Commemoration of the local history and actualization of local identity are one of the roles of park. Seto, Aichi Prefecture, is a traditional pottery industrial city. There is Touso Park which named after "Touso" who is a pioneers of pottery industry having been honored has a big pottery statue called “rokkaku-touhi”. The purpose of this study is to clarify the process of commemoration place becoming park with considering social background and to discuss the value of the park. This study shows 1) In pre-modern era,“rokkaku-touhi” wished for the prosperity of Seto was built at visually important location; 2) In the Meiji era, vicinity of “rokkaku-touhi” where had been a memorial and recreational place became Seto-park as means of development along the railway for stabilizing the pottery industry and local railway company; 3)After WWII, as city planning which includes the thought of open space planning were conducted, Seto-park was designated as Toso Park including backward forested area on the park to protect green and control urban sprawl. This study discusses the importance of the view from "rokkaku-touhi" and the view to the "rokkaku-touhi" and potential and value of both views installed on Toso Park as tourism and local resources.
This study discusses sociocultural changes in society in relation to parks by examining changes in government policies, the construction of port cities and parks, and characteristics of parks in Hokkaido before opening Otaru park and Temiya park located in Otaru city as a case study. Based on changes in society, historic document records were used to public and government perception toward opening and renovating Otaru Park and Temiya Park. Thus, the historical meanings of the parks could be established in terms of space and time, based on four parameters, namely, regional administration / residents' works,features required for park functioning, geographical characteristics of the parks, and the feature of the city when the parks were built. Further examination is required to improve parameters and data collection method for understanding the historical meanings of the parks from sociocultural perspective more deeply.
The aim of this study is to clarify a design process of Constitution model garden of Kyushu Imperial University Faculty of Agriculture. Constitution model garden was completed by a design of Kenichi Nagami in 1935. Nagami was interested in Modern German style which had the beauty and practical use and designed the garden mainly on the German wall fountain. By 1938, a wall body, an arbor and so on were made in Constitution model garden. In addition to modern Germanism, a design of Spanish and Orientalism increased, and the design of the garden became free multinational. Nagami called this design modern orientalism.Modern orientalism of Nagami included fantasy and the association. The constitution idea of Nagami varied from modern Germanism to modern orientalism. Constitution model garden is the monument which indicating this change.
Naruto Channel located at the edge of Awaji Island and Shikoku is a scenic beauty known for whirlpools.In this study, we considered the historical change of landscape recognition of Naruto Strait based on the analysis of paintings.We analyzed 56 paintings drawn at the present since the Edo period.As a result of analyzing the composition of paintings and the viewpoint on which paintings were drawn, the paintings were divided into four periods.And, as a result of extracting landscape elements and actual landmarks around the Naruto Strait from paintings, we considered the following the landscape recognition.In the first period, the panoramic landscape that depicts a lot of landscape elements in a wide area was mainstream.In the 2nd period, the image of the picturesque landscape of whirlpools was established.The 3rd period was the times of exploring new natural landscape images with the theme at the center of the frame.In the 4th period, there were many landscapes that focused on the dynamic whirlpools from the ship.
This study focuses on the spatial features of Changchun Garden in China from the perspective of horizontal tablets. From the perspective of attraction functions, the spatial features of Changchun Garden have been analyzed and considered comprehensively by combining the grouping of horizontal tablets. The attractions with a residential function reflected the atmosphere and the artistic conception of the emperor’s residence through the horizontal tablets, which also expressed the emperor’s self-restraint. In the attractions with a sightseeing function, the horizontal tablets described Chinese and western style garden landscapes and highlighted the unique sightseeing experience. The horizontal tablets in the attractions with a religious function underlined the ideological connotation of religion to the natural landscape. In the attractions with a political function, the horizontal tablets corresponded to the layout of the space, and expressed the emperor’s political ideals and pursuits. This study will suggest that understanding the relationship between attraction functions and horizontal tablet meanings helps to elucidate the garden's spatial features and offers greater insight into the meaning of Chinese traditional gardens.
This study aims to clarify the feature of Ginkgo trees landscape spread all over old Yamazaki village, Inazawa city, Aichi as cultural landscape through analysis of the process of planting ginkgo trees from relationship with village structure and planting design in outside spaces . Through field surveys and mapping analysis by using aerial photographs and historical documents, the process to plant ginkgo trees can be divided to four stages as result. The places of ginkgo plantation has been shifted from surroundings of houses to the whole of the village, affected by economical reasons. Present ginkgo landscape around this area was generated from 1980’s to 2000’s, when 70% of present ginkgo trees were planted, caused by a reduction in rice acreage. The aim of its plantation turned out to have changed by the time. At the beginning, there was no particular aim in planting, except symbol of premises. However, an information that ginkgo trees could be traded at high value brought about the intentional cultivation of ginkgo trees. Ginkgo plantation have come to be controlled more definitely. The control of the heights of the gingko trees can brings the characteristic landscape in Yamazaki, where people enjoy yellow leaves near tree canopies.
This study takes Xiyuan imperial garden and Suzhou private gardens as study sites, interprets the meaning of the horizontal tablets (hereafter refer to as HT) of gardens buildings and then discuss the differences of the spatial features from the aspect of HT meanings. The following conclusions are drawn: ①In a relatively central and wide space, Xiyuan garden tends to use HT meanings to emphasize the imperial power while stressing the serious atmosphere of garden space. However, in private gardens, the HT meaning is directly connected to the sight relationship and garden elements.②In a relatively enclosed space, Xiyuan garden tends to use HT contents to express the introspection idea of emperors, reflecting the love of the philosophical thought of Han nationality and strict standard of wisdom and ability of the emperors. While HT contents in private part describes the details of the garden scenery, reflecting the garden owner's love for the pure and detached garden life.③HT contents of Nature elements and weather phenomena in Xiyuan garden are used as a symbol of imperial rights, while in the private part they are used to reflect the traditional ideal image of avoiding the civil life among traditional scholars.
The Japanese-style garden in question was created after the Return of Lands and People to the Emperor (1869) by the house of Miyakonojo Shimazu, the former lord of Miyakonojo, in 1880 in the Hayasuzu area of Miyakonojo city, Miyazaki prefecture alongside the residence. The house of Miyakonojo Shimazu eventually sold both the residence and the garden to the city of Miyakonojo who repaired the garden and its surroundings, and since March 2010 the area has been open to public as a public facility. The current study looked into the state of the garden, its users and uses through the Meiji to Showa periods, based chiefly on the “Journal of the House of Miyakonojo Shimazu” and old photographs. The study revealed the personnel involved in creating the garden initially as well as the planting plan. Additionally, it became clear that the garden was frequented by numerous spectators, and also that it was rented out for various events such as “poem competitions,” “ladies’ new year parties” and “martial arts training.” These findings demonstrate the garden’s usage characteristics which, though a private residence of a Baron, due to his willingness to contribute to the local communities as the former lord, it was widely utilized by the local residents from the upper class to the working class.
This paper aimed at clarifying the current circumstances of infants’ out of school activities of nursery schools in urban parks, and analyzing the relationships between urban park usage and users’ attributes, such as infants’ age. The result of spatial analysis using GIS revealed the differences of the range of urban park usage between nursery schools and kindergartens. And through the investigation of the comparison among the presence of urban park facilities and urban park usage, it was clarified that infants under the age of two did not need lavatories in urban parks because many of them were in a diaper, while the infants over the age of three required lavatories during their use of urban parks as nursery schools’ out of school activities. Moreover, though seals were recently put on the certain play equipments in urban parks which showed their target age of children, it was clarified that such announcement excessively regulated infants’ uses of play equipments.
In recent years, urban park renovation projects have been increasing under the situation that many urban parks which are constructed in high economic growth period have become old and have lost touch with recent citizens’ needs for urban parks. At the same time, it is thought that new construction projects will be decreasing because the stock of urban parks in Japan has reached in the level that urban park policy strived to get. In these situations, it is thought that urban park renovation projects will become important work and business for landscape architects. But there is no research about the structure of these projects process. So, in this research we tried to make clear the structure of these projects process by analyzing oral history of landscape architecture officials who engaged with these projects in local governments. At the results, we grasped the different process structure with the one of new construction projects especially in influences of masterplans to officials’ awareness, influences from outside organization which worked as trigger of beginning of the projects, necessity of coordinating among various administration organizations and citizens and importance of construction management skill.
The purpose of this research paper is to identify the nature of the relationship between a trail runner's environmental awareness on the one hand and his or her individual attributes and motivations on the other hand. For this paper, participants at two trail running races held in 2017 (n=675) were surveyed regarding (i) their individual attributes, (ii) environmental awareness and (iii) motivations. Applying cluster analysis, four main clusters of trail runner were identified, indicating two main categories: (1) one group with a personal interest in, or connection to, the area in which the race was held and demonstrating higher awareness of issues relating to conservation and revitalisation of the natural environment and (2) another more race-oriented group characterized by strong competitiveness attributes and with relatively lower environmental awareness. Applying multiple linear regression analysis to the dataset reveals that a trail runner's motivations have a stronger influence on environmental awareness than his or her individual attributes. Further, the data shows a positive correlation between competitiveness as a primary motivating factor and lower levels of environmental awareness in ordinary life.
Japanese gardens need the intensive maintenance in order to preserve their aesthetic landscapes. Today, the maintenance cost has become burden to the garden owners and the effective management plan is needed by clarifying where and how much labor forces of management is thrown. In this research the following two points were conducted to get the insight of the future management plan in Japanese gardens. The focused site was Shirotori garden, which is a Stroke-Style Japanese garden around a big pond in the center, in Nagoya city. First, all management works in the garden were classified into two types; professional management and nonprofessional management. The labor accounts of each type were calculated and it was clarified that professional management accounted for 28% of the total labor accounts. Secondly, the labor accounts and the spatial distribution of two management types in each landscape theme were investigated. As a result, labor accounts of professional management showed high value in the landscape elements which became visual targets from traffic lines of pedestrians. On the other hand, labor accounts of nonprofessional management showed high value in the large central lawn area.
In recent years, park management that contributes to regional creation is expected to overcome a declining population. Under such a background, we clarified the change of consciousness of users of child care support services in urban parks. A questionnaire survey was distributed to the service users to identify (1) factors affecting the rating of the service (satisfaction to each service items), (2)overall rating of the service (overall satisfaction), (3) change of user’s consciousness of repeating the service, and (4) change of user’s consciousness to contribute to parenting child care support and the mutual assistance. After collecting questionnaire responses, covariance structure analysis was conducted to determine the relationship among these 4 items. We found that the change of user’s consciousness of (3) was directly affected by overall rating and the change of user’s consciousness of (4) was directly affected by the factor “Information on children and parenting” affecting the rating of the service. Considering these findings, we proposed appropriate directions for the future development of management policy of child care support service in urban parks.
The citizen science is paid attention as an effective approach to study the number of wildlife. However, it is not easy to collect participants in such survey. The objective of this study is to clarify the characterization of potential participants among climbers who took part in Hiuchisan, Nihon Raicho (Japanese rock ptarmigan) survey tour. We conducted survey against climbers and obtained 393 responds. Depending on intention of participation of the tour, we could divide target group into two groups. Then we analyze to confirm the difference of such groups. The climbers’ characteristics were depending on climbing history, knowledge of target, experience of environmental conservation activities. At the participant recruitment, it was suggested the necessity to consider characterization of climber’s profile.
Aso National Park suffered from recent natural disasters such as the Kumamoto earthquake (April 2016), the northern Kyushu torrential rain (July 2012), and the eruptions of Mt. Aso (September 2015, October 2016).After the disasters, the knowledge of the coexistence with Nature and the local attachment are considered to have helped the children’s motivation and attitude to participate in reconstruction. This study aims to propose the method of disaster prevention educational program on a basis of the local myths and the coexistence with volcanoes and nature in the Aso area on Kumamoto Earthquake 2016 cases. This education program proposes the four learning objectives. a) It aims to turn children’s attention to the values of local community and local lives such as the grassland management. b) It used the National Park and GIHAS, Geo-Park for realization of the local lives. c) It introduced the local myths for phenomena and local disaster prevention. d) It introduced the local historical land use and the coexistence with volcanoes and nature in the Aso. This educational program was demonstrated educational effects in Knowledge and understanding of local historical disaster prevention and local identity.
The purpose of this research is to consider the possibility of “businesses utilizing urban parks”, paying attention to the viewpoint of private enterprise. Specific research contents will clarify the motivation of private enterprise for “businesses utilizing urban parks”, the conditions of urban parks where businesses are established, etc. We will also consider the possibilities in rural areas where the population is declining. The conclusion of this research is as follows: 1) The existence of many private enterprise expecting “businesses utilizing urban parks” was confirmed, 2)The relationships has been clarified for 5types of motivations, 7types of park conditions,and,3types of business types, 3)The difference between urban and rural areas in “business utilizes urban parks” became clear.
The purpose of this paper is to unveil the influence of forestation on revegetation. Investigations of vegetation have been conducted on the forest of Man-made filled slopes along Nagasaki expressway. The investigation places along expressway were divided into evergreen broad-leaved forest and mixture forest. As for the layered structure of ligneous species in the forest along expressway, after ten years, it became forest mainly composed of the third layer. And after 25-30 years, it became forest mainly composed of the second layer. As for the places that planted at the construction of expressway, the cover rate of natural ligneous species was low at higher layer. The result suggested that the planted trees took dominant rate in the revegetation. In comparison with outside forests of the expressway, there was the characteristic that the number of plant species per 1,000m2was fewer than the forest edge type, and was similar to forest interior type. It indicated that the forestation controlled increase in the plant species. Additionally, the result showed that the relative illumination and the cover rate of undergrowth vegetation varied according to the type of forestation. The estimation showed higher correlation with approximately 82%. It was approximately 66% with climbing plants.
The purpose of this research is to clarify firstly the psychological impact of green space conservation activities on staff and citizen, secondly the relationship between the volume of activities and the psychological impact, and thirdly the relationship between evaluations of the activities and the psychological impact. A shortened version of the POMS, which surveys tension, dysphonia, anger, vitality, fatigue,confusion, was used to assess the psychological impact. Furthermore, the activity evaluation was measured by enjoyment, sense of benefit, feeling of effectiveness,cooperation, and the volume of activities was measured by using a lifestyle recorder which measures exercise strength, number of steps. A total of 31 staff and 65 citizens were surveyed, and firstly, although the activities gave the citizens a psychological benefit, it showed a negative impact on the staff.Secondly, there was a correlation between the volume of activities by the staff and their psychological impact, showing tendencies toward increased depression, anger, confusion, fatigue, and decreased vitality. Thirdly, there was a correlation between the evaluations of activities and the psychological impact, with the staff tending to experience reduced tension and stress by thinking that they have made an impact, and the citizens tending to experience increased vitality and decreased fatigue due to enjoyment.
In Japan, the Urban Park Act in 1956 allows for the establishment of allotment gardens within urban parks. Although this system has existed since enactment of the act, the number of urban parks with established allotment gardens is still limited. We hypothesized that the reason allotment gardens have not been implemented in urban parks is because of conflicting perceptions between the park as a public benefit and the gardens as private spaces. We identified the special features and the management systems of six urban parks in Yokohama city and determined how public benefit is provided by the private use of allotment gardens. As a result, the following two points are identified; 1) Allotment gardens can mitigate conflicts in perceptions by using low fences, making full use of terrain, and using semi-public spaces effectively. Allotment gardens surrounded by high fences and gates fail to consider other park users and contribute to existing perception conflicts. 2) In terms of park management, events and activities held by designated park administrators for the surrounding community contributes to the perception of private use allotment gardens being compatible with public benefit.
There exist characteristic stone resources in Nushima Island，Minami-Awaji city. However，little is known about the relationship between lifestyle by local people and stone resources in Nushima Island. Therefore，this paper reviewed the relationship which is disappearing between the lifestyle and the stone resources in Nushima Island. As a result，according to distribution survey of stone resources，it is clear that there are 246 stone resource spots in village and they exist widely spreading across the village of the Island. Besides，it is clarified that the geology of the Island deeply relates to both stone resources distribution and the village landscape. On the other hand，according to interviewing local people and hearing survey，the details information about typical human uses of the stone resources used to be and some specific information such as portable warm pad made of the stones and a fisherman’s tool made of the stones which I have never got by my exploration.
Urban rivers are spaces related to urban planning, and it is necessary to improve urban rivers and its surroundings integrally.In order to make better use of urban rivers, it is desirable for residents to participate in regional planning. Especially, it is said that the waterside plan should be conducted by dwellers living there. The purpose of this research is to clarify the consciousness of dwellers' value to the landscape of the whole river roadside including its surroundings. We conducted a questionnaire survey for people living around the Takase-gawaRiver in Kyoto City. The questionnaires were given to 1,000 houses randomly extracted located 250m from the center of Takase-gawaRiver by using GIS. The questionnaire contains "the use actual situation", "the influence given a dweller by urban river" and "an impression evaluation of the urban river". As a result, it was found that the Takase-gawaRiver and its surroundings are spaces that emphasize life rather than commercial for dwellers. Most of the dwellers evaluated the Takase-gawaRiver and its surroundings positively.However, depending on the age of the dwellers, the purpose of use and the evaluation of the attachment to the Takase-gawa River were different.
In river management, it is important to consider the history and culture of a region, as well as the natural environment of the area. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the history of river usage. In this study, we focused on the common place in riverside space and clarified the history of the social role of riverside space based on land use change.For the survey, we used old pictures and topographic maps. The literature survey ascertained factors of land use change. As a result of the survey,we divided the common place in the target area into three groups: two forests and grassland, according to their land use in the early Meiji Era and altitude. Furthermore, land use change after the Meiji era in the target area differs from these groups. The common place close to the landside was deconstructed, due to the high demand of agricultural development and the influence of infrastructure improvement.Conversely, in the common place near the river way,a forest that was a common place remained until today because of the regulation of agricultural land development and abandoned cultivation.The remaining forest became a nature park, where rare creatures exist and people are in harmony with nature.
There are some kinds of landscape in the world. The landscapes are different for the location, viewpoint, objects and components. In order to consider such kinds of components for landscape evaluation, subjective evaluation is usual. However, subjective evaluation included individual feelings, opinions and biases. Therefore, objective evaluation should be applied as possible. This paper proposed a quantitative evaluation method for landscape by using Visual and Ecological Environmental Quality Model (VQM). In addition,the VQM scoring needs to grasp every kind of components and depth information in a landscape images. Therefore, Semantic Segmentation and depth map were applied to the VQM scoring. Moreover, some kinds of Semantic Segmentation were attempted, and were compared each performance. As a result, the Semantic Segmentation could recognize each component in the image, and depth map by photogrammetry could give the depth information for the landscape image. Moreover, the scoring results of each dataset of the Semantic Segmentation have significant correlation with manual scoring. Consequently, it can be seen that the proposed method can be applied to the design, management, construction and more fields of landscape architecture as a tool of objective evaluation.
In order to clarify the issues on succession of the traditional events, we investigated the places where the traditional events are held, the relation to the traditional events of the local residents, and resident consciousness of the future way in Ibusuki city, Kagoshima prefecture. The results show that most of the festivals of the "Kado" such as Moidon and Uchigami were held at the private lands, and most of the traditional events on village or elementary school district such as Onibitaki and Rokugatsudo were held at the community centers or the common open spaces of the village communities. It is suggested that the local residents lack the sense of belonging to the "Kado", therefore the festivals of Moidon and Uchigami have become difficult to continue. It is necessary for the festivals of the "Kado" to expand the management unit to the village, and to reconsider the places of implementation. On the other hand, Onibitaki and Rokugatsudo were found to be events for all generations to participate. However, it became clear that the younger generation had a tendency to feel the problems against the future implementation of these two kinds of events.
To promote conservation of biodiversity in local area, collaborative management approach is useful. This study focused on the case of forest patrol activity conducted by local forestry workers and residents in Yambaru area of Okinawa Island. The purpose of this study is to survey the development process, analyze the change of awareness of participants, and then view the multiple effect with the point of project scheme. We examined administrative project reports,organized the gradual change in method, harvest and the remarks of participants in the feedback-meeting.It is clarified that the project started in 2011 has been improved with many outcomes, not only strengthen the measure against poaching of endangered species, but it is also helpful to conduct monitoring survey of both native and alien species, and develop nature survey skills of participants. Additionally, it is effective to grow positive sense and action of participants for their familiar natural environment and realize its outstanding value. The project scheme including lecture by experts, data processing direction, public relations and feedback-meeting effected well the gradual change. As a result, the forest patrol activity provides local stakeholders with good opportunities to get involved, and leads them to advance independently community-based natural resource management.
Various natural areas are planning to institute or have already instituted a range of entry fees to enhance the experience of visitors. However, these areas still constitute a minority. Therefore, we conducted a questionnaire survey to analyze visitors’resistance to pay entry fees depending upon the resource type and difference in the fee collection method used. Regarding the type of resource, we found that resistance to pay an entry fee for a natural area was higher on average than an admission charge to access a public exhibition facility or cultural heritage. Desirable fee collection methods varied according to the resource type and aversion to paying fees for using facilities in natural areas and entering mountain areas was relatively high. In natural areas and mountain areas, attitudes toward payment were influenced by how frequently respondents to such areas visited natural areas as well as their intent to visit in the future. Those who visited natural areas frequently and intended to visit again were least resistant to paying fees. Based on the above, we conclude that if users are to be made to bear costs, charging them according to the type of resource would provoke the lowest possible resistance.
In recent days it is much more often to utilise the heritage as an important resource of the tourism. Kumano pilgrimage route Iseji has been recognized as a heritage of pilgrimage space and has been managed as a world heritage site, but the tourism has not been analysed from the value of the heritage. This study aims to clarify the way of realising the value of heritage on the tourism context through the case study of the Kumano pilgrimage route Iseji. As a result of the analysis about the guidebooks of Iseji, many guides recommend treating Iseji as an object to see with the information of "Sacred Places" in a small place, while some guidebooks recommend walking from Ise to Kumano like a pilgrim without the information of the faith. The way of tourism on a cultural site, with the consideration of the original way of use of the heritage, should be designed to compensate some part of the factor (information, space, object and behaviour) which tend not to be written on the guidebooks.
In modern Japan, tuberculosis is a threat and its treatment was only sanatorium therapy to rest in sanatoriums, a medical treatment facility.Sanatoriums were constructed in various places, especially on the Shonan coast, "sanatorium group" was formed with 12 sanatoriums and villas accompanied. Many authors are involved in sanatorium as patients and visitors, and the records by them are important clues for knowing sanatorium and town. And then, we investigated the transformation process of regional image of Chigasaki from the records by writers. As a result, all records were classified in the following 4 periods: before Doppo appeared, period by participants of Doppo,Seito salon period, the period of expansion exchange to the boarding houses. Conclusion, the regional image of Chigasaki was transmitted as a town of tuberculosis by participants of Doppo, and then, it was changed to a place of active living by Raicho Hiratsuka, and further new behavior area of settled patients.
The objectives of this paper were to clarify characteristics of landscape in Dainaka-no-ko lagoon reclaimed land located on the coast of Lake Biwa. Based on the arrangement of roads, canals and fields constructed by the reclamation project, it was predicted and examined that the landscape centered on the axis would be viewed from the surrounding levees. Viewpoints were set at 79 points of intersection of the roads and the drainage canals with the levees. At each point, planar composition of roads, canals, fields and the other elements, situation of surrounding geography, sectional structure relating to the reclaimed land and the adjacent topography, and composition of landscape viewed from the levee were surveyed and analyzed through investigation of both literature materials and maps and field work. As a result, the characteristics that the axis of the road or the drainage canal was at the center, and the fields were lined up on both sides were clarified. Such character of line symmetrical landscape along the axis was weakened by buildings and other elements. Gradient changes that caused the optical illusion effect pointed out in the research of the French garden was also seen in this reclaimed land. It also turned out that there were possibilities of improving the value of such landscape by introducing the landscape design which took advantage of the axes.
To protect the cultural heritage, there is a buffer zone system under the Cultural Heritage Protection Act, together with the urban planning and building act in Korea. This study aims 1) to review the changes and applications of buffer zone systemunder the Cultural Heritage Protection Act ; 2) to analyze the cases of various development activities and regulations performed within the cultural properties and buffer zones in the subjects with ChangdeokgungPalace and Hahoe Village in Andong; and 3) to suggest improvement plans including establishment of urban planning considering the surrounding area of cultural properties, information sharing andparticipation support of the inhabitants and elaboration of review of impact on the preservation of the cultural heritage; and to summarize the needs of buffer zones for cultural properties in the perspective of the preservation and utilization of Korean cultural properties.
We researched the hidden characteristics of the rural settlement landscape of Koisago District, Nakagawa Town. As a result of an investigation of twenty-two traditional residences in 2016, we recognized a sustainable land use and building arrangement based on the local conditions of the topography and the ecosystem. Furthermore, the existence of Ujigami-sama, located in the forest behind the main building, was significant. The back forest ecosystem has provided residents with ecological goods and services. It became clear that the sequence that corresponds to the topography, such as “own forest-residence- field-rice paddy-others’ forest,” is a basic pattern. Unity in diversity occurred there because of land use sequencing with living spaces where life is intertwined and farm production stands in a row at the foot of a mountain. Further, we considered the comfortableness of the settlement landscape, as an aesthetic principle, because the ecological stability of a living space combined with resident's thorough management in the rural village.
Ishinomaki city was damaged by the tsunami at the Great East Japan Earthquake, and the flooded area was the largest among the disaster cities. In Ogatsu, all of the centers of the town became the place that people cannot live, so population significantly decrease. The purpose of this research is to clarify the migration of the inhabitants in Ogatsu. We analyzed the living situation of temporary and permanent of the 618 households who lived in the old center of the Ogatsu area. Through this research, we have revealed the following things; The Ogatsu area could not secure the residence within the district because it was difficult to obtain temporary housing within the same area. Among the 618 households, the Ogatsu district occupied 11.2% in the temporary period and 12.5% in the permanent period. Although the residents of the Ogatsu area moved to the outside during the temporary period, they intend to reside again. But for the households who could not return, large-scale housing complexes in the Kahoku district took on them. We want to clarify the difference in residential trends due to the presence or absence of designation of disaster hazard area.
This study aims to reveal the state of conservation, repairment and landscaping of agricultural landscape, especially about rice terraces in designation areas of important cultural landscapes. We analyzed them from the viewpoint of promoting local governments’ utilization of the national subsidy program for conservation of cultural landscapes. The results were as follows. Although designated as important cultural landscapes, in some areas concrete conservation systems have not been introduced, such as not clarifying actions to be regulated. Furthermore, the national subsidy program for farmlands is effectively utilized for the premeditated repair-construction or maintenance of important components positioned in conservation plans, such as dry masonry. On the other hand, for urgent repair of farmland, this national subsidy program cannot be adopted due to operation restriction, so it’s difficult to implement the slope-construction taking landscape into consideration. In addition, the magnitude of the burden of local farmers and the lack of active action are related to the project implementation. Based on these results the following is effective, it is necessary to improve the system aiming to approve project plans even in the middle of the fiscal year and to reduce the financial burden on local farmers.
At present, Tsushima faces serious underpopulation problems. Accordingly, vast farm lands, forests, and mountains were abandoned, and land cover changed due to changing life-styles. This study aims to clarify the changes of land use in rural area by using aerial photographs in 1955, 1977, 2016 and interviewing local people in Shitaru, Tsushima. Land use was classified into 9 types: dry fields, paddy fields, planted forests, secondary forests, main village areas, other used areas, water areas, bare areas and abandoned areas. The local people used 12.3% of the mountain areas for food in 1955, but they had hardly used the areas expect for logging broad-leaved trees for shiitake mushrooms in 2016. We found the cultivated area consist of dry fields and paddy fields had decreased from 91.3ha to 16.3ha between 1955 and 2016. Most of the local people have used the cultivated area for personal consumption, and it assumed that there were two reasons: the first was that there was others source of income such as reef resources and shiitake mushrooms, and the second was difficulty in shopping. It was expected to change the vegetation due to decreasing utilizing area, and it is necessary to investigate the impact on wildlife habitats.
This study aimed to clarify the current situation about municipal cemeteries in Hokkaido. Questionnaires about current status of vacant cemetery lots, group burial sites, plan of new cemetery sites, and cemetery-use rights were sent by e-mail to 179 municipalities in Hokkaido and 149 responses were obtained. As results, the following status were revealed. (1) Most municipalities in Hokkaido (97%) own municipal cemeteries and they have still enough vacant lots. On the other hand, (2) increasing number of neglected tombs has already become issue in about 30% of the municipalities and 80% of the municipality recognize it as a future problem. Those problems are attributed to the permanent use rights of cemetery lot without expiration date and to inappropriately limited conditions of right holders. (3) Various types of new cemeteries such as a group burial site have been built mainly in large-scale municipalities, whichwiden the gap between regions in terms of cemetery service of administration in the future. Administrative concerns over cemetery problems need to be shift from quantitative problems to qualitative problems. Drastic measures are necessary for the cemetery system in the age of low birthrates and population fluidity.
Mt. Fuji is open to the public only during the summer, and during the two-month period, nearly 300,000 climbers visit. At the time of sunrise, the area around the top of the mountain is extremely crowded with climbers, so that proper administration of the climbers is necessary in order to secure the quality of the climbing and the safety of the climbers. Therefore, in this research, various investigations for clarifying the climbers’ dynamics were carried out for the purpose of accumulating the data for the management of the climbers. First, based on the idea of safe and comfortable crowd density required in urban public space, we set and proposed a standard for safe and comfortable crowd density assumed at climbing. Next, we obtained the GPS data of the climbers of Mt. Fuji, and visualized the time series climbers’ density on the trail using the standard presented. And then, we examined the relationship between the factors of congestion and the number of climbers per day.
Shirakawa-ishi, a type of white granite used in Japanese gardens, was quarried by three villages located at the foot of north Higashiyama Mountain (Kitashirakawa, Ichijoji and Shugakuin) until the early Showa period. After the rapid urbanization from Meiji period, the village landscapes created by Shirakawa-ishi either changed or were lost. This paper aims at grasping the quantity and condition of stonework and stone walls built by Shirakawa-ishi remaining in these three villages, and discussing on their characteristics of local stone use. Through field investigation, we confirmed 62 pieces of stonework and 157 stone walls on the streets of three villages. Stonework including Buddhist images, lanterns and guideposts were almost small in size. Kitashirakawa contained only 18 stone walls, which showed the most urbanization among three villages, but the high density of stonework and high ratio of cut-stone use in stone walls reflected the village’s advanced techniques of stone processing. Ichijoji and Shugakuin contained more stone walls built using natural stone, due to the influences of delayed urbanization and a mountainous location. Ichijoji contained a significantly high number of Buddhist images and lantern sets, which showed us that the local village landscapes were mostly preserved among these three villages.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the activities of multiple subjects based on public facilities in the suburban rural areas, the characteristics and problems of community management, the actual condition of the space in which they are deployed, and the way public spaces are managed. The subject of the research is the Takasu district of the Toride. As research methods, we conducted literature/document surveys, field surveys, and interviews with facility managers and stakeholders. Based on the results,we made the following three recommendations: 1)Give the public space a function that will be able to connect the history of the area and the relationship with the living industry and set it as the base of the area. 2)Act to encourage residents' understanding that private premises and facilities can also be public spaces. 3)Participate roles between local residents and local organizations and the administration.
The purpose of this study is to analyze how surrounding conditions of pavements affect thermal comfort by water retentive pavements during the summertime. Firstly, substantial urban areas were developed as 3D-CAD models by using thermal environment simulation tool. Then, the surface temperature distributions of the actual condition with ordinary asphalt pavements and of the condition in which asphalt pavements were replaced by water retentive pavements were calculated. Finally, relationships between the differences of surface temperature and the surrounding conditions of location were analyzed. The result indicated that the effect of water retentive pavements was small on the north side of buildings and trees compared with others. Not only that, the result revealed that the north part of east-west road had a large effect on thermal comfort while the effect of north-south road varied in place to place.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the implementation status and awareness of regional problem solving projects by Japanese Aquariums. In particular, we conducted a questionnaire survey on 116 Japanese Aquariums (58 valid responses). The questionnaire items are “Summary of facilities (Sales, facility size, number of employees, etc.)” and “ Economic and Social outcomes obtained by business” And Simple tabulation, factor analysis, and cluster analysis were performed on the survey data. The results are as the follows. 1) The Aquariums surveyed is located in various places (from small cities (less than 50,000 people) to large cities (over 500,000 people)). 2) Nearly 40% of the Aquariums surveyed is increasing sales. 3) The Aquariums surveyed which implement Adoption volunteers are 47%. 4) More than 60% of the Aquariums surveyed conduct environmental education in outside facility. 5）The Aquariums surveyed was classified into 9 types from the viewpoint of facility management. Furthermore, we examined how to make the facility management of Aquariums from the viewpoint of regional problem solving.
In Norway, Blue Green Structure (BGS), urban green network with the purpose of storm water management and value added living environment is often implemented as part of river opening project in large scale urban development. This paper aims to examine how planning process contributes to special quality of BGS in two urban development projects in Oslo and Stavanger. Through analyzing the planning processes and storm management systems in relation to the spatial structure, following facts can be identified; 1) Basic structure of BGS reflects expected functions and connectivity of the municipal masterplan. 2) Storm management system with gentle and accessible terrain adds more value to the basic structure of BGS. This consistency is due to the parallel design process of storm water management engineering and outdoor area from early period. 3) Local and regional pedestrian network are integrated and has pleasant water landscape feature of storm water management at important connective points. Since it requires significant coordination of functional requirement and spatial arrangement, Landscape plan for whole planning area to the detailed level has contributed for maintaining the consistency.
Hot spring areas are important tourism spots in Japan. Conserving landscapes and utilizing local resources in hot spring areas are required to revitalize hot spring areas. Important Cultural Landscape was added to categories of cultural property by the amendment of the Act on the Protection of Cultural Properties in 2005. The legal system used to conserve Important Cultural Landscapes is one of the policies that assist in revitalizing hot spring areas. The Kan-nawa and Myou-ban hot spring areas in Beppu City, Oita Prefecture were designated as Important Cultural Landscapes in 2012. The purpose of this study is to identify the actual management condition regarding the legal system for conserving cultural landscapes in these two hot spring areas in Beppu City, Oita Prefecture. The main finding of this research is that landscapes of yukemuri (clouds of white steam) /hot spring areas have been conserved by (a) more stringent standards than those in general landscape areas under the Landscape Act, (b) relaxation of regulations for promoting generation of yukemuri, and (c) management conditions considering morphological characteristics of the notification system and effects on livelihood.
The aim of this research is to summarize the changes in wood distribution structure in Akita prefecture where there are forestry activities, as well as analyze the forestry policy and demand changes in recent years. For that purpose, we analyzed Japanese forestry statistics and reports, and in September 2017, we conducted interviews and field surveys in Akita prefecture. We conclude that the influence of wood producers on wood distribution structure has augmented due to two factors: the new distribution/processing system and the new production system that the Forestry Agency has implemented. We also show how the wood production in Akita prefecture has shifted from lumber to plywood after the supply of Natural Akita Cedar has exhausted. On the one hand, the woody biomass power generation has been further promoted after a new large woody biomass power plant in Akita prefecture started to operate, raising the demand for wood and changing the distribution structure. On the other hand, the higher demand for wood chips used for power generation started competing with the existing application, generating a disproportion between demand for wood and reforestation activities.
In this research, we examined the relationship between the plan intention and the sewage drainage plan, how we adjusted the terrain after claying to the residence building.The aim was to clarify the roles and features of the terrain during the process of construction.In the method of research, after organizing the process of creating, a distribution map of embankments and cuts in the site was prepared.In addition, we measured surveys of all outdoor stairs and grasp how the terrain was done. Then, we grasped the relationship between sewage route and topography.As a result, ①All the residence buildings are planned with soil.②All the residences are constructed by the method of manipulating the terrain, and the north side of the residence is the standard.③It is planned as a method to make the outdoor stairs lower than the line of sight.④The drainage plan is planned between the rock formations and the grounded terrain.While being influenced by rock formations of the base layer in the course of construction, rubbing of grounded terrain ensures viewing quality and drainage piping, grasps its features and roles as a method to create richness of external space with depth and depth We were able to.
This paper aims to clarify the relationship between the situation of the local society and the expected role of the regional history events which were related to Tokugawa Ieyasu, held in Okazaki city, Aichi Prefecture, every 50 years. From the literature survey, we categorized the events as "traditional type", "participatory type", "viewing type", "outgoing type / installation", and examined the influence on the city from the situation grasp of Okazaki City before and after the regional history events. With each passing times, the "participatory type" events involving contents or places in the Tokugawa clan declined. The 300-year festival and the 350-year festival held when the society changed, such as municipal mergers, showed a new administration and a well-established foundation, the Tokugawa clan was taken up as a symbol of integrating humanity, but in the society The 400th anniversary project held at the time when no change was seen has become more like the national policy such as interregional exchanges and wide area cooperation than the town situation. It is difficult to say that the entire city area is related to the Tokugawa clan by merging municipalities, and even if the city area expands, the spread of the event hosting area may be restricted.
In this research, we aimed to analyze the locations of storehouses from the perspective of ownership, and to clarify the location profile of storehouses on Tsushima Island, Nagasaki Prefecture, for villages not previously investigated. The study area was Tsushima, a detached island in Nagasaki Prefecture. The areas surveyed surveyed were five villages, namely Tanohama, Waita, Yokoura, Shimobaru, and Kashine. As a result of the survey, we were able to clarify the location and ownership of storehouses in the surveyed settlement. Various storehouse ownership forms were seen, such storehouses owned near the main building and those located far away. In response to the survey results in this study, it is inferred that storehouses tend to be built on unusable land around the village. It was also inferred that the location of storehouses is affected by land use and land ownership in the village. The results of this project contribute to the development of storehouse research in Japan and abroad, emphasize the value of Tsushima's disappearing storehouses, and also contributes to the preservation and utilization as a cultural property of cultural landscape elements.
“Ukiya no Sato” in the central part of the Kanto Plain, Japan, contains a mix of agricultural lands, such as paddy fields, and semi-natural grasslands, such as wetlands, and harvest mice (Micromys minutus) are found in both habitats. In this study, we investigated the nesting habits of harvest mice and the formation of semi-natural grasslands in this region to examine the conservation status of each. We observed many harvest mouse ball nests in the paddy fields on the plains, which were a long distance from the hilly and mountainous areas. It was inferred that the wetlands helped to maintain the mouse population through geographical and hydrological factors, as well as historical factors related to rural development. It was noteworthy that harvest mice in the study area particularly used the wetland species Carex dispalata as a nesting material and that the timing of leaf growth overlapped with the harvest mouse breeding season, indicating that this species was positively used as a nesting plant. From the viewpoint of conservation of the harvest mouse in the study area, it was considered necessary to shift to various plