Redox status affects various cellular activities, such as proliferation, differentiation, and death. Recent studies suggest pivotal roles of reactive oxygen species not only in pathogenesis under oxidative insult but also in intracellular signal transduction. Glutathione is present in several millimolar concentrations in the cytoplasm and has multiple roles in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. Two enzymes, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase, constitute the de novo synthesis machinery, while glutathione reductase is involved in the recycling of oxidized glutathione. Multidrug resistant proteins and some other transporters are responsible for exporting oxidized glutathione, glutathione conjugates, and S-nitrosoglutathione. In addition to antioxidation, glutathione is more positively involved in cellular activity via its sulfhydryl moiety of a molecule. Animals in which genes responsible for glutathione metabolism are genetically modified can be used as beneficial and reliable models to elucidate roles of glutathione in vivo. This review article overviews recent progress in works related to genetically modified rodents and advances in the elucidation of glutathione-mediated reactions.
Flavangenol, one of extract of French maritime pine bark, is a complex mixture of bioflavonoids with oligometric proanthocyanidins as the major constituents. These constituents, catechin and procyanidin B1, are water-soluble derivatives of flavangenol. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant effects of flavangenol on reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion and singlet oxygen using electron spin resonance and spin trapping. The effect of flavangenol on oxidative stress in the skin from the maxillofacial region of hairless mice was investigated using an in vivo L-band electron spin resonance imaging system. Flavangenol attenuated oxidative stress in the maxillofacial skin by acting as a reactive oxygen species scavenger, as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo electron spin resonance imaging analysis. The absorption and metabolism of flavangenol were also examined. After oral administration of flavangenol in human and rat, most of the catechin in plasma was in the conjugated form, while 45% to 78% of procyanidin B1 was unconjugated, indicating that non-conjugated procyanidin B1 would be active in the circulation. The ability of flavangenol to reduce reactive oxygen species levels in the circulation of the maxillofacial region suggests that this extract may be beneficial for skin protection from exposure to ultraviolet irradiation.
The aim of the present study is to compare different analytical methods for singlet oxygen and to discuss an appropriate way to evaluate the yield of singlet oxygen photogenerated from photosensitizers. Singlet oxygen photogenerated from rose bengal was evaluated by electron spin resonance analysis using sterically hindered amines, spectrophotometric analysis of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran oxidation, and analysis of fluorescent probe (Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green®). All of the analytical methods could evaluate the relative yield of singlet oxygen. The sensitivity of the analytical methods was 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran < electron spin resonance < Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green®. However, Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green® could be used only when the concentration of rose bengal was very low (<1 μM). In addition, since the absorption spectra of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran is considerably changed by irradiation of 405 nm laser, photosensitizers which are excited by light with a wavelength of around 400 nm such as hematoporphyrin cannot be used in the 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran oxidation method. On the other hand, electron spin resonance analysis using a sterically hindered amine, especially 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinol and 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-pyrroline-3-carboxamide, had proper sensitivity and wide detectable range for the yield of photogenerated singlet oxygen. Therefore, in photodynamic therapy, it is suggested that the relative yield of singlet oxygen generated by various photosensitizers can be evaluated properly by electron spin resonance analysis.
In the present study by applying electron spin resonance-spin trapping method, when a high frequency (1650 kHz) ultrasound was irradiated to water dissolved with different gas molecules (O2, N2, Ar, Ne, He, and H2) at 25°C of water bulk temperature, free radical generation pattern differed dependently on the dissolved gas molecules. Only •OH was detected in the O2-dissolved water sample, and the amount of the radical was much greater than that determined in any of other gas-dissolved water samples. One of the possible reasons to explain why the •H radical was not detected in the O2-dissolved water is that the •H reacts with O2 to form •OOH. However, no electron spin resonance signals related to the adduct of not only 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide but 5-(2,2-Dimethyl-1,3-propoxy cyclophosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide and •OOH were observed. In the H2-dissolved water, only •H was detected, suggesting that H2 reduces or neutralizes •OH. In the N2-disolved water, both •OH and •H were detected at comparable level. In the water samples dissolved with rare gases (Ar, Ne, and He), the amount of •H was almost double as compared with that of •OH, and both •OH and •H yields increased in the order Ar > Ne > He.
