Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Online ISSN : 1880-5086
Print ISSN : 0912-0009
ISSN-L : 0912-0009
42 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の14件中1~14を表示しています
Serial Reviews
Original Articles
  • Yoshikazu Yonei, Yoko Takahashi, Sawako Hibino, Miwako Watanabe, Toshi ...
    原稿種別: Original
    2008 年 42 巻 2 号 p. 89-103
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2008/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The effect of a dietary supplement with L-carnitine (600 mg/day) and Garcinia cambogia extract (500 mg/day as hydroxycitric acid) as main ingredients was studied in 35 healthy volunteers {48.3 ± 6.9 years, body mass index (BMI): 26.3 ± 1.7} in a double-blind test (18 subjects in the Test Group and 17 in the Control Group). The yearly examination includes the standard yearly medical tests done in Japan, tests for assessing hormonal age, and a survey for assessing physical and mental fitness of the subjects, called the Anti-Aging QOL Common Questionnaire (AAQol). Use of this supplement significantly improved the level of lipid peroxides (−12.8%) in the blood as well as physical symptoms such as “tired eyes,” “blurry eyes,” “muscle pain/stiffness,” “early satiety,” “epigastralgia,” “dizziness,” “arthralgia” and “easily breaking into a sweat.” The Control Group showed a significantly favorable improvement rate, especially for “dizziness.” On the other hand, groups of subjects using the test compounds saw a significant rise in total cholesterol (4.5%), fasting blood sugar (4.1%) and HbA1c (3.4%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of the supplement can reduce the oxidative damage; however, the effect on QOL was equivocal. Garcinia cambogia extract did not show dietary efficacy.
  • Tomomitsu Tahara, Tomiyasu Arisawa, Tomoyuki Shibata, Masakatsu Nakamu ...
    原稿種別: Original
    2008 年 42 巻 2 号 p. 104-110
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2008/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Inflammatory changes in the gastric mucosa are commonly observed in Japanese patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). However, detailed data regarding the relationship between the genetic regulatory factors of inflammation and FD are not available. CD14 is an important mediator of the inflammatory response in the first line of host defense by recognition of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We aimed to investigate the association between CD14 promoter C-159T polymorphism and FD in a Japanese population. 108 patients with FD and 99 non-dyspeptic subjects enrolled in this study. Dyspeptic symptoms were divided according to Rome III criteria. CD14 gene C-159T polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. In the non-dyspeptics, the CD14 genotype distribution was 28CC (28.3%), 51CT (51.5%), 21TT (21.2%). Meanwhile, the CD14 genotype distribution in FD was 31CC (28.4%), 56CT (51.4%), 22TT (20.2%). The genotype distribution was not significantly different. There was no significant difference between two groups in the genotype distribution. We did not found any association between CD14 genotypes and dyspeptic patients in different gender and Helicobacter pylori infection status. No significant association was also found between CD14 polymorphism and any of different subtypes of FD according to Rome III while there was a weak correlation between TT genotype and PDS in male subjects (TT vs others, OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 0.98−10.26, p = 0.06). In conclusion, our results suggest that CD14 polymorphism is unlikely to associate with susceptibility of dyspeptic symptoms. The role of inflammation related-gene polymorphisms to the development of dyspepsia needs to further evaluation.
  • Akiko Hirakawa, Kazumasa Aoyagi, Motoo Nakajima, Syuichi Kikuchi, Syoj ...
    原稿種別: Original
    2008 年 42 巻 2 号 p. 111-117
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2008/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    While it is well known that hemodialysis (HD) patients with end stage renal failure are exposed to high oxidative stress, there is not a general opinion regarding whether antioxidant activity is high or low in these patients. We evaluated the variation of plasma hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (p-HRSA) by a single-session of HD in 69 patients by using a new system, reactive flow-injection electron spin resonance. And then comparing p-HRSA with their biochemical parameters, we tried to elucidate what components affected p-HRSA in the HD patients. The average of p-HRSA significantly increased after HD and the variation of p-HRSA by HD was correlated with that of plasma total protein (TP). In 5 patients however, their p-HRSA decreased after HD, in spite of increasing TP. In pre-HD, the p-HRSA values and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of low-molecular weight fraction of plasma were significantly higher in these 5 patients than in patients whose p-HRSA increased after HD. These 5 patients were in an inflammatory state. These findings suggest that p-HRSA is mainly affected by TP, but caution should be exercised in patients who have high p-HRSA before HD and whose p-HRSA does not increase after HD.
  • Yoshiji Ohta, Koji Ohashi, Tatsuya Matsura, Kenji Tokunaga, Akira Kita ...
