Recent investigations have clarified the importance of mitochondria in various age-related degenerative diseases, including late-onset Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Although mitochondrial disturbances can be involved in every step of disease progression, several observations have demonstrated that a subtle mitochondrial functional disturbance is observed preceding the actual appearance of pathophysiological alterations and can be the target of early therapeutic intervention. The signals from damaged mitochondria are transferred to the nucleus, leading to the altered expression of nuclear-encoded genes, which includes mitochondrial proteins (i.e., mitochondrial retrograde signaling). Mitochondrial retrograde signaling improves mitochondrial perturbation (i.e., mitohormesis) and is considered a homeostatic stress response against intrinsic (ex. aging or pathological mutations) and extrinsic (ex. chemicals and pathogens) stimuli. There are several branches of the mitochondrial retrograde signaling, including mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRMT), but recent observations increasingly show the importance of the ISR-ATF4 pathway in mitochondrial retrograde signaling. Furthermore, Nrf2, a master regulator of the oxidative stress response, interacts with ATF4 and cooperatively upregulates a battery of antioxidant and antiapoptotic genes while repressing the ATF4-mediated proapoptotic gene, CHOP. In this review article, we summarized the upstream and downstream mechanisms of ATF4 activation during mitochondrial stresses and disturbances and discuss therapeutic intervention against degenerative diseases by using Nrf2 activators.
The reactivity of nitroxyl free radicals, 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPOL) and 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-N-oxyl (CmP), with reactive oxygen species (ROS) were compared as typical 6-membered and 5-membered ring nitroxyl compounds, respectively. The reactivity of the hydroxylamine forms of both these nitroxyl radicals (TEMPOL-H and CmP-H) was also assessed. Two free radical species of ROS, hydroxyl radical (•OH) and superoxide (O2•−), were subjected to a competing reaction. •OH was generated by UV irradiation from an aqueous H2O2 solution (H2O2-UV system), and O2•− was generated by a reaction between hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase (HX-XO system). •OH and O2•− generated by the H2O2-UV and HX-XO systems, respectively, were measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping, and the amount of spin adducts generated by each system was adjusted to be equal. The time courses of the one-electron oxidation of TEMPOL, CmP, TEMPOL-H, and CmP-H in each ROS generation system were compared. A greater amount of TEMPOL was oxidized in the HX-XO system compared with the H2O2-UV system, whereas the reverse was observed for CmP. Although the hydroxylamine forms of the tested nitroxyl radicals were oxidized evenly in the H2O2-UV and HX-XO systems, the amount of oxidized CmP-H was approximately 3 times greater compared with TEMPOL-H.
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, statins, are widely used for preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases by controlling blood cholesterol level. Additionally, previous studies revealed the scavenging effects of statins on free radicals. We assessed direct scavenging activities of two water-soluble statins, fluvastatin and pravastatin, on multiple free radicals using electron spin resonance spectrometry with spin trapping method. We estimated reaction rate constants (kfv for fluvastatin, and kpv for pravastatin). Superoxide anion was scavenged by fluvastatin and pravastatin with kfv and kpv of 4.82 M−1s−1 and 49.0 M−1s−1, respectively. Scavenging effects of fluvastatin and pravastatin on hydroxyl radical were comparable; both kfv and kpv were >109 M−1s−1. Fluvastatin also eliminated tert-butyl peroxyl radical with relative kfv of 2.63 to that of CYPMPO, whereas pravastatin did not affect tert-butyl peroxyl radical. Nitric oxide was scavenged by fluvastatin and pravastatin with kfv and kpv of 68.6 M−1s−1 and 701 M−1s−1, respectively. Both fluvastatin and pravastatin had scavenging effects on superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide radical. On the other hand, tert-butyl peroxyl radical was scavenged only by fluvastatin, suggesting that fluvastatin might have more potential effect than pravastatin to prevent atherosclerosis and ischemia/reperfusion injury via inhibiting oxidation of lipids.
Decreases in tear volume, unstable tear films and excessive tear evaporation are known to cause desiccation and hyperosmolar stress. These, in turn, induce oxidative stress that is thought to cause dry eye, which is also considered to be age-related disease. We hypothesized that oxidative stress induces up-regulation of age-related markers, and that the antioxidant astaxanthin prepared as a liposomal formulation may be a candidate for the treatment of dry eye. Herein, we examined age-related markers in an in vitro dry eye model, and evaluated the efficacy of high-affinity liposomes containing astaxanthin. The in vitro dry eye model showed desiccation time-dependent increases in reactive oxygen species. We confirmed the up-regulation of p53, p21 and p16 as a function of desiccation time. Pretreatment with both neutral and slightly-positively-charged astaxanthin liposomal formulations showed significant suppression of up-regulation of all markers, with the positively-charged liposomes exhibiting the greatest efficacy. Furthermore, positively-charged liposomes labeled with fluorescent dyes demonstrated much higher affinity to normal human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) than neutral liposomes. Taken together, we confirmed the up-regulation of age-related markers, especially p16, in an in vitro dry eye model, and demonstrated the potential of high-affinity liposomal astaxanthin for the treatment of dry eye.
