Rat cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1) belongs to the CXC-chemokine family and is a counterpart of human growth-related oncogene (GRO) in the interleukin-8 (IL-8) family. In rats, CINC-1 plays a key role in neutrophil-mediated inflammatory diseases by attracting neutrophils to the site of inflammation. Although IL-8 is a well-known chemokine in humans, it remains difficult to investigate human inflammatory diseases in detail. Therefore CINC-1 is expected to be an excellent tool for investigating neutrophil-mediated inflammatory diseases, and it has served extensively as a target chemokine in studies performed to date. However, little is known regarding CINC-1 signaling pathways. In this review, we focused on the signal transduction of CINC-1 production/expression.
There are thousands year of history for drinking tea in China and world. The benefits of drinking tea to human health are well known and improved by epidemiological result and experiments. The most effective components in tea are polyphenols which are about 30% weight of dry tea. The antitumor and antimutagenic effects of the tea polyphenols, the prevent effect of the tea polyphenols on Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, the protective effects of the tea polyphenols on neuron against lead toxicity and their antioxidant mechanisms are reviewed and discussed in this paper.
Extract from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba (maidenhair tree) has been used therapeutically in Eastern and Western countries for centuries. Ginkgo leave extracts have been mentioned in the traditional Chinese pharmacopoeia, and used for the treatment of asthma and bronchitis. On the other hand, Ginkgo leave extracts have been used for the cerebrovascular disease mainly in Europe. Moreover, the anti-oxidative action, the inhibitory effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the inhibitory effects of topoisomerases I and II of Ginkgo leave extracts are considered to be involved in the inhibition of carcinogenesis. In not only basic studies but also clinical studies, Ginkgo leave extracts have been reported the inhibitory effects on carcinogenesis.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy for peptic ulcers is performed at many facilities in Japan. The eradication regimens are consisted of the 7-day triple therapy using lansoprazole (LPZ) or omeprazole (OPZ) + amoxicillin (AMPC) + clarithromycin (CAM). In theses regimens, 2 types of antibacterial drug are included, the method of taking medicine has been problematic. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of a packaged tablets and capsules that contain eradication drugs. (Product name: Lansap). Subjects and methods: The study was performed in 100 H. pylori positive patients with upper gastrointestinal disease. The regimen of the eradicating drugs was administration for 7 days of LPZ 60 mg + AMPC 1,500 mg + CAM 800 mg. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was prescribed a package sets of tablets/capsules (package group) for taking the regimen, second group were prescribed the tablets/capsules from separate sets (conventional group) for taking the drugs. Eradication was evaluated by 13C urea breath test 6–8 weeks after completion of the treatment. A questionnaire survey was also performed immediately after completion of the treatment regarding to forgetting to take the medicine, mistaking the dosage (quantity) of medicine, the total dose of medicine, and understanding of adverse effects of drugs. Results: The eradication rate (ITT) was 68.0% in the package group and 72.0% in the conventional group, showing no significant difference. Three and 7 patients forgot to take some drugs in the package and conventional groups, respectively, showing no significant difference. None and 2 patients mistook the dosage of medicine respectively. 29 and 26 patients felt that the total dose too much, respectively. As for understanding of adverse effects of drug, 24 and 25 patients understood them respectively. Conclusion: In H. pylori eradication therapy, package sets of eradication medicine are useful for prevention of mistaking the dosage of medicine.
We investigated the influence of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) on acute ischemic injury and chronic angiogenesis. In a hindlimb ischemia model, NO produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) reduces ischemic injury and promotes angiogenesis. However, the effect of the large amounts of NO generated by induced iNOS is unclear. Experimental groups of mice were as follows: (1) wild-type group (Wild), (2) iNOS-knockout group (iNOS-KO), and (3) aminoguanidine-treated wild-type group (Wild + AG), which received aminoguanidine from day 0 to day 3 after ischemia. Acute ischemic injury was evaluated by measuring the plasma CK value and ischemic score. Chronic angiogenesis was evaluated by microangiography and with a non-contact type Doppler blood flowmeter on day 3. Compared with the Wild group (251 ± 34.7 IU/l), the CK value was significantly elevated in the iNOS-KO (497 ± 126.7 IU/l) and Wild + AG (587.2 ± 128.7 IU/l) groups. The ischemic score was significantly increased in the iNOS-KO (92%) and Wild ± AG (66.6%) groups compared with the Wild group (23%). Blood flow was significantly increased in the iNOS-KO group (58.7 ± 15.3%) compared with the Wild (38.1 ± 15.9%) and Wild ± AG (43.5 ± 9.8%) groups in the chronic stage. Microangiography revealed a significantly increased number of blood vessels in the iNOS-KO (0.29 ± 0.02) group compared with the Wild (0.12 ± 0.01) and Wild + AG (0.15 ± 0.02) groups. Our findings indicate that NO generated by iNOS has a biphasic action, reducing acute ischemic injury and inhibiting angiogenesis in the chronic stage.
