The liver plays a central role in the metabolism of essential fatty acids; (EFAs; linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acids). In this work the relationship between EFAs status and the degree of hyperbilirubinemia as well as oxidant stress in infants and children with chronic liver diseases were evaluated. The study was conducted in 30 subjects with chronic cholestasis, 30 subjects with liver cirrhosis and 30 healthy subjects used as control group. Compared with control subjects, both patient groups, cholestatic and cirrhotic groups had significant decrease in EFAs levels (p<0.01), significant elevation of total bilirubin (p<0.0001). In cholestatic group, direct bilirubin was>20% of total bilirubin levels. As regards oxidant stress parameters, both patient groups had significant elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; (TBARs; p<0.0001 in both groups), significant decrease in retinol, α-tocopherol, and α-tocopherol/total lipids ratio (p<0.0001 in both patient groups for the three mentioned parameters). In cholestatic group, there was a significant inverse correlation between the EFAs level and total and direct bilirubin level. In both patients groups, there was a significant positive correlation between the EFAs level and the levels of retinol, α-tocopherol and α-tocopherol/total lipids ratio, whereas there was a significant inverse correlation between the EFAs levels and the TBARs levels. In conclusion, patients with chronic liver diseases are at a high risk of EFAs deficiency which is correlated with progressive elevation of serum bilirubin and progressive deterioration of oxidant status.
The protective effects of L-arginine in combination with L-lysine on lipid metabolism were examined against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. The levels of cholesterol, triacylglycerols and free fatty acids were estimated both in serum and the myocardial tissue.The levels of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol in serum and phospholipids in the myocardial tissues were also estimated in the normal and experimental rats. The rats administered isoproterenol (150mg kg-1 daily, intraperitoneally) showed significant changes in the lipid components. Prior oral treatment with L-arginine (250mg kg-1 daily) along with L-lysine (5mg kg-1 daily) in alleviating isoproterenol-induced biochemical disturbances with respect to lipid metabolism has been the hallmark of the study.
It was found using the fluorescence probe 2′, 7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate that linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LOOH) increased the level of reactive oxygen species in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Eight flavonoids, including apigenin, eriodictyol, 3-hydroxyflavone, kaempherol, luteolin, naringenin, quercetin, and taxifolin, and α-tocopherol, suppressed the LOOH-induced increase in the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species; α-tocopherol was used as a positive control. On coincubation of cells with each flavonoid and LOOH, the suppressive efficacy of the flavonoids against the LOOH-induced increase was in the following order: luteolin≥3-hydroxyflavone>kaempherol≈quercetin>eriodictyol>taxifolin>apigenin>>naringenin. Luteolin and 3-hydroxyflavone were more effective than α-tocopherol. Kaempherol and quercetin were as similarly effective as it. On preincubation of cells with each flavonoid prior to LOOH exposure, the suppressive efficacy of the flavonoids against the LOOH-induced increase was in the following order: luteolin≈quercetin<3-hydroxyflavone>taxifolin>eriodictyol>naringenin>kaempherol>apigenin. Luteolin, quercetin, and 3-hydroxyflavone were as similarly effective as α-tocopherol. Further, the iron ion chelating agents desferrioxamine mesylate and disodium bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate suppressed the LOOH-induced increase. Reactive oxygen species such as the hydroxyl and alkoxyl radicals may be generated from LOOH in the presence of iron ions in cells and may be scavenged by the flavonoids. These results suggest that such flavonoids as luteolin, 3-hydroxyflavone, and quercetin are beneficial for neuronal cells under reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress.
To investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) on oxygen-induced neovascularization (NV) in neonatal rat model, NV was induced by maintaining neonatal rats in 80% oxygen on a cycle of 23.5h oxygen/0.5h room air until postnatal day 12 (P12), when the rats were placed in room air. The control rats were maintained in room air. From P6 to P17, rats were treated once daily by oral administration of saline (50μl/10g body weight) that contained 25% GTE, 12.5% GTE, or nothing. On P18, the rats were sacrificed and the retinal samples were collected. Retinal NV was scored and avascular areas (AVAs) were measured in ADPase stained retinas. The retinal vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) contents were measured with immunoassay kit, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity was determined by gelatin zymography. GTE (25%) treatment suppressed NV and slightly increased AVAs in oxygen-induced NV model compared with the control. VEGF contents in retina significantly increased on P13 and P15, but GTE treatment did not prevent the increase of VEGF contents. Oxygen-induced increases in MMP-2 activity on P13 and P15 were suppressed by GTE treatment. These results suggest that GTE suppressed oxygen-induced NV in the neonatal rat, possibly through inhibition of MMP-2 activity. It also suggests that orally administered green tea has the potential to inhibit neovascular disease.
Continuum issues of methodological accuracy and feasibility for energy intake (EI) assessment that are effective for determining daily energy needs in free-living older individuals are still requiring a systematic development of valid and inexpensive methods. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of dietary records combined with advanced photo system (APS) camera for EI assessment over a 3-day-period against doubly labeled water (DLW) method for total energy expenditure (TEE) measurement over a 14-day-period in Japanese men [n=44; age=51±14year, body mass index (BMI)23.3±2.6kg/m2 and body fat (%BF=20.8±6.2%)]. Body composition and physical fitness (VO2max) were determined by underwater weighing method and treadmill exercise test, respectively. Subjects were asked not to change their habitual lifestyle and were in a stable body weight over the assessment period. Mean EI of 2, 482±425kcal/day were lower (p<0.02) than mean TEE of 2, 654±361kcal/day. Reporting accuracy (reported EI/TEE×100%) was 94±16% assuming a degree of discrepancy between EI and TEE about 6±16% (-172±448kcal/day), which was significantly correlated with the physical activity level (PAL=TEE/basal metabolic rate) of r=-0.30 (p<0.05), but not with age, body weight, %BF, fat mass, fat-free mass, BMI, and VO2max. In conclusion, we may presume that the difference between EI and TEE in this study would be described neither as under-eating nor under-reporting. The magnitude of discrepancy between EI and TEE is independently predicted by PAL. The use of 3-day dietary records with APS camera is an effective technique for assessing accurately EI assuming that it can be used as a proxy tool to determine energy needs especially in this population.