This study focuses on the functions of rivers serving as canals. The Ooka and Nakamura basin in Yokohama City was designated as a study subject. The history of development and decline of canals, which had been affected by changes in the roles of canals, had been clarified. Bibliographical research and spatial analysis with a graphic plan and topographical maps were conducted for the investigation. The subject area was reclaimed land which was completed 350 years ago, and some changes were triggered by the opening of Port of Yokohama. Furthermore, multiple canals were built in the middle of the Meiji Period in order to improve convenience of transportation and to protect foreign settlements. At that point, canals were the foundation of everyday life. However, demand for canals started diminishing towards the middle of the Showa Period due to the new establishment of railways and motorways, and canals were started to be filled in or converted to culverts towards the end of the Showa. The remaining area is now utilized as a subway, green passage or parks. Therefore, it is concluded that the canals are important components of the current city landscape with the history of development and decline.
This paper aims to analyze how Japanese Black Pine and Cherry Blossom were imported and planted in Qingdao. It turns out that they were firstly imported to Qingdao by the German governors from Japan, and planted on the hills, along the coasts and in the parks. As Qingdao was occupied by Japan in 1914, the Black Pine and Cherry Blossom were planted more widely on the hills, parks and even courtyards. What should be emphasized is that they were not merely planted as ornamental trees, but also used to symbolize Japanese culture. The Cherry Blossoms planted along the entrance path of the Qingdao Shrine and the monument built for the dead soldiers were considered as the reproduction of Japan’s traditional landscape in Qingdao. That is why when Japan was beaten in the Second World War, the Cherry Blossoms planted in Qingdao were widely cut down and replaced by Cedar. While compared to Cherry Blossom, most Black Pines were free of cut down disaster and is widely used in Qingdao nowadays.
This paper aims to clarify the spatial feature of Classical Gardens of Suzhou from the view of horizontal tablet. Taking seven of the most famous gardens as study case, the horizontal tablets are classified by the content using the cluster analysis method. The result shows the horizontal tablets have a certain similarity on the meaning and expression, and can be divided into 5 groups. By analyzing the spatial feature reflected by the horizontal tablets are influenced by the function of architecture, and each architecture type shows different distribution of horizontal tablet groups of different factor: The ornamental type tends to emphasize the comprehensive factor; The study type shows the emphasis on the comprehensive factor as well as five senses・weather, plants, talent・morality; The activity type strengthens the talent・morality factor; The transition type stresses the ideological theme of hermitage. It can be concluded that the thoughts of gardening is greatly affected by the historical background，and is reflected in the garden space through the content of the horizontal tablets，which creates a boundless invisible space from the limited physical space.
This paper aims to clarify the character of mansions built during the Period of the Republic of China in Nanjing, by focusing on spatial composition and the exterior space arrangement of the main building. Based on the historical background of the Republic of China, historical textual research and on-the-spot investigation were carried out into the spatial composition of the mansions, 17 mansions are selected as study objects. Analyzing the two-dimensional composition of sites and the three-dimensional composition of attachments for the main buildings shows the character. The result of this research indicated that, the two-dimensional composition such as the position of mansion on its site, and the three-dimensional composition such as the position or type of attachments, not only imitates European and American residence, but also utilizes characters of traditional Chinese residence. The main building’s position and plane figure of the site on the exterior arrangement, which can be seen as a combination of Chinese style and Western style, has changed.
Consideration of Yasuhei Nagaoka’s design achievements clarifies the relationship between the designer’s employment position, the places where he carried out his work, and the number of designs by classifying the different phases of his career. His career is classified and his employment positions clarified by arranging his design achievements according to the places where he carried out his design work during specific periods of time. This classification indicates that he had almost no achievements during the more than 20 years he was employed at the Tokyo prefectural government office. When he became part of the professional staff of the Tokyo City office, the classification reveals that he designed for many places. His achievements for Akita in his later years as a member of staff at the Tokyo prefectural office greatly influenced this thing. The quantity of the park design of each place decreased when Nagaoka resigned from the Tokyo City office. He was continually involved with the design of many personal gardens, but his achievements in the suburbs of Tokyo came to account for most. In addition to his park designs, he designed the personal gardens of distant places as well. However, it is predicted that this reduced the number of his garden designs of distant places, as is evident in the decreasing number of his park design projects.
National Park have been established for the purpose of protection and usage of landscape which would be representative of Japan in 1931. The landscape architect who had significant influence on the establishment of national parks and selection was Tamura Tsuyoshi. The purpose of this study was set to clarify landscape of national park which had been identified by Tamura Tsuyoshi in the Taisho period, prior to the establishment of National Parks, and Tamura’s point of view to support his vision. Compared to Tamura’s vision in the Taisho Period, the concept of national parks changed in the 1930’s when National Parks officially established. The characteristics during the Taisho Period can be illustrated as following: 1) great importance was attached to governmental maintenance of natural recreational spaces, 2) quality of landscape was only secondary so that landscape which are representative of Japan would not be important elements for national parks, and 3) a variety of landscapes and activities were taken more seriously, as usable spaces were considered more important than primeval natural landscape.
In the decade before World War II there was a plan to turn the site of Odawara castle into a prefectural park. This study clarifies the background and progress of the plan, focusing on the expectations and aims of the town of Odawara, and the consciousness and initiatives of Kanagawa Prefecture, toward the prefectural park idea. Odawara requested that the Imperial Household Department, which had jurisdiction over the site, sell it off. In addition to repeated requests that the site be sold, Odawara negotiated with Kanagawa Prefecture on turning a portion of it into a prefectural park. Odawara hoped that the prefecture would undertake the task of building the park. In 1938 the central portion was transferred to Kanagawa Prefecture, and Odawara expressed a strong wish that it be made a prefectural park. The prefecture was studying the possibility of building a prefectural park and selected the Odawara castle site as one of seven candidate locations. Beginning in fiscal 1938 on-site surveys were carried out using funding budgeted for a survey of possible prefectural park locations, and park plans were drawn up. The department responsible for parks hoped that funds would be budgeted for the building of prefectural parks, but the financial affairs department rejected the request. The prefecture dispersed partial funding to the candidate sites, but no prefectural parks were officially buil.