The effects of long-term supplementation with 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 (1α (OH) D3) on serum pepsinogen (PG) I levels, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection rate, were investigated in healthy elderly women, aged 70 to 99 years, in a nursing home. Of these 34 subjects, 15 have been administered one microgram of 1α (OH) D3 daily for twenty years, because of osteoporosis treatment, and 19 were free from the drug. Serum PG-I levels and H. pylori infection rate in subjects with 1α (OH) D3 were significantly lower than those without treatment (p<0.05). These results suggested the inhibitory effect of long-term administration of 1α (OH) D3 on H. pylori infection.
Amino acid oxidation, resulting from oxidative stress, is related to certain diseases and aging. To correlate reactive oxygen species with oxidized products of individual amino acids, we oxidized Met, Trp, His, and Tyr by treatment with singlet oxygen, superoxide, or hydroxyl radicals. The structures of oxidized amino acids were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infra-red spectroscopy, and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry. Among the compounds identified, N-formylkynurenine (NFK), a well-known oxidation product of Trp in vivovia enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions, and its hydroxylated form were found to be major products of the reaction with singlet oxygen. Since NFK is a pivotal oxidation product of Trp, we raised antiserum against NFK by immunizing a rabbit with NFK-conjugated bovine serum albumin. The resulting antiserum was then used to detect photooxidized trypsin and kynurenine-conjuated ovalbumin as well as NFK-albumin. An antiserum such as this would be useful tool for detecting NFK and kynurenine in situ.
The effects of glucose and fructose in the presence or absence of iron or copper on the formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in calf-thymus DNA were examined. Glucose (5 and 10 mM) and fructose (10–200 μM) increased 8-OHdG formation 1.9–2.8 times and 3.0–8.3 times compared to the control, respectively. In the presence of fructose (200 μM), copper (50 μM) was found to increase 8-OHdG formation 46.2 times compared to the control, and 3.8 times compared to the iron (50 μM)-treated value. The stimulatory potency of 8-OHdG formation by fructose (200 μM) in the presence of copper (50 μM) was much stronger than that by glucose (10 mM) in the presence of iron (50 μM) or of copper (50 μM). Sorbitol, 3-deoxyglucosone and methylglyoxal in the presence or absence of copper had no or weaker stimulating effects on 8-OHdG formation than fructose in the presence or absence of copper. These results suggest that fructose in the presence of copper has the potential to dramatically induce oxidative DNA damage.
Japanese kelp (kombu) includes a xanthophy, fucoxanthin. In the present study, the chemopreventive activity against the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF, a preneoplastic marker for colon cancer) was examined. Four groups of mice were housed with drinking water containing 5 mg/ml of a kombu ethanol extract, and 0.05 mg/ml and 0.1 mg/ml of purified fucoxanthin, and with water alone as the positive control. They were subcutaneously injected with 10 mg/kg b.w. of azoxymethane (AOM) on the 1st and 8th days. Another group served as a negative control without kombu and AOM. The positive control produced a substantial number of ACF by the 28th day. Significant reductions were found in the frequency of ACF: 36% for the kombu extract, 30% for 0.05 mg/ml fucoxanthin and 35% for 0.1 mg/ml fucoxanthin. In the liver of these mice, the kombu extract raised the level of activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and quinone reductase, and stimulated the antioxidant responsive element (ARE). Fucoxanthin enhanced the GST activity but did not affect the ARE. Thus, one of the kombu ingredients, fucoxanthin, can suppress the ACF formation induced by the colon carcinogen AOM, and other unknown ingredients can induce the ARE activation.