    原稿種別: Original
    2008 年 42 巻 2 号 p. 118-125
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2008/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    We examined whether octacosanol, the main component of policosanol, attenuates disrupted hepatic reactive oxygen species metabolism associated with acute liver injury progression in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). In rats intoxicated with CCl4 (1 ml/kg, i.p.), the activities of serum transaminases increased 6 h after intoxication and further increased at 24 h. In the liver of CCl4-intoxicated rats, increases in lipid peroxide (LPO) concentration and myeloperoxidase activity and decreases in superoxixde dismutase activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration occurred 6 h after intoxication and these changes were enhanced with an increase in xanthine oxidase activity and a decrease in catalase activity at 24 h. Octacosanol (10, 50 or 100 mg/kg) administered orally to CCl4-intoxicated rats at 6 h after intoxication attenuated the increased activities of serum transaminases and the increased hepatic myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase activities and LPO concentration and the decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and GSH concentration found at 24 h after intoxication dose-dependently. Octacosanol (50 or 100 mg/kg) administered to untreated rats decreased the hepatic LPO concentration and increased the hepatic GSH concentration. These results indicate that octacosanol attenuates disrupted hepatic reactive oxygen species metabolism associated with acute liver injury progression in CCl4-intoxicated rats.
  • Takehisa Suekane, Yoshihiro Ikura, Junko Arimoto, Masashi Nakagawa, Ch ...
    原稿種別: Original
    2008 年 42 巻 2 号 p. 126-132
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2008/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Endothelin-1, a powerful vasoconstrictor, forms the endothelin system together with endothelin-converting enzyme and endothelin type A and type B receptors. These endothelin system components are considered to participate in inflammatory and wound healing responses. Previous reports have suggested a role for the endothelin-1 in the pathology of Crohn’s disease. In the present study, we immunohistochemically investigated the expressions of the endothelin system components in affected human intestinal tissues of Crohn’s disease. Eighteen surgical specimens of colonic tissue obtained from patients with Crohn’s disease and 12 normal colonic tissues as controls were examined. Frozen tissue sections cut from the samples were subjected to the immunohistochemical single and double staining. The endothelin system components were expressed mainly in the muscular layers and blood vessels. In diseased colonic tissues, inflammatory infiltration and fibrotic tissue reactions with marked smooth muscle cell proliferation were frequently seen, and were closely associated with increased expressions of the endothelin system components. These results strongly suggest that endothelin-converting enzyme and endothelin type A and type B receptors collectively play a role in the inflammatory and fibrogenic processes of Crohn’s disease. Especially, submucosal smooth muscle proliferation, a histological hallmark of strictures, may be attributable to the upregulated endothelin system.
  • Shoichi Ezaki, Tomoo Ito, Keiji Suzuki, Masanori Tamura
    原稿種別: Original
    2008 年 42 巻 2 号 p. 133-137
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2008/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study aimed to consider the significance of breast milk in preventing oxidative stress by comparing total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in breast milk and formula milk for premature infants, demonstrating the relationship between TAC in breast milk and postnatal age in days. We used the biological anti-oxidant potential test, a new method to measure TAC in breast milk. Breast milk for premature infants were stored at −20°C and thawed within 48 h of collection. We measured TAC in two types of formula milk in the same way. TAC was clearly higher in breast milk than formula milk. Although a negative correlation was observed between TAC in breast milk and age when collected, TAC was always higher than the average TAC in formula milk. TAC in breast milk is higher than TAC in formula milk. We suggest the importance of breast milk for preventing oxidative stress and starting breastfeeding early.
  • Satoshi Matsui, Masahiro Kozuka, Jyunichi Takayama, Kana Ueda, Hiroko ...
    原稿種別: Original
    2008 年 42 巻 2 号 p. 138-143
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2008/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    We investigated the effects of lasers irradiation on the exposed dentinal tubule. Human tooth specimens with exposed dentinal tubule orifices were used. Three types of lasers (CO2 laser, Er:YAG laser and Ga-Al-As laser) were employed. The parameters were 1.0 W in continuous-wave mode with an irradiation time of 30 s for the CO2 laser, 30 mJ in continuous-wave mode with an irradiation time of 60 s for the Er:YAG laser, and 1.0 W in continuous-wave mode with an irradiation time of 60 s for the Ga-Al-As laser. A non-irradiated group was used as a control. After laser irradiation, the dentinal surface of each sample was observed using SEM. Afterwards, all samples were immersed in methylene blue dye solution in order to evaluate the penetration of the dye solution and observe the change in dentinal permeability after laser irradiation. SEM observation showed that the control group had numerous exposed dentinal tubule orifices, whereas these orifices were closed in the laser-irradiated groups. There was consistent dye penetration into the pulp chamber in the control group, whereas no dye penetration was evident in the laser-irradiated groups. Therefore, laser appears to be a promising treatment for reducing permeation through exposed dentinal tubules.
  • Daisuke Kamino, Noriaki Manabe, Jiro Hata, Ken Haruma, Shinji Tanaka, ...