This study evaluated the effects of the interaction of diabetes and a carbonyl iron supplemented on hepatic and pancreatic tissues, oxidative stress markers and liver peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α expressions. Hamsters were divided: Control which received a standard AIN 93 diet; Control Iron, composed of control animals that received a diet with 0.83% carbonyl iron; Diabetic, composed of animals that received a injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) on day 35; and Diabetic Iron composed of streptozotocin treated animals that received a diet supplemented with carbonyl iron. Diabetes increased the glucose level and reduced triglycerides. Diabetic Iron group showed higher levels of glucose and serum triglycerides as compared to the Diabetic group. Diabetes decreased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α. Iron attenuated the diabetes induced down regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α mRNA. Moreover, diabetes increased carbonyl protein and decreased glutathione levels and catalase activity, while iron attenuated the increase in levels of carbonyl protein and attenuated the decrease in those of glutathione level and catalase activity. Histological analysis shows that supplementation iron caused an increase in the size of the islets in Control Iron. The results show that iron does not aggravated liver oxidant/antioxidant status and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α expression in diabetic hamsters.
Although higher serum phosphate level is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in general population as well as chronic kidney disease patients, it has not been clarified whether higher phosphate can affect atherosclerotic plaque formation. In this study, we investigated the effect of prolonged-intake of different concentrations of phosphate on atherosclerosis formation using apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed with high fat diet including 0.6%, 1.2% or 1.8% phosphate. After 20-week treatment, atherosclerotic plaque formation in aorta in 1.8% phosphate diet group was unexpectedly less than that in the other groups. To elucidate mechanisms of suppression of plaque formation by high phosphate diet, we hypothesized that high phosphate diet may modify a profile of monocytes/macrophages suppressing plaque formation. We confirmed that elevated peripheral monocytes (CD11b+, F4/80+ cell numbers) in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were decreased by feeding with 1.8% P diet. In addition, ex vivo study indicated that high dose of phosphate induced macrophage apoptosis. These observations suggest that excess phosphate intake decreased atherosclerosis formation, at least in part, by changing the profile of peripheral monocytes or inducing apoptosis of macrophages in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.
In nutrition studies, it is often of primary interest to determine the critical threshold value of some biological quantities. To determine the amino acid requirement, the tracer approach including the indicator amino acid oxidation method is useful for the investigation of human subjects. In this approach, measurements of amino acids other than the test amino acid are often repeatedly carried out with various intakes of the test amino acid. Change-point regression models have often been applied to determine the amino acid requirement. However, within-subject dependence due to repeated measurements has not been sufficiently taken into account. In this paper, we propose a mixed-effect change-point model to estimate the amino acid requirements when utilizing the tracer approach. Inference based on Akaike Information Criteria is introduced to include selection of the optimal model and construction of a confidence interval. Our method can easily be applied with a standard software package, and we found that appropriate accounting for within-subject dependence may lead to a much narrower confidence interval. We recommend application of a mixed-effect change-point regression model to determine the amino acid requirements in studies utilizing the tracer approach.
Aging and exposure to sunlight are two major factors in the deterioration of skin function. In this study, thirty-six fixed human skin samples from sun-exposed and unexposed areas from young and old individuals were used to evaluate the localization of oxidative stress according to levels and distribution of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine in samples using immunohistochemistry. In the epidermis of the young, negligible amounts of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine were detected in unexposed areas, whereas nuclear 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and cytoplasmic Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine were increased in the lower epidermis in sun-exposed areas. In contrast, the aged presented prominent nuclear 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and nuclear Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine in the epidermis of unexposed areas, concomitant with dermal increase in Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine. However, the immunostaining of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine revealed a decrease in the epidermis of sun-exposed areas in the aged. These results suggest an age-dependent difference in the adaptation and protective mechanisms of the epidermis against sunlight-associated oxidative stress, thus necessitating distinct standards for evaluation in each age group. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms.
Interstitial pneumonia develops in association with inhaled particles. In-air microparticle induced X-ray emission (in-air micro) analysis was previously employed to assess the spatial distribution and content of particles in surgical lung biopsy specimens. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of in-air micro-analysis for transbronchial lung biopsy specimens in patients with or without occupational exposure. The elements composing lung particles and their locations could be identified by in-air micro-analysis. Silicon was the major component of particles. Quantitative analysis revealed that the elements composing lung particles varied between patients. In a patient with suspected nickel exposure, aluminium, vanadium, and calcium were detected, but was not detected. In a patient without a work history (housewife), various elements were detected. In-air micro-analysis was useful for assessing the spatial distribution and content of particles in specimens from patients. Occupational exposure was not necessarily associated with deposition of particles in the lungs. Therefore, in the diagnosis of, elemental analysis of specimens by in-air micro-analysis could be useful for assessing exposure to particles objectively.