This paper describes the effect analysis on ultraviolet radiation environments in the summer in actual urban street for various tree planting types using a numerical simulation tool previously developed. As an index of UV environment, in order to evaluate UV radiation received by the human body in an urban street, we used UV scalar luminance after considering the weighting factor for the surface area of the human body. A holiday promenade as a typical type of actual urban greenery area was selected for the analysis. We planted several types of trees different tree crown shapes and planting position for the street to compare the effects of the greenery. Simulation results showed that diurnal variations of UV scalar luminance for the tree planting types are different from the direction of human and sky view factor. For UV environments in an urban street, we received high reflected UV radiation from building façades and paved surfaces, including areas with shadows depending on the area. Therefore, spreading tree crown shapes will not only reduce UV radiation, but combining multi-layered planting with both tall and low tree coverage is effective.
This study was an attempt to identify adequate maintenance regime for trees in the planting sites of city parks. The lifetime of trees that received 7 types of maintenance regimes was compared using a numerical model described by Watanabe (2011), to which some revisions were made. Tree density, soil texture, site preparation, and maintenance regimes were identified as factors that influence the lifetime of trees, decided 3 levels on 4 factors, and 34=81 simulated cases of planting sites that received the 7 types of maintenance regimes (in combination with pruning, litter removal, and trampling) were evaluated. The results were as follows: (1) To increase the lifetime of trees in the planting sites of city parks by using maintenance regimes, it was valid to reduce the intensity of pruning gradually by 40-60 years after planting and then accelerate loosing the surface soil in the absence of litter removal and trampling by 70-90 years after planting. (2) The lifetime of trees in the planting sites of city parks was influenced by parameters in the following order: pruning > site preparation > litter removal > tree density > trampling. (3) This study and that by Watanabe (2011) showed that the most important factor for tree growth rate was site preparation, but the most important factor for increasing the lifetime of trees was pruning in the planting sites of city parks.
Several residents of major cities are seeking to gain farming experience by participating in local community-supported agricultural projects. This article investigates the factors influencing social needs that have developed in accordance with various forms of community in urban areas. We also identified user demands, group attributes, means of transportation, and usage frequencies of these novel types of urban farms. The results indicate that the company we surveyed developed urban farms in response to the need expressed by urban residents to grow vegetables and flowers in city centers. These types of farms have several characteristics, such as hefty fees, convenient locations, and satisfactory services. Urban farming can occupy niches in the capitalist marketplace and users aspire to develop relevant information and education in addition to harvesting farm produce on these sites.
The objective of this study was to recognize the planning requirements for setting public parks that contribute to have satisfactory farming experiences for citizens in the controlled urbanization area. In order to establish the planning requirements of such as public parks, the study set an activity program, a conservation planning program for rural area, and a planning approach for the introduction of park facilities from the view of local inhabitants and participants in farming experience activities. The Kanatake district, which is a controlled urbanization area in Fukuoka City, was chosen as the study case. A questionnaire survey was carried out for recognizing the opinions of local inhabitants and participants in farming experience activities. The analysis of questionnaire survey allowed to identify the components and suitable conditions that encourage people to choose a place for having satisfactory farming experiences. The results also showed how to encourage the people’s participation in farming experience activities.
The purpose of this study is to suggest a progress plan for the future urban park regeneration business from a planning perspective by researching the utilization pattern and the impact of the park satisfaction. The progress plan was made by comparing the before and after space changes of the park regeneration, applying park properties defined as the utilization pattern of spatial feature in the existing park, then finding out the relationship between utilization of the park properties and the user satisfaction for park regeneration.First, space analysis was started by reviewing the before and after regeneration drawings and spot verification of the object place of study, Sho-do no.2. park. Secondly, primary surveys have been conducted confirming visitors’ awareness toward park properties. In addition, park evaluations and visitor satisfactionsurveys were administered as secondary surveys. The surveys were based on interviews with local residents, administrator and designer. From the results of our studies, the two regeneration method has been selected. The combination of properties along with improvements on additional spatial feature by space elements, identifying the park’s location position by assuming the visitor’s utilization pattern have had an effect on preservation and application of park properties and improvement of visitor satisfaction.
The purposes of this study are to find out roles which a network of parks and green spaces in Senboku New Town played when senior citizen chose traveling routes to parks, and to explore ways to create a new town with elderly-friendly living environments. The questionnaire survey was conducted to find out the traveling routes taken by senior citizens visiting their most-commonly visited parks and the reasons why they chose those routes. The field survey and analysis of the area maps were carried out to understand the spatial characteristics of the chosen routes. The results of this study showed that the most frequently-used routes were green walks traversing the neighborhood unit from east to west, and that park and green space networks played an important role as routes when senior citizens visit parks. The study also confirmed that the senior citizens cited the shortest way to parks as the best reason when choosing routes to parks, but that they sometimes chose green walks though they are not always the most direct route. It can be considered that barrier-free pathways should be established to help a systematically built new town revitalize in unison with elderly-friendly living environments，and that park and green space networks would serve as important public assets in developing these pathways.
The realization is expected by active participation of the green activities by residents, for the purpose to improve the quality and management of green in urban area. Can be considered that it will find the way from opinion of the residents, what is to examine the possibility of participation in greening activities by residents. In this study, the purpose is the verification of promoting participation policy for each; which were divided into several groups from resident’s characteristics of the opinion and behavior. And be conducted a questionnaire of five regions in Chiba city. Then, was conducted a statistical analysis using the data obtained from the questionnaire. As a result, three groups were obtained; ①"home active group"; be active mainly at home, ②"regional activities start group"; began activities at the regional and the level of consciousness about the green is higher than "home active group", ③"regional activities spreading group"; the consciousness level of green is high, but is not tied to participation in regional activities. Also, the groups ② and ③, tended to the possibility of participation in the greening activity. Because of that, It was considered policy which focus on the level of consciousness of green is effective to encourage the participation of residents; for example, to provide a field of activity not only provide consciousness.
It was thought that one of the traditional ways of taking river water into irrigation canals appeared in the landscape viewed from the intake points of the oblique weirs, which were not right-angled but slanting to the river channels. In order to verify this hypothesis, the spatial relationships of the weirs with both the river channels and the adjacent landforms were analyzed in 153 cases of 69 domestic watersheds by using topographical maps and aerial photographs. Those cases were classified into nine types according to the differences of both their relationships with adjacent clusters of summits and the meandering shapes of the river channels. In 90 cases classified into two types, the hypothesis was proved due to the basic compositions of the landscape based on the results of the analysis. On the other hand, the results showed the possibilities of qualitative differences in the landscape among the cases, according to the length and the degree of slant of weirs, the scale and the position of clusters of summits, the landform of the opposite shores, and the width and the shape of the river channels. The necessity of conducting in detail survey analysis of the compositions of the landscape actually viewed on-site became clear as the research task for the next phase.
Biwako Waterway, completed in 1890, includes the Ebisugawa Berth which possessed the largest rectangular area along it and had been originally used as landing stage or moorage for shipping. On the other hand, new use, such as swimming pool had been added to this facility and kept intensive connection with surrounding communities. Especially, the function as swimming training school starting in 1896 made significant influence to the development of swimming culture locally and nationwide. This study attempts to manifest the transition of its reuse as swimming training pool through the analysis of local historical documents, newspaper articles, and hearing survey to relating organization, such as Tousuikai or home for the aged. As conclusion, it was found out that they took advantage of rectangular surface of water formed by shipping function, and had developed Ebisugawa Berth as place for human activities, which succeeded to obtain high social status as one of the most prestigious swimming pool where national swimming meet was held and visited by Japan’s royal families, and also had been enjoyed by local children in elementary schools as popular swimming pool after the war.
Seaweed-house buildings are mainly distributed over east sea coast in Shandong province of China. Previous researches indicate that a seaweed-house had been the most favorable house of people who lived in Rongcheng city since the New Stone Age. However, the traditional landscape of seaweed-house villages has been changing a lot these years. Seaweed-house villages have attracted more and more attention as traditional village of Shandong province in China. This study tried to make clear the landscape character of seaweed house villages’ location and configuration. Moreover, it was discussed that what kind of factors affects the landscape character. 52 villages in Ningjin district RongchengCity, Shandong province of China are selected as object sites of the study. The relation between villages and the sea or rivers was investigated for understanding the landscape character of seaweed house villages’ location. The shape of the houses was surveyed to try to have a grasp of the villages’ figure. The results of the study show that 35 villages locate in the inland and 45 of those are distributed along the rivers. 70 percent of the seaweed house villages are located on the slope declining from north to south. Moreover, it is made clear that the orientation of houses is regular and dense houses compose square villages.
The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of observation opportunities of rare species by the Ecotourism guide workers. The case study was conducted in Southern Kujuku-shima Islands, Sasebo-city, Nagasaki Prefecture. The observation opportunities were confirmed by the number of species, the number of islands, observation frequency from literature surveys (logbook or weblog) which were recorded by the Ecotourism guide workers, which were, in turn, compared with those by the researchers of the research institution. As the results, it was shown that the Ecotourism guide workers and researchers had observed the different species mainly. However they already had observed a few common rare species. And the researchers observed wider range of islands than Ecotourism guide workers. On the other hand, the Ecotourism guide worker had more chances to observe than the researchers in limited area such as the field of the eco-tour. This study suggested that Ecotourism guide workers do in fact have the observation opportunities that help government and researchers for rare species conservation.
The planning approach to prevailing small hydropower is still to be established. The varying characteristics of hydropower products such as type, color and shape may affect regional landscape characteristics. The objective of this study is to recognize the impact of potential landscape change by prevailing small hydropower in hilly and mountainous regions that are advantaged in water resources and natural landscape. The study areas were the Minamioguni Town and Itsuki Village in Kumamoto Prefecture. The trend in the appearance of prevailing small hydropower was assessed considering the places of generation and consumption of electricity according to the topographical analysis and was recognized through a questionnaire survey to production companies of small hydropower and local residents. As a result, it was recognized the variation of area types and planning requirements affected by the prevailing small hydropower.
Sapporo is considered one of the most attractive cities in Japan, a city image it partly owes to its rich greenspace. But we know little about how exactly greenspace contributes to a city’s image, because prior research has focused mostly on its quantitative aspects. Using a mail-back questionnaire (n = 130), this study examined the relationship between two types of greenspaces, those forming residents’ image of Sapporo and those residents frequently use. In addition to questions about residents’ used greenspaces we employed the Landscape Image Sketching Technique, asking respondents to draw a visual sketch of a ‘typical Sapporo landscape’. Visual sketch data were then analyzed for objects and line of sight distance, and compared with the greenspaces respondents used. Results showed that reported city image-forming greenspaces and used greenspaces largely overlapped, and their spatial positions were consistently related. Residents combine greenspaces they use in daily life with those they see to form their city image. In this image of Sapporo, parks and mountains create the main structure of the city and connect its center and periphery. These findings suggest an attractive city image is derived from symbolic scenery perceived by residents in their daily life.
