract (0.5 g/kg body weight) in the N-CASM and DM-CASM groups once a day for 12 weeks, and distilled water in the N-C and DM-C groups. Cellcultured A. senticosus extract was found to be excellent for strengthening the antioxidative defense system, reducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and damaging oxidative substances, and maintaing membrane fluidity (MF) in the liver of type 2 diabetes mouse.