Prevention of acid is important in gastroesophageal reflex disease (GERD)-related asthma therapy. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and H2-receptor blockers have been reported as useful therapies for improving asthma symptoms. GERD prevalence is high in asthma; however, methods for validating GERD existence based on questionnaire, endoscopic examination and 24h-pH monitoring do not directly determine GERD influence on the airway. Exhaled breath condensate analysis is a novel and non-invasive tool for assessing information directly from the airway. Breath collected by cooling can be applied to pH, 8-isoprostane and cytokine analysis in patients with GERD-related asthma, and the pH and 8-isoprostane levels have been shown to reflect the effects of PPI therapy in these patients. Although the analysis of cooled breath has not yet been established in a clinical setting, this method is expected to provide a novel tool for monitoring airway acidification associated with GERD.
Lansoprazole uptake sites by two kinds of autoradiographic procedures were compared with recent literature. The uptake sites have been seen in the Helicobacter pylori, colonic epithelial cells, inflammatory cells, peripheral autonomic nerves and enterochromaffinlike cells as well as gastric parietal cells. Each uptake sites corresponded to the reported localization of P-type ATPase or acidic compartment.
Anti-peptic and anti-inflammatory actions of ecabet sodium might be beneficial in either improving gastritis or relieving dyspeptic symptoms. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of ecabet sodium on dyspeptic symptoms and to elucidate the molecular mechanism attributable to symptom relief in patients with chronic gastritis. Two hundred and sixty eight chronic gastritis patients with persistent dyspepsia received ecabet sodium 1 g b.i.d. for 2 weeks, after which dyspeptic symptoms were reassessed with a questionnaires as before. The changes of interleukin-8 (IL-8), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in gastric juices were measured by ELISA. The changes of nitrotyrosine in gastric mucosa were measured by immunohistochemical staining. The most common dyspeptic symptom in Korean patients with chronic gastritis was epigastric soreness (76.8%), which was improved significantly after ecabet sodium treatment (81.7%, p<0.001). Ecabet sodium was more effective in patients with epigastric pain than vague abdominal discomfort (p = 0.02), especially in patients with old age. Complete relief of discomfort was more highly achieved in patients with positive Helicobacter pylori than without (p = 0.01). In spite of clear tendency that the decreased levels of IL-8, iNOS, and PGE2 and increased levels of VEGF were measured in gastric juices after ecabet sodium treatment, no statistical significance was noted, which might be due to high inter-individual variations. The nitrotyrosine expressions were significantly decreased after ecabet sodium treatment than before (p<0.01). In conclusion, ecabet sodium treatment was very useful for the relief f dyspeptic symptoms in chronic gastritis, to which both attenuated inflammatory and enhanced regenerative mechanisms were contributive.
To determine why germfree (GF) mice are less productivity of proinflammatory cytokines than conventional (CV) mice, we studied serum levels of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in mice after treatment with lipopolyssacharide (LPS). A single injection of LPS caused an elevation of IL-10 in serum from GF, LPS-GF (germfree mice given drinking water containing LPS) and CV mice. The response was highest in serum from GF mice, and was lower in serum from LPS-GF mice compared with GF mice. Before LPS injection, serum PGE2 was significantly higher in CV and LPS-GF mice than in GF ones. After LPS injection, a higher level of PGE2 was maintained over 12 h in CV mice after LPS injection, while the LPS treatment reduced the level in LPS-GF mice and increased the level in GF mice. The levels of IL-10 in culture medium from Kupffer cells treated with LPS showed similar results to serum in GF and CV mice. These results suggest that high levels of IL-10 in serum from germfree mice may be partly responsible for the lower in vivo responsiveness of these proinflammatory cytokines to LPS in these mice, although PGE2 was not responsible for the lower responsiveness of these inflammatory cytokines to LPS.
The aim of this study was to reveal the relationships between nutritional parameters and pulmonary functions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in both sexes. Spirometric, laboratory, and demographic data of 450 consecutive patients were analysed retrospectively. Males had significantly greater pack-years of smoking, more severe airway obstruction, and lower body mass index (BMI). In non-smokers, BMI was significantly lower in men independent of age and pulmonary functions. Creatine kinase levels showed no correlation with any pulmonary function parameters. Serum albumin levels correlated better than BMI with pulmonary functions. In conclusion, females with COPD were maintained weight better than men.
High-phosphorus (P) diet induces nephrocalcinosis in rats; however, the mechanism for onset of this disorder is unclear. The calcium (Ca) deposits in kidney are a form of hydroxyapatite, while osteopontin is combined with hydroxyapatite. Based on these observations, we speculated that the osteopontin play an important role in the formation of the Ca deposits induced by high-P diet. This study was investigated the effect of high-P diet on osteopontin expression in kidney. Female Wistar rats were fed diets containing P concentrations of either 0.3% (control diet) or 1.5% (high-P diet) for 14 days. On von Kossa staining, Ca deposits were seen in the tubules of the cortex, outer medulla and inner medulla in rats fed on the high-P diet. Expression of osteopontin was confirmed in rats fed on the high-P diet by immunohistochemical staining, and the localization of this protein was in the same region as the Ca deposits. On the other hand, no evidence of Ca deposits and osteopontin expression was observed in the tubules of the cortex, outer medulla or inner medulla of rats fed on the control diet. These results suggest that high-P diet induces osteopontin expression in the renal tubules. Moreover, our results suggest that increase in osteopontin expression in the renal tubules is presumably involved in the formation of Ca deposits induced by high-P diet.
We hypothesized a suppressive mechanism for docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA)-induced tissue lipid peroxidation in which the degradation products, especially aldehydic compounds, are conjugated with glutathione through catalysis by glutathione S-transferases, and then excreted into urine as mercapturic acids. In the present study, ascorbic acid-requiring ODS rats were fed a diet containing DHA (3.6% of total energy) for 31 days. Lipid peroxides including degradation products and their scavengers in the liver and kidney were determined, and the temporal change in the urinary excretion of mercapturic acids was also measured. The activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the oxidation and detoxification of aldehydes, tended to be higher in the liver of DHA-fed rats. The levels of lipid peroxides as measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and aldehydic compounds were higher and that of α-tocopherol was lower in the liver, and the pattern of temporal changes in the urinary excretion of mercapturic acids was also different between the n-6 linoleic acid and DHA-fed rats. Accordingly, we presume from these results that after dietary DHA-induced lipid peroxidation, a proportion of the lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydic degradation products is excreted into urine as mercapturic acids.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of transglucosidase (TG) on postprandial glucose concentrations in healthy subjects. A randomized placebo-controlled three-way crossover trial was separated by a washout period of more than 3 days. Twenty-one normal healthy volunteers, aged 30–61 years old (17 males and 4 females) were selected for this study. The subjects’ health was assessed as normal by prestudy screening. All subjects received 3 types of test meals (3 rice balls: protein, 14.4 g; fat, 2.1 g; and carbohydrate, 111 g: total energy, 522 kcal) with 200 ml water in which 0 mg, 150 mg, or 300 mg of TG was dissolved. Blood samples for estimating plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were collected before and every 30 min after the experiment. As compared to no TG treatment, TG administration tended to prevent a postprandial increase in plasma glucose (p = 0.069: 150 mg of TG vs control) but there were no significant difference among three groups. With regard to the 17 subjects who were suggested to have impaired glucose tolerance, TG significantly decreased the postprandial blood glucose (p<0.05: 150 mg and 300 mg of TG vs control) and marginally decreased insulin concentrations (p = 0.099: 300 mg of TG vs control). These results suggest that TG may be useful for preventing the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
We investigated the trace element status in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients receiving enteral nutrition, and evaluated the effects of trace element-rich supplementation. Thirty-one patients with CD were enrolled in this study. All patients were placed on an enteral nutrition regimen with Elental¨ (Ajinomoto pharmaceutical. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Serum selenium, zinc and copper concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum selenoprotein P levels were determined by an ELISA system. Average serum levels of albumin, selenium, zinc and copper were 4.1 ± 0.4 g/dl, 11.2 ± 2.8 μg/dl, 71.0 ± 14.8 μg/dl, and 112.0 ± 25.6 μg/dl, respectively. In 9 patients of 31 CD patients, serum albumin levels were lower than the lower limit of the normal range. Serum selenium, zinc and copper levels were lower than lower limits in 12 patients, 9 patients and 1 patient, respectively. Serum selenium levels significantly correlated with both serum selenoprotein P levels and glutathione peroxidase activity. Supplementation of selenium (100 μg/day) and zinc (10 mg/day) for 2 months significantly improved the trace element status in CD patients. In conclusion, serum selenium and zinc levels are lower in many CD patients on long-term enteral nutrition. In these patients, supplementation of selenium and zinc was effective in improving the trace element status.