SALoT Map is the impression map of a town that integrates the collective information of snapshots (S), attributes (A) of the person who took snapshots, their locations (Lo) and the descriptive texts (T). It is constructed by the two-stage procedure: classification of snapshots, attributes and locations, and correspondence analysis on words in the texts. Using collective intelligence, SALoT Map method can translate subjective individual impressions into rather an objective comprehensive expression. One hundred and twenty-eight local college students took part in the survey to search landscapes in Kawagoe City in Saitama Pref. that take their fancy. Two hundred and forty-two SALoT data were collected in total. The similarity matrix among the snapshots was estimated from the grouping experiment on the web. Results showed that there were eight landscape categories by cluster analysis, that is, "nature", "modern street", "stele", "object", "The Time Bell", "temple", "retro street" and "old type store". Kawagoe City was divided into seven areas by the distribution of locations, that is, "The Time Bell", "old city", "marginal area", "downtown", "around station", "suburb" and "Kasumigaseki". Results also showed that male students take an interest in the historical and symbolical monuments whereas female students take an interest in the shopping.
In the on-site forest environment (the mixed forest of a Larch, Giant dogwood and Veitch fir), we set out our research purpose, which clarified the psychological healing effect of forest scenery as visual stimuli on respondents. With 15 male and female adult respondents respectively, we conducted a viewing experiment to investigate the affect, subjective restorative quality and degree of attention restoration using three types of research questionnaires. Consequently, in terms of affect, even though neither positive nor negative affect could be confirmed from statistical interaction when comparing opening and closing sessions (providing visual stimulus and covering respectively), there was a statistical decline (reduction) in the ‘before’ (pre-viewing experiment) compared to ‘after’ (post-viewing experiment). As for subjective restorative quality, interaction between opening-closing and ‘before’-‘after’ sessions was confirmed as well as individual statistical differences comparing ‘before’ and ‘after’ in the opening session and opening and closing sessions in ‘after’ session sequentially. Regarding the degree of attention restoration, subsequent results of opening-closing comparison clarified that the criteria of run away, fascination, scope and compatibility were statistically higher in the opening rather than closing session, and preferences showed a statistically higher score in the opening rather than closing session.
"Nihon Sankei” and “Omi Hakkei”, are specially chosenlandscapes that are known worldwide. In recent years, sets of one hundred landscapes“Hyaku-Sen” have been selected for various purposes. It is very likely that each set reflects people’s thoughts on landscapes of the time it was selected. The aim of this paper is to reveal how the concept behind the selection of Hyaku-Sen” gradually changed based on the collected information regarding each “Hyaku-Sen (the concept behind it, the details of the actualselection process)” and how the way people looked at landscapes changed over time by comparing the sets of one hundred locations chosen for tourism promotion purposes. Around 50 sets of "Hyaku-Sen" were officially selected between 1950 and 2010. At the beginning, the purpose of selecting“Hyaku-Sen”was tourism promotion. However, the purpose diversified gradually, and sets of one hundred landscapes were selected eventually for environmental protection, historic/cultural preservation, and so on. It has been found out by comparing the selected locations that the landscape to be selected changed from the initial purely natural landscapes to ‘mostly natural’ landscapes, townscapes, and buildings including leisure facilities,covering a wide range of landscapes.
This paper examines varieties and changes of represented natural landscape since the early 20th century, by surveying front cover photo collections of the “National park” magazines. The setting inside the pictures (e.g. the placement of human figures in the landscape, the number of respective elements in the picture, and so on) is assumed to indicate the changing tastes of modern populace as to natural landscape. According to the relationship between constituent elements of staffage and natural landscape, 107 staffage-parson photographs were classified into 8 types. In comparison with nature of natural environment in the photo, appearance or disappearance of the type reflected perceptions of natural landscape. During the first half of the 20th century, the rich natural environment was the place where people enjoy modern recreation activities. Yet, in the following periods, the natural landscape meant something even rarer and maybe holier. Then, the very massiveness and grandeur of the landscape came to be emphasized. Yet again, now, after 1990s, it is thought that the concept of nature consists both of wilderness and man-made environment.
The image sequences from a person walking through a natural park, which is a protected area that includes natural, semi-natural, and humanized landscapes that are of natural interest, representing the integration of human activity with nature, and fractal analysis was used to create a sequential landscape for this paper. Moreover, GPS positioning was also recorded during the walks, and the distance from the start point and the altitude were recorded. Such processing was conducted in both August 2009 and 2013, and the landscapes from these two instances were compared. As a result, the complexity of the landscape for certain objects and overall could be expressed by using two kinds of fractal analysis. In particular, the differences between these two landscapes or for each position could be quantitatively determined. Therefore, a quantitative analysis of the sequential landscape in Oze National Park was conducted. On the other hand, these two sets of image sequences were taken using two devices, which were a camcorder and iPad Mini tablet. The observation using the tablet was more efficient than the camcorder. In addition, the results of our fractal analysis between each device showed they were strongly related. Consequently, the changing landscape in Oze National Park could be quantitatively expressed
Xining is a city with the largest population on the Tibetan Plateau, where minority ethnic groups reside together. In this study, citizens’ experiences and impressions in open space have been examined in the city areas of Xining. The objective has been set to clarify differences of activities and impressions in the open space among various ethnic groups. Through this study, a preliminary survey (n=38) was conducted with university students to define survey items, and the responses for the final survey were collected from the total of 724 respondents, including 315 students. The counts for each ethnic group are: 158 Mongolian, 129 Tibetan, 303 Han, and 124 Hui. As a result, common responses to activities in open space were as following: Going for a walk (61%), exercising (28%), enjoying flower blooming (24%), and climbing mountains (23%). Among the students, a variance was detected in activities by gender; however, no significant variance was recognized by ethnic group. Among the others, variance was detected by ethnic group in activities and usage frequency. In Xining, diverse activities were detected among the citizens who are not university students.
The tree is one of the important landscape elements in a park and a garden, and the simulation with CG provides an effective means of appropriate maintenance of the tree. In earlier studies, AMAP that has been developed in France was often used for the modeling of the tree. However, the tree models in the library of AMAP are not same as shape of real trees and it is difficult to use it for simulation such as the restoring of the scenic views. On the other hand, the three-dimensional measurement using the terrestrial laser scanner can reproduce the shape of the real trees, and we can make an appropriate decision about tree management if we could perform landscape simulation with this "real trees" in situ. Therefore we developed the landscape simulation system that can display point cloud data of the trees and can run on tablet terminals for tree management, and we examined the accuracy and the productivity of the system. As a result, we concluded that the system is practical enough for tree management and provides the sense as if we operated real trees on the site, although the problem was left in the transaction speed of the system.
In this study, a tool for the green vision ratios map in streets was developed. We have to show quantitatively how much green there are in streets, when we evaluate the greens in urban areas. In general, the green space ratios is often used, but I think the green vision ratios is suitable to comprehend the distribution of greens in streets. Then you can make the map of the ratios by this tool, and it will help you to know the distributions. This map shows the locational information and the direction in measurement point of the ratios by the icons like arrows. For making the map, this tool uses the GPS and the electromagnetic compass of the device. In this way, you can perform in the device all processing such as calculation of the ratios and making the green vision ratios map quickly and easily. The range for choosing the green areas in this tool was fixed by frequency distribution of the data extracted from the photograph of the real greens. From the result of comparison between this tool and visual inspection, it was confirmed the accuracy that it was sufficient to see the ratios by this tool.
In kindergartens and day nurseries, when children are not well aware of their playgrounds and surroundings, it is particularly important that nursery school teachers and childcare workers should give them any words that give rise to their awareness of those existence so that they can connect their activity with their environment. This research, focusing on the nursery schools and day nurseries willingly applying environmental learning, attempted to identify the characteristics of words given by nursery school teachers and childcare workers which activate the place of environmental learning of infancy and the environmental design organising it. We recognised, through an analysis of the conversations between teachers and workers, and children, there, that the former most often gave the latter the word of ‘Really!?’ – this was used 104 times in the sum of 3106 words – and that they commonly gave them words responding positively to children such as the phrase that ‘It’s true! So that’s something to look forward to eating it!’. Also, the features of teachers and workers’ words contributing to an understanding of children’s environment by using their five senses and drawing children’s interest in the relation between plants and insects and in their growth were extracted from this analysis when applying cluster analysis to the words used over twenty times. With regard to the environmental design, furthermore, we found that plants and pot plants were placed where children can more often perceive them, for example.
Geoparks can be useful the sustainable development of the economy, nature conservation, and education by utilizing as local resources and history, geology, and cultural community. In recent years, as means of local revitalization, many regional cities are working in the activities Geopark. The purpose of this study is to examine the possibility of the management activities of local resource by Geopark method. September 2012, there are 25 Geoparks in Japan. In this study, I chose two Geoparks as case study because to compare the differences in management method according to the difference in the number of municipalities involved in the operation. And I conducted a survey to Chichibu and Shimonita, because these are located in the related area and have similar geology, and Chichibu operates in fiven municipalities, Shimonita operate in single municipality. Additionally, these are locations where time has passed since these started the Geopark activity. From survey results, I revealed that managing Geoparks lead creation of new resources and revitalizing existing resources. Furthermore, Geoparks can lead the cooperation of various organizations in the region, and the management activities by local residents, the management of local resources were also suggested.
In recent years, practical use of systems that is concerned with green conservation and civil activities is getting necessary. The purpose of study was to clarify application situation of both systems and the present circumstances of citizen s’ activities of the green conservation in each green space based on both systems, additionally, to investigate problems of those activities and operational realities of systems based on those purpose and detail. To this end, we conducted a questionnaire survey of 90 municipalities that specifies green conservation area or civic green spaces. In that questionnaire, we understood the current situation, challenges, the direction of green conservation activities by citizens. As a result, citizens' activities are being carried out in the green area of about 20% in the green conservation area and about 40% in civic green spaces. In this study, we focus on municipalities specify many area and confirm activities of the green conservation, moreover, their own systems relat ed to each green area and activities, and consider those cases.
This study takes municipalities surrounding the metropolitan area as study areas, to understand the current policy status on the accessibility of privately owned forests to local residents, as well as to examine the achievements and tasks of management. We conducted a questionnaire survey to government officer. In order to deeply understand the results obtained from the questionnaire survey, we also did the interview survey to them. As a result, because of more than 40% municipalities surrounding the metropolitan area have laws, ordinances, and guidelines, the opening of privately owned forests had been promoted. We found that 60% of the citizen organization participated in, mainly in forest floor management and tree management. However, the public events and using management have not been achieved yet. Public awareness activity still stopped at the advocacy phase and the activity for training of citizen leader is insufficient. The absence of collateral of forest on the opening of privately owned forest is a major issue. To solve this problem, there is a trend to ensure the collateral of forest through conjunction with existing conservation measures. Meanwhile, as the management issue of opened privately owned forest, we also found that there is lack of citizen organization. There is an increase demand for collaboration with citizen organization and the citizen leader.