Reactive oxygen species attack several living organs and induce cell death. Previously, we found axonal/dendrite degeneration before the induction of cell death in hydrogen peroxide-treated neuroblastoma: N1E-115 cells and primary neurons. This phenomenon may be connected with membrane oxidation, microtubule destabilization and disruption of intracellular calcium homeostasis. However, its detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we identified proteins after treatment with hydrogen peroxide using isolated neurites by liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/time of flight analysis. Twenty-one proteins were increased after treatment with hydrogen peroxide. Specifically, 5 proteins which were secretogranin-1, heat shock protein family D member 1, Brain acid soluble protein 1, heat shock 70-kDa protein 5 and superoxide dismutase 1, were identified of all experiments and increased in isolated neurites of hydrogen peroxide-treated cells compared to the controls. Furthermore, secretogranin-1 and heat shock protein family D member 1 protein expressions were significantly increased in normal aged and Alzheimer’s transgenic mice brains. These results indicate that secretogranin-1 and heat shock protein family D member 1 might contribute to reactive oxygen species-induced neurite degeneration. Both proteins have been related to neurodegenerative disorders, so their study may shed light on neurite dysfunction.
The Chinese herbal medicine Qing Dai has been traditionally used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. We previously reported that reactive oxygen species play an important role in bisphosphonate-induced gastrointestinal injuries and that Qing Dai improved ulcerative colitis by scavenging reactive oxygen species. In this study, we investigated whether Qing Dai prevented bisphosphonate-induced gastric cellular injuries. Risedronate (a bisphosphonate) was added to rat gastric mucosal cells. Risedronate-induced cellular injury, cellular lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species production in rat gastric mucosal cells were examined via viable cell counting, specific fluorescent indicators, and electron spin resonance. Pretreatment with Qing Dai attenuated the fluorescence intensity of diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine and MitoSox as well as the signal intensities of electron spin resonance. Cell viability improved from 20% to 80% by pretreatment with Qing Dai. Thus, Qing Dai prevented this injury by suppressing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, which is the main cause of cellular lipid peroxidation. Qing Dai also maintained mitochondrial potential, reducing reactive oxygen species production. We conclude that Qing Dai has protective effects on bisphosphonate-induced gastrointestinal injury and thus has the potential for clinical application.
Fucoxanthin and its major metabolite, fucoxanthinol, have potent anti-cancer properties in carcinogenic model mice and against cancer cells. Evidence has accumulated regarding the diagnostic potential of biological metabolites as invasive and non-invasive obtainable approaches. We recently demonstrated that glycine was an effective predictor of the suppression of sphere formation and epithelial mesenchymal transition by fucoxanthinol in human colorectal cancer stem-like spheroids (colonospheres) under normoxia and hypoxia. In the present study, we investigated the suppressive effect of fucoxanthin on tumorigenesis derived from colonospheres in xenograft mice, and the alteration on the metabolite profiles of mouse tumors by fucoxanthin was evaluated. Fucoxanthin administration at 2.5 mg/kg body weight (p.o.) for 4 weeks significantly inhibited the incidence of tumors by inoculation of colonospheres suspension in BALB/c nu/nu mice compared with control mice, but not tumor sizes. In addition, fucoxanthin down-regulated tumor Cyclin D1 expression by 0.7-fold of that observed in the tumors of the control mice. Moreover, the tumor glycine level in the xenograft mice was decreased by fucoxanthin administration to 0.5-fold. These results imply the possibility of tumor metabolites as a prediction marker of tumorigenicity derived from colorectal cancer stem cells in mice.
5-Aminolevulinic acid, a natural amino acid, activates mitochondrial respiration and induces heme oxygenase-1 expression. Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with age-related mitochondrial respiration defect, oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid with sodium ferrous citrate on early renal damage and hepatic steatosis. 7-Month-old C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standard diet or high fat diet for 9 weeks, which were orally administered 300 mg/kg 5-aminolevulinic acid combined with 47 mg/kg sodium ferrous citrate (5-aminolevulinic acid/sodium ferrous citrate) or vehicle for the last 5 weeks. We observed that 5-aminolevulinic acid/sodium ferrous citrate significantly decreased body weight, fat weight, hepatic lipid deposits and improved levels of blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance test. In addition, 5-aminolevulinic acid/sodium ferrous citrate suppressed increased glomerular tuft area in high fat diet-fed mice, which was associated with increased heme oxygenase-1 protein expression. Our findings demonstrate additional evidence that 5-aminolevulinic acid/sodium ferrous citrate could improve glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic mice. 5-Aminolevulinic acid/sodium ferrous citrate has potential application in obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus-associated disease such as diabetic nephropathy and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid, which possesses strong scavenging effect on reactive oxygen species. In this study, we examined the effect of astaxanthin on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Experimental colitis was induced by the oral administration of 4% w/v DSS in tap water in C57BL/6J mice. Astaxanthin was mixed with a normal rodent diet (0.02 or 0.04%). Astaxanthin significantly ameliorated DSS-induced body weight loss and reduced the disease activity index. The ameliorating effects was observed in a dose-dependent manner. Immunochemical analyses