In the present study, we evaluated the relationships of estimated desaturase activities with cardiometabolic risk factors including abdominal obesity, atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype and inflammation in Koreans. Ninety-three healthy volunteers participated in this cross-sectional study. LDL particle size was determined using gradient gel electrophoresis and inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and adiponectin were measured. Stearoyl–coA desaturase, delta-6 desaturase and delta-5 desaturase were estimated as precursor to fatty acid ratios. The results showed that stearoyl–coA desaturase was correlated with body mass index (r = 0.235, p<0.05), triglyceride (r = 0.261, p<0.001), and HDL-cholesterol (r = −0.226, p<0.05). Stearoyl–coA desaturase was associated with only triglyceride (r = 0.283, p<0.01). Delta-6 desaturase was correlated with body mass index (r = 0.236, p<0.05), waist circumference (r = 0.218, p<0.05), triglyceride (r = 0.399, p<0.001), C-reactive protein (r = 0.333, p<0.001), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (r = 0.229, p<0.05), HDL-cholesterol (r = −0.325, p<0.01), LDL particle size (r = −0.297, p<0.01) and adiponectin (r = −0.233, p<0.05). In contrast, delta-5 desaturase was correlated with body mass index (r = −0.324, p<0.01), waist circumference (r = −0.276, p<0.01), triglyceride (r = −0.329, p<0.01), C-reactive protein (r = −0.215, p<0.05), HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.262, p<0.05) and LDL particle size (r = 0.278, p<0.01). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that delta-6 desaturase (p<0.01) together with waist circumference (p<0.001) were found to be independent factors for determining plasma levels of C-reactive protein (R2 = 0.230). Estimated desaturase activities are closely associated with the features of cardiometabolic risk in Koreans.
It is well-known that acetylsalicylic acid induces gastrointestinal complication. Recently, trefoil factor family has been reported as a mucosal protective factor. We focused on trefoil factor family as one of defensive system for gastrointestinal injuries. The aim of this trial was to evaluate trefoil factor family levels in the serum of healthy subjects with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid with placebo or proton pump inhibitor or rebamipide were administered in 30 healthy subjects. Transnasal endoscopy was performed at 0, 24 h, 3 and 7 day. Changing of trefoil factor family (1,2,3) and numbers of gastric injuries were evaluated. The numbers of gastric injuries were significantly increased in the placebo group at 3 and 7 days. Injuries in the proton pump inhibitor group were not induced, in the rebamipide group were slightly induced. Trefoil factor family level in the placebo group were decreased in 3 and 7 days compared with prior to starting the trial. Trefoil factor family may have an important association with acetylsalicylic acid-induced gastrointestinal damage. Proton pump inhibitor and rebamipide prevented low-dose acetylsalicylic acid-induced gastrointestinal complications compared with the placebo group.
Identification of the radicals was performed for the standard reaction mixtures, which contained 4.3 mM oleic acid, 25 μM riboflavin, 1 mM FeSO4(NH4)2SO4, 10 mM cholic acid, 40 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and 0.1 M α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone under the UVA irradiation (365 nm), using an electron spin resonance, an high performance liquid chromatography-electron spin resonance and an high performance liquid chromatography-electron spin resonance-mass spectrometry. The electron spin resonance and high performance liquid chromatography-electron spin resonance measurements of the standard reaction mixtures showed prominent signals (αN = 1.58 mT and αHβ = 0.26 mT) and peaks 1 and 3 (retention times, 37.0 min and 49.0 min). Since the peak 3 was not observed for the standard reaction mixture without oleic acid, the radical of the peak 3 seems to be derived from oleic acid. Singlet oxygens seem to participate in the formation of the oleic acid-derived radicals because the peak height of the peak 3 observed in the standard reaction mixture of D2O increased to 308 ± 72% of the control. The high performance liquid chromatography-electron spin resonance-mass spectrometry analysis showed that 7-carboxyheptyl radical forms in the standard reaction mixture.