We have reported that rebamipide, a gastroprotective drug, suppresses indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal injury in humans and rats. However, the mechanisms of the cytoprotective actions of rebamipide have not been fully addressed. In the present study, we determined mRNA expression profile of the gastric mucosa treated with indomethacin in rats, and investigated the cytoprotective effects of rebamipide against indomethacin-induced injury with a high-density oligonucleotide array (Rat Toxicology U34 GeneChip array). Gastric epithelial cells were obtained by laser-assisted microdissection. Data analysis was performed with a GeneChip Operating Software, GeneSpring software 7.0, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Among 1,031 probes, the expression of 160 probes (15.5%) showed at least 2.0-fold up-regulation (158 probes) and down-regulation (2 probes) 2 h after indomethacin administration in comparison with the vehicle-treated rats. The pathway analysis of the up-regulated 123 probes identified the network with a highly significant score, which consisted of known clusters of cell death, cancer, and endocrine system disorders. We succeeded in listing 10 genes that were up-regulated by the treatment with indomethacin and that were down-regulated by rebamipide, including growth arrest and DNA damage-induced 45α. In conclusion, we demonstrated that cell death, especially apoptosis, pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal injury, and that inhibition of apoptosis-related genes is possibly important for the cytoprotective effect of rebamipide against this injury.
We have previously reported that γ-tocopherol (γ-Toc) displays a natriuretic potency in rats fed a NaCl diet and administered 20 mg γ-Toc. In this study, we investigated whether γ-Toc has natriuretic potency at a dose lower or higher than 20 mg in rats given a NaCl diet. Male rats were fed a control diet or a NaCl diet and administered either placebo or 10, 20 or 40 mg of γ-Toc. The rat urine was collected for 24 hours (divided into 6 hour periods) and the 2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman (γ-CEHC) level, the sodium excretion content, and the urine volume were determined. The 24-hour γ-CEHC and sodium levels in the urine of the NaCl groups given 20 mg or 40 mg γ-Toc were significantly higher than those in the placebo group. The peak levels of urine sodium and γ-CEHC in the NaCl group given 40 mg γ-Toc appeared at 0–6 h, which was a more rapid increase than that seen in the group given 20 mg γ-Toc. The 24-hour urine volumes of the NaCl groups given 10 and 20 mg γ-Toc were significantly higher than the urine volume of the placebo group. Our findings suggested that γ-Toc increased sodium excretion in a dose-dependent manner in rats fed a NaCl diet. Moreover, a high dose of γ-Toc may accelerate its metabolism and cause an increase in the rate of sodium excretion.
The present study has been carried out to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of shallot (Allium ascalonicum) and garlic (Allium satium) on the fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) of fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Male albino Wistar rats were fed either normal or high-fructose diet for a period of eight weeks. Fasting blood glucose level, fasting blood triglyceride level, FIRI, and the area under the glucose tolerance curve were significantly elevated in fructose-fed animals. Fructose-induced insulin resistance rats treated by aqueous shallot or garlic extract (500 mg/kg body weight/day, i.p.) for duration of eight weeks. Control animals only received normal saline (0.9%). The results showed that neither shallot nor garlic extracts significantly altered the FIRI and the IPGTT at the fourth week after treatment. The fasting blood glucose in fructose-induced insulin resistance animals has been significantly decreased in 8-week treated animals by both shallot and garlic extracts. Shallot extract administration, but not garlic extract, for a period of eight weeks can significantly improve the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and diminish the FIRI. These results indicate that shallot and garlic extracts have a hypoglycemic influence on the fructose-induced insulin resistance animals and aqueous shallot extract is a stronger hypoglycemic agent than the garlic extract.
We examined the effects of citric acid and L-carnitine administration on physical fatigue. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover study, 18 healthy volunteers were randomized to oral citric acid (2,700 mg/day), L-carnitine (1,000 mg/day), or placebo for 8 days. The fatigue-inducing physical task consisted of workload trials on a cycle ergometer at fixed workloads for 2 h on 2 occasions. Before the physical load, salivary chromogranin A, measured as a physiological stress marker, was lower in the group given citric acid than in the group given placebo. Also, after the physical load, the subjective feeling of fatigue assessed with a visual analogue scale was lower in the citric acid group than in the placebo group. In contrast, L-carnitine had no effect on chromogranin A or subjective fatigue. These results suggest that citric acid reduces physiological stress and attenuates physical fatigue, whereas L-carnitine does not.