    原稿種別: Original
    2008 年 42 巻 2 号 p. 144-149
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2008/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Although patients with functional dyspepsia complain of epigastric symptoms, the relation between these symptoms and gastric motility remains controversial. There are few reports on the clinical course of functional dyspepsia, including changes in gastric motility, observed over a considerably long period. We conducted a study to examine association between changes in symptoms and changes in ultrasonographically evaluated gastric motility over a long-term follow-up period in patients with functional dyspepsia. Forty patients (18 men, 22 women; mean age, 53.7 years) with functional dyspepsia were followed up by medical interview, physical examination, endoscopy, and ultrasonography for gastric motility. Follow-up ranged from 1.0 to 7.8 years (mean, 3.0 years). Ultrasonographic evaluation of gastric motility included gastric emptying rate and antral contractions. During the follow-up period, patients were treated with proton pump inhibitors, H2-blockers, or prokinetics. Symptoms improved in 21 patients (group A), but symptoms persisted or worsened in 19 patients (group B). There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics between the two groups. Gastric motility improved in group A but not in group B. In conclusion, improved gastric motility appears to correspond to and may explain improved symptoms in some patients with functional dyspepsia.
  • Satomi Akagiri, Yuji Naito, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Katsura Mizushima, Tomoh ...
    原稿種別: Original
    2008 年 42 巻 2 号 p. 150-157
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2008/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    To determine the relative contribution of obesity and visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) to metabolic syndrome, we developed a model that is susceptible to high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance using male KK/Ta mice. The ratio of WAT weight to body weight was greater in the high-fat diet group compared with the control group in 10-, 14-, and 22-week-old mice. The increase in visceral WAT preceded development of fatty liver and insulin resistance. Adiponectin mRNA expression in WAT was markedly decreased before the decrease in its plasma levels or the development of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance appeared in association with fatty infiltration and TNF-α expression in the liver in 22-week-old mice. These data indicate that our mouse model would be useful for future studies that investigate the role of visceral WAT and its products in the development of metabolic syndrome.
  • Satomi Akagiri, Yuji Naito, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Katsura Mizushima, Tomoh ...
    原稿種別: Original
    2008 年 42 巻 2 号 p. 158-166
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2008/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Bofutsushosan (BOF), an oriental herbal medicine, has been used as an anti-obesity drug in overweight patients. In the present study, to evaluate the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of BOF, we investigated the effects of BOF on the white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, the size of adipocytes, adiponectin expression, and oral glucose tolerance test results in high-fat diet-fed male KK/Ta mice. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and UCP2 mRNA in WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT) were measured. 6-week-old KK/Ta mice were divided into four groups and fed a purified powdered basal diet (the BD group), a purified high-fat (HF) powdered diet containing suet powder at 37.5 g/100 g diet (the HF group), a high-fat diet plus 1.0% bofutsushosan (BOF) treatment (the HF + BOF group), or a high-fat diet plus 1.0% daisaikoto (DAI) treatment (the HF + DAI group) for 4 weeks. The weight of WAT and the size of adipocytes were increased in the HF group compared with those in the BD group, and these increases in the HF group were significantly inhibited in the HF + BOF group, but not affected in the HF + DAI group. There were no statistically significant differences in plasma levels and tissue mRNA levels of adiponectin among the four groups. There were no significant differences in UCP1 mRNA expression of BAT among the four groups. The expression of UCP1 mRNA in WAT was found in the HF + BOF group, but little expression was seen in the WAT of the BD, HF, or HF + DAI groups. The elevated plasma glucose levels and responses after the glucose loading in the HF group tended to decrease in the HF + BOF group. These results suggest that BOF decreases the weight and size gains of WAT along with up-regulating UCP1 mRNA in WAT in high-fat diet-fed mice.
  • GuangZhi Jin, Hiroshi Kubo, Misato Kashiba, Ryo Horinouchi, Makoto Has ...
    原稿種別: Original
    2008 年 42 巻 2 号 p. 167-174
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2008/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is essential for ATP production in the mitochondria, and is an important antioxidant in every biomembrane and lipoprotein. Due to its hydrophobicity, a binding and transfer protein for CoQ10 is plausible, but none have yet been isolated and characterized. Here we purified a CoQ10-binding protein from human urine and identified it to be saposin B, a housekeeping protein necessary for sphingolipid hydrolysis in lysosomes. We confirmed that cellular saposin B binds CoQ10 in human sperm and the hepatoma cell line HepG2 by using saposin B monoclonal antibody. The molar ratios of CoQ10 to saposin B were estimated to be 0.22 in urine, 0.003 in HepG2, and 0.12 in sperm. We then confirmed that aqueous saposin B extracts CoQ10 from hexane to form a saposin B-CoQ10 complex. Lipid binding affinity to saposin B decreased in the following order: CoQ10>CoQ9>CoQ7>>α-tocopherol>>cholesterol (no binding). The CoQ10-binding affinity to saposin B increased with pH, with maximal binding seen at pH 7.4. On the other hand, the CoQ10-donating activity of the saposin B-CoQ10 complex to erythrocyte ghost membranes increased with decreasing pH. These results suggest that saposin B binds and transports CoQ10 in human cells.
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