The human γ-interferon (HuIFN-γ) gene inserted in a eukaryotic expression vector, pSVIFN-γ, was entrapped in liposomes having positive charges on their surface. Liposome-mediated transfection of cultured U251-MG glioma cells with the gene resulted in secretion of HuINF-γ into the medium and growth inhibition of the glioma cells. The growth-inhibitory effect was even more potent than that obtained in the previous experiments with human β-interferon (HuIFN-β) gene inserted in a eukaryotic expression vector, pSV2IFN-β. However, when the cells were transfected with both pSVIFN-γ and pSV2IFN-β simultaneously, the cells disappeared completely, indicating that the effect became cytocidal.
The influence of honey on collagen metabolism during wound healing was assessed by making an excision wound by cutting away a 4cm2 full thickness piece of skin from the shaven back of rats under ether anaesthesia. One milliliter of pure, commercial, unboiled honey was applied topically or administered systemically. The rate of collagen synthesis was assessed by administration of [3H]proline, 24h before sacrifice of the animals. The granulation tissues formed were removed and used to study the various fractions of collagen, susceptibility of collagen to denaturing agents, and the aldehyde content of collagen. The results show that honey accelerates wound healing when applied topically or administered systemically but that systemic treatment is more effective than the topical application.
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of specific fatty acid esters on lipid metabolism of rats fed diets containing highly purified fatty acid ethyl esters of palmitate, stearate, palmitoleate, oleate, linoleate, and alpha linolenate. The hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic activity of palmitoleate was comparable with that of linoleate and alpha linolenate and was significantly greater than that of palmitate, stearate, and oleate. Plasma cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly higher in rats fed the palmitate diet than those fed the stearate one. Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity was higher in rats fed the palmitoleate, linoleate, and alpha linolenate than in rats fed the palmitate, stearate, and oleate. There was a highly negative correlation between LCAT activity and plasma cholesterol and free cholesterol levels. These results demonstrate that palmitoleate appears to be as effective as linoleate in lowering plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The stearate does not strongly increase plasma cholesterol levels as much as palmitate.
The effect of curcumin, which occurs in root of Curcuma Longa L., Zingiberaceae, on lipid peroxidation induced in rats by the administration of carbon tetrachloride or by 60Co-irradiation was examined. Administration of curcumin once a day for 3 successive days before the administration of carbon tetrachloride suppressed the increase in lipid peroxide level in the liver and that in activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate and glutamate pyruvate transaminases in a manner dependent on the concentration of curcumin. Curcumin also prevented the morphological changes induced in the liver by carbon tetrachloride administration. When rats administered curcumin once a day for successive 5 days were irradiated with 60Co once a day for the last 3 days, the increase in serum and liver lipid peroxide levels was significantly suppressed.
Studies were made in dogs on ischemic injury of the liver induced by clamping the portal triad and inferior vena cava and on the influences of urinary trypsin inhibitor (Ulinastatin) on the ischemic changes. The increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in the peripheral blood serum induced by ischemia and reperfusion were lowered by perfusion treatment of ischemic liver with ulinastatin for 60min or its injection into the general circulation 5min before reperfusion. The increase in lipid peroxides, measured by the TBA-method, in the post-ischemic liver was also decreased by administration of ulinastatin. α-Tocopherol in the liver decreased during ischemia-reperfusion, and its decrease was completely prevented by ulinastatin treatment. However, infiltration of neutrophils into post-ischemic liver tissue was not inhibited by ulinastatin. The effect of in vitro addition of ulinastatin on the formation of superoxide anion radicals by the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system and NADPH oxidase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was also investigated. Ulinastatin did not affect xanthine oxidase activity or O2- formation. It also did not scavenge O2-. On the contrary, it inhibited O2- formation by PMNs induced by N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine, concanavalin A plus cytocalasin B, or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The mechanisms of the protective effect of ulinastatin on ischemic liver injury are discussed from the view point of its antioxidant properties.
Glucose intolerance and impaired insulin secretion in vitamin D deficiency, and altered vitamin D metabolism in streptozotocin- or alloxan-induced diabetes, are well established in experimental animals. No such data are available in humans. The present study was conducted on a group of uncontrolled diabetic patients: those with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM: 42) and those with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM: 6). After an initial oral glucose tolerance test, each subject was given one intramuscular injection of vitamin D (vitamin D3: 300, 000IU), and the oral glucose tolerance test was then repeated after 4 weeks. Administration of vitamin D resulted in a significant improvement in the oral glucose tolerance, serum calcium, and also glucose-stimulated increase in serum insulin levels. Possible mechanism(s) of this beneficial effect of vitamin D on human diabetes is discussed.
A total of 95 female subjects including 17 breast cancer patients with metastases, 25 patients in the disease-free state after having been surgically treated for early-stage breast cancer, 28 patients with benign breast disease, and 25 healthy post-menopausal control subjects were examined for plasma concentrations of retinol and its carrier proteins, retinol-binding protein (RBP) and prealbumin, total protein, albumin, and zinc. Of these parameters the RBP and retinol levels were lower in all three groups of patients than in healthy subjects, and little differences in their levels were found between patients with benign and malignant breast disease, regardless of the stage of disease in the latter group. According to the plasma protein and zinc levels, and body mass index, the patients with breast disease appeared to be adequately nourished. These results indicate that the low plasma levels of RBP may be a consequence of breast disease rather than a feature of cancer per se and that the reduced plasma retinol is a reflection of impaired mobilization from its liver storage site.
This study was undertaken to investigate the importance of the sex difference in risk factors of lipid metabolism for coronary artery disease (CAD). In the blood samples of 82 male and 54 female coronary artery patients, and 70 male and 49 female healthy individuals, we determined the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and the ratio of TC/HDL-C. The differences between the mean values of the CAD and the control groups were found to be statistically significant at the level of p<0.01 for the abovementioned parameters, except for TG, for which the level was p<0.001 in both sexes, and for HDL-C in females, for which it was p<0.05. In the CAD group 35 (43%) men and 38 (70%) women had levels of total cholesterol more than 250mg/dl; 43 (52%) men and 42 (78%) women had levels of LDL-C more than 150mg/dl; 54 (66%) men and 15 (28%) women had levels of HDL-C less than 35mg/dl. For triglyceride, we observed that the values of all coronary artery patients in both sexes were above the mean values of their own control groups. On the other hand, in the CAD group, 47 (57%) men and 16 (30%) women had levels of TC less than 250mg/dl, and of these 30 (64%) men and 5 (31%) women had HDL-C less than 35mg/dl. These results suggest that in male coronary artery patients, high triglyceride-low HDL-C syndrome and in female coronary artery patients, high triglyceride-high LDL-C syndrome are the most common disorders of lipid metabolism.