showed that astaxanthin markedly suppressed DSS-induced histological inflammatory changes (inflammatory cell infiltration, edematous changes and goblet cell depletion). Plasma levels of malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine were significantly reduced by the administration of 0.04% astaxanthin. Astaxanthin significantly suppressed the mucosal mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-36α and IL-36γ. Astaxanthin blocked the DSS-induced translocation of NF-κB p65 and AP-1 (c-Jun) into the nucleus of mucosal epithelial cells, and also suppressed DSS-induced mucosal activation of MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38 and JNK). In conclusion, astaxanthin prevented the development of DSS-induced colitis via the direct suppression of NF-κB, AP-1 and MAPK activation. These findings suggest that astaxanthin is a novel candidate as a therapeutic option for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
Health issues in elderly individuals are often complex and tend to lead to chronic diseases; such issues can be due to a decline in fitness resulting from lack of physical activity. Aqua exercise and burdock are positive effects on cardiovascular disease and vascular health. This study investigated the changes due to aqua exercise and burdock extract intake in senior fitness, prostaglandin I2 (PGI2), and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) in elderly women. Forty elderly women (65–80 years) volunteered for this study. After baseline measurements, participants were randomized into control (n = 8), aqua exercise (n = 11), aqua exercise and burdock extract intake combination (n = 11), and burdock extract intake groups (n = 10). The variables of senior fitness tests, PGI2 and TXA2 were measured in all participants before and after the 12-week study. Blood collections were carried out at the beginning- and the end of aqua exercise training. Muscular strength, endurance, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory endurance of aqua exercise and burdock extract intake group at post-test significantly increased compared to pre-test (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in PGI2 and TXA2 between pre- and post-training programs. In conclusion, our findings indicated that the aqua exercise and burdock extract intake improves senior fitness factors in elderly Korean women. Also, the program participation led to a balance between PGI2 and TXA2. Additionally, burdock extract intake may be useful in vascular health by playing a secondary role in disease prevention and health promotion.
Although supplementation with several antioxidants has been suggested to improve aerobic metabolism during exercise, whether dietary foods containing such antioxidants can exert the metabolic modulation is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of intake of the specific antioxidant-rich foods coupled with exercise training on energy metabolism. Twenty young healthy, untrained men were assigned to antioxidant and control groups: participants in the antioxidant group were encouraged to consume foods containing catechin, astaxanthin, quercetin, glutathione, and anthocyanin. All participants performed cycle training at 60% maximum oxygen consumption for 30 min, 3 days per week for 4 weeks. Maximum work load was significantly increased by training in both groups, while oxygen consumption during exercise was significantly increased in the antioxidant group only. There were positive correlations between maximum work load and fat/carbohydrate oxidations in the antioxidant group. Carbohydrate oxidation during rest was significantly higher in the post-training than that in the pre-training only in the antioxidant group. More decreased levels of serum insulin and HOMA-IR after training were observed in the antioxidant group than in the control group. This study suggests that specific antioxidant-rich foods could modulate training-induced aerobic metabolism of carbohydrate and fat during rest and exercise.
The agglutination titers of Brachyspira pilosicoli (B. pilosicoli) and Brachyspira aalborgi (B. aalborgi) were examined in colitis patients with human intestinal spirochetes. Among three cases of colitis patients, the titer of B. pilosicoli was extremely high in two cases while the titer of B. aalborgi was extremely high in one case. These three cases had symptoms of colitis, such as watery diarrhea, and we diagnosed the case as Brachyspira- related colitis. These findings suggest that the agglutination titers of Brachyspira may be useful in cases of Brachyspira- related colitis. Severe symptoms, such as abdominal pain and diarrhea, were observed in cases with high antibody titer of B. aalborgi, as well as B. pilosicoli, indicating that B. aalborgi could also cause symptomatic colitis.
Plasma ghrelin level is influenced by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status and the severity of gastric mucosal atrophy, and the ghrelin level is associated with nutrition status in hemodialysis patients. Here, we investigated the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy in improving nutrition status in relation to the ghrelin level in H. pylori-positive hemodialysis patients. Of H. pylori-positive patients receiving hemodialysis at 8 dialysis center, 21 patients underwent gastroduodenoscopy for evaluation of the severity of gastric atrophy, and nutrition markers and plasma ghrelin levels before and 1 year after H. pylori eradication therapy were evaluated. Serum cholinesterase level was significantly increased after H. pylori eradication compared with the level before eradication (303.2 ± 76.0 vs 287.3 ± 68.1 IU/L, p = 0.029). In particular, cholesterol (before, 196.6 ± 23.2 mg/dl; after, 206.1 ± 25.9 mg/dl, p = 0.042) and cholinesterase levels (before, 296.9 ± 70.8 IU/L; after, 316.4 ± 73.8 IU/L, p = 0.049) increased more strongly in patients with mild–moderate atrophy than those with severe atrophy, irrespective of improvement of plasma acyl-ghrelin and desacyl-ghrelin levels after eradication therapy. In conclusion, H. pylori eradication may improve nutrition status by increasing serum cholinesterase and cholesterol levels in hemodialysis patients, especially those with mild and moderate gastric mucosal atrophy.