The purpose of this research is to identify characteristics of the process of establishing the project for a demonstration experiment about hot spring energy generation in Obama Hot Spring Area, Unzen City, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. The main findings are as follows. (1)The development of the alternative energy program in Unzen City, based on involvement by a stakeholder taking the initiative role, contributed greatly to the giving assurance for the legitimacy of carrying out the project. (2)The establishment of a consultative body on the project, which consists of multiple stakeholders, contributed greatly to developing an atmosphere conducive to carrying out the project. (3)The transmission of information about the project by stakeholders, who have a high expertise and reliability, contributed greatly to increasing the feasibility of the project. (4)Utilization of unused hot spring water and lands owned by public sectors contributed greatly to avoiding the non-public sector’s risk of carrying out the project. Based on these findings, we propose a list of considerations for reviewing the establishment of the project for a demonstration experiment about hot spring energy generation.
Aging members and lack of members of activity organizations have been recognized as an issue in open space conservation activities initiated by citizens. In this study, people’s participation attitude towards open space conservation activities has been analyzed by age segment. In addition, it was examined participants’ attitude that activity organizations feel, and the result was compared with the actual attitude of participants. The objective has been defined to clarify participation issues and key factors to promote participation by capturing differences of attitude from this comparison. In February 2013, an attitude survey was conducted with 1,500 citizens as a subject. Next, in August 2013, another attitude survey was carried out with open space conservation activity organizations (n=263). From the comparison by age segment among the citizens, it has been found that the younger the age segment is the higher the participation experience rate. With regard to attitude by age, differences of attitude have been found in the following six areas. For example, lack of physical strength, personal relationships, activity time, and lack of knowledge. As a result of the comparison between citizens and activity organizations, differences of attitude have been detected with 15 items among participation issues and key participation factors.
In Japan’s modern era land readjustment system is a very important procedure of urban development. In the land readjustment area of Kyoto city we are able to find some historical transitions in the layout method of “machi”, the minimum unit of town community. The city’s technical guidelines in 1935 adopted street conscious method in “machi” layout. One “machi” was settled on both sides of a street. A street was the axis of a “machi”. On the other hand the new guideline in 1974 adopted block conscious method. In this way streets are borders of “machi”. The former structure is similar to the traditional one of the Kyoto city. And later is found in many contemporary new towns. In this paper we analysis the position of borders of “machi”s in many land readjustment area with GIS techniques. Firstly we show the obvious difference between the two types in numeric way. Secondly we show the fact that the block conscious method had been adopted in actual land readjustment projects earlier than the new technical guideline. And we discuss reasons of the change on the concept of “machi” layout.
The developments of reclaimed farmlands were performed actively in Osaka in the Edo era. As a result the vast lands, which amounts to more than 20,000 ha, were produced, and it was happened to exert a great influence on urban development in the last part of the Meiji era. Because they were the reclamation of the shallow water and also, were under development by private capital that was called “Chonin Ukeoi Shinden”, reclaimed farmlands contracted by the trading class, the circumstances may be quite different from those of the inland rural areas. It is important to know how the settlement formation there was from the point of view of understanding the characteristics of urbanization in Osaka, but the reality is not well known. Its features and circumstances of settlement formation in the coastal area of development of new farmlands in the early Meiji era, we tried to reveal through comparison with the inland rural areas. The results of the study based on the historical data and maps, are as follows: there were the villages with no settlements, and without any shrines or temples having close ties with colonization in the coastal area, unlike the inland rural area.
Shinsen are offerings offered at Shinto shrines on the occasion of festivals. We compared shinsen offerings made at Hiyoshi-taisha in Shiga prefecture in the Meiji period and in the present from three angles: biological resources, stipulations on shinsen offerings, and outside agents making offerings. For one selected year in the early Meiji period and for the year 2010, we surveyed shinsen and investigated which biological resources were used. We compared the results and found two types of changes in the use of biological resources. Firstly, species of resources from water bodies, for example fishes and seaweeds, had decreased by 40%-70%. Secondly, changes had occurred in the use of vegetables and fruits. On the other hand, from 1873 to 1946, stipulations had regulated the number and combination of offerings according to the rank of a shrine and its festivals, while since 1946, only the kinds of dishes that could be offered was regulated. Not all changes in biological resources could be explained by stipulations, however. Regarding shinsen offerings offered by agents outside Hiyoshi-taisha such as community associations, our results showed little change since the Meiji period: records of methods of offering had been locally kept by these agents.
Satoyama was maintained historically to obtain firewood or other organic materials. However it has been abandoned since 1960s mainly due to the introduction of fossil fuels. Currently, firewood is reevaluated as a renewable energy in response to increasing number of woodstove users. If significant number of people would use woodstoves, and they would obtain firewood from satoyama, it may contribute to both satoyama restoration and reduction of a dependence on fossil fuels. The purpose of this study is to identify the current status of a leading example of firewood utilization in Ina City, Nagano, Japan. Through field survey, questionnaire, and interviews to stakeholders, we obtained following outcomes: 1) the amount of annual firewood consumption, 2) the area from which firewood are collected, 3) the area of satoyama that may achieve the incentive for the maintenance by firewood demand, and 4) the scheme that supports woodstove users to obtain firewood from satoyama. Based on these outcomes, we finally discussed the lessons we learned from the case, in order to revitalize an interaction between satoyama and people through firewood utilization as a classic yet new way of energy use.
We investigated population structures of woody seedlings emerged and established under canopy gaps, and their effect factors in the large-scale mature forest, Tadasu-No-Mori Forest in Kyoto city. There were 36 species, 4335 woody seedlings in 2012. The whole population density was 307.9 individuals/100m2. Population density of Celtis sinensis was the highest of all species, 81.6 individuals/100m2. Appearance frequency of Quercus glauca seedlings was the highest, 58.0%. Population densities of C. sinensis, Zelkova serrata and Aphananthe aspera seedlings had been significantly higher when the diffuse site factor was more than 12%. There had not been significantly differences of population densities of seedlings between modes of gap maker death, uprooting and trunk snap or standing dead. The 62 sites were classified into the two groups by TWINSPAN. The one group was that dominant species was C. sinensis and the mean diffuse site factor was significantly higher. The other was that dominant species was Q. glauca and the mean basal area of evergreen broadleaved mature trees was significantly higher. The population density of A. aspera seedlings was relatively lower than those of C. sinensis and Z. serrata. It indicates light condition in the forest floor of this site was insufficient for regeneration of A. aspera.
In this study, we investigated the relationship between species richness of coastal plants and the landscape ecological factors such as area, isolation distance from the large seed source, and patch width in the urban or suburban 50 sandy coast patches in the Mikawa Bay (Aichi Prefecture, Japan). We performed stepwise multiple regression analysis to examine the factors influencing the coastal plant species diversity, which revealed that the number of the coastal plant species exhibited a significantly positive correlation with the logarithm of area of the sandy coast patches, whereas it exhibited a negative correlation with the isolation distance from the large coastal dune Enshu-nada. The factors influencing the occurrence probability of each coastal plant species was examined using logistic regression analysis. This analysis revealed that the most effective explanatory variable was the patch area, and the isolation distance from the large sand dune ranked the second most effective explanatory variable. Furthermore, we verified the accuracy of the obtained 10 logit models of coastal dune plants using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the curve (AUC). The 8 models such as Cirsium maritimum, Ischaemum anthephoroides, and Zoysia macrostachya evaluated had sufficient predictive accuracy. This study revealed that these species were affected by the degree of isolation, area, and or patch width.
It is known that scrub forests such as Hibiscus hamabo community develop around salt marshes in the warm-temperate zone of Japan, but natural forests in the hinterland are still insufficiently known. In this study, we examined species composition, distribution of vegetation and land use on six sites, where scrub forests and natural forests remain. The results shows that Pittosporo-Quercetum phillyraeoidis and Cyrtomio-Litseetum japonicae were recognized as natural forests in the hinterland. It is suggested that these forests remained because the sites received little impact from human activities, or that the black pine forest transitioned to these forests. It might be important in conservation and landscape planning of the salt marsh that natural forests in the hinterland such as Quercus phillyraeoides community and Litsea japonica community are taken into account.
People have made various relations between plants for every time or area. As a result, the vegetation and the local scene have been formed for every area. But, it is apprehensive about increase of a rural management abandonment place, and the fall of the biodiversity accompanying it in recent years. There is a Japanese lacquer producer who continues four generation in southern Yamizo Mountains. This study aimed to elucidate roles of the traditional plant resource utilization for conserving an indigenous rural landscape element, particularly semi-natural grasslands. We clarified the spatial distributions of woodlots for the lacquer tapping, habitat properties, management state and understory vegetation for this Japanese lacquer produce at an example. As a result, It was shifting to the landscape of large-scale woodlots for the lacquer tapping on a abandoned cultivated land from small-scale woodlots on the base of a mountain or a bank. However, the kind of many species of Miscanthetum sinensis-class is a growth cage as a good half-natural grassland in the habitat of a bank. That is, the difference had arisen in the composition of woodlots floor vegetation by the career of the land. And It was considered that those species richness decreasing when management abandonment progressed.
The calling songs of cicadas and orthopterans have had a symbolic influence on the Japanese people, and these species are important as they make people understand the value of ecosystem services. In this study, we focused on Mecopoda nipponensis, a well-known acoustic insect in Japan, and we aimed to clarify its distribution in rural areas near large cities. The study site was Ushiku and Tsukuba Cities in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. By using a method for counting the sound of M. nipponensis, we recorded its distribution a few times during the summer of 2012 in large (for 5 km around) and small (for 500m around) areas. In addition, we created vegetation maps by conducting field surveys or by obtaining them from existing government data. In the large-scale analysis, the relationship model between the distribution of M. nipponensis and vegetation type from vegetation maps was constructed by using a logistic regression model, and selected best combination of explanatory variables by AIC criterion. Analysis of the large-scale areas revealed that vegetation type such as city, cultivation, and wetland areas around the 600-700m buffer had a statistically negative influence on the M. nipponensis distribution. In the small-scale analysis of density of populations, tall grasslands, forests, and forest edges were found to be important habitats. This study shows that M. nipponensis is vulnerable to environmental changes and is therefore a good environmental indicator species.
Recently, decreases and changes in aquatic insect communities at paddy field area are becoming an important problem to conserve biological diversity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to know relationship between aquatic insect communities in paddy field area and environmental conditions. We selected finally eight various condition study areas (two con-consolidated paddy areas in hilly and mountainous areas, two consolidated paddy area in hilly and mountainous area, tow non-consolidated paddy areas in urbanized area, two consolidated paddy area in urbanized area) in the Ina Basin, Nagano Prefecture. The survey of aquatic insect communities was carried in 6 times per year from 2011 to 2012 in all study areas. The number and taxon name were recorded by capture method. All study areas were classified into 4hilly and mountainous area region and 4 urban areas by TWINSPAN. Aquatic communities were classified to six types. Each community type corresponded different environmental conditions of urbanization, and forest and others, and consisted of characteristic species. It seemed that we must maintained each environmental condition to conserve each community type. On the other hand, It was pointed out that the mid-summer drainage management decreases the population of the aquatic insect in the middle of summer.
Conservation medicine actively incorporates the work of veterinary medical practices into wildlife management plans. It is especially relevant in today’s human-modified landscapes, where habitat destruction and conflict situations between humans and wildlife are increasing. Our research highlighted a case study in northeastern Hokkaido where rescue, rehabilitation, and reintroduction to the wild are used to help conserve and manage a viable population for three threatened raptor species in Japan- Blakiston’s Fish Owl, Steller’s Sea Eagles and White Tailed Eagles. The first part of this research examined the current practices and future application of conservation medicine in Japanese wildlife management practices. The sources for data were members of the Japanese Ministry of the Environment and others. This research suggested that the respondents are supportive of and see importance in the practices of conservation medicine as a preventative measure aiming at connecting ‘good ecological health’ with the well being of terrestrial wildlife. The case study examined the work of the IRBJ at the Kushiro Wildlife Conservation Center, located in Hokkaido. The veterinarians conducted a variety of practices from direct medical treatment to the final release of the birds back to the wild.
Recent studies have indicated that conditions of surrounding landscape matrix around a habitat patch can influence avian community in the patch. This fact suggests the importance of the permeability of habitat boundaries for bird individuals. In this study species composition of birds in and around woodland patches and that of birds crossing over the woodland boundaries were surveyed in urban or suburban landscapes in central Japan. The results were as follows. 1) In suburban landscapes urban avoider species are not likely to cross woodland patch boundaries while urban adapter species are. 2) In urban landscapes urban exploiter species and two corbid species tend to cross woodland boundaries while the other species do not. 3) Species composition of birds crossing a woodland boundary varies with vegetation structure and abundance of buildings outside the boundary. We conclude that land cover outside a woodland patch can influence the movement of bird individuals across the boundary and therefore the utility of landscape matrix for them. If we want to improve biodiversity within a landscape through increasing of habitat connectivity we should also consider permeability of habitat boundaries.
Symbolic species, which are designated as a symbol of region by each city, town, and village across Japan, naturally reflect people’s conception of nature in municipalities. Symbolic species is often used as the material of environmental education, and sometimes selected as core species in planting design and/or preferential protected species in wild. Therefore, the survey of symbolic species throughout Japan is able to contribute to the understanding of regional and historical characteristics of conception of nature in Japan. In addition, the survey is useful to explore a new direction of environmental target and landscape design based on the situation in each area. Thus, we surveyed the symbolic trees in all municipalities across Japan; a total of 1,742 cities, towns, and villages. Specifically, we aimed to clarify (1) the numbers and types of symbolic trees across Japan, (2) the difference of symbolic trees among designated situations (e.g., regions, designated years, population size, vegetation zone, and naturalness), (3) the difference of the species’ characteristics between frequent designated trees and rare designated. Finally, we discussed the people’s conception of nature based on these results and the effect of symbolic trees on present and future landscape.
Briza maxima L. are exotic plants in Japan, which come from Europe. We studied seed germination to find the causes of their naturalization. The seeds germinated very little for three months after the seed collection, and showed characteristics of photoblastic seed. But many seeds could germinate under both light and dark conditions from four months after the seed collection; especially, they showed above 50% of germination nine months after seed collection. The seeds have characteristics of dormancy since when the seed germination percentage is low for three months after the seed collection, but these seeds germinated much with GA3. The seeds could germinate from 10 to 25℃ well with the exception 30℃. The seeds stored under dry condition of room temperature showed above 50 % after 16 years old. The Briza maxima seeds showed orthodox characteristics and could keep germinability for long time under dry condition. The Briza maxima plants have been distributed in pacific belt zone in Japan. The seed germinability for long time under dry condition was considered possible to increase the distribution in urbanized areas.
On August 6, 1945, at 8:15 am, an Atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima city. Many people believed that no plant would grow for 75 years. However, a few months after the bombing, new shoots were sighted on the Atomic-bombed trees. Today there are many “A-bombed trees (survivor trees)” in Hiroshima city, and they are the precious living war heritage which can tell us the history of the atomic bombing. In this study we hypothesized that the effect of the atomic bombing on these trees has increased over the last 67 years, which is shown by their inclination towards Ground Zero. In order to clarify the hypothesis, we measured the direction of inclination, angle of inclination, and the direction to Ground Zero at the point of each A-bombed tree. We also checked the significance of the relative direction by using the "Rayleigh test". In this study, we focused on the “type A trees.” This type of tree has a single stem, survived the bombing, is alive at the original location and was not transplanted after the bombing. As a result, it was clarified that almost all of the “type A” A-bombed trees are inclined towards Ground Zero. The aim of this study was to clarify the abnormal formation of A-bombed trees in the positional relationship between their respective locations and Ground Zero. As a result, we found A-bombed trees possess a new significance, which is that each of them shows the direction to Ground Zero by their inclination. When you look at the city from a bird's-eye view, you will see that Ground Zero is surrounded by A-bombed trees. When you visit A-bombed trees on foot, check the direction to Ground Zero, then you will find a certain effect of the atomic bombing on the tree. A-Bombed trees offer many possibilities as “field museums” that preserve and convey the experience of atomic bombing.
This study tried to consider some processes making changes by finding contextual affection to a historical park from citizens, municipality and central government with sociocultural perspective. In this paper, based on our empirical fact-findings and verifications, we were to try to understand some processes from a broad boulevard to modernized park which was Ohdohri park located in the center of Sapporo city. The boulevard assumed to be settled for dual role: firstly dividing commoners’ residence area and governmental official area, and secondary the axis showing the direction of east and west in gridiron town planning. There seemed to be several processes, which involved signs promoting modern visions of parks, happened during about 1885-1911. The followings three main different viewpoints should be taken into account. Namely, the first was seemed to be citizens’ actions to the park construction and their utilization of boulevard, the second was assumed to be some conversion of citizen’s attitudes from early modern to modern, and the third was thought to be change of the evaluation to the park by the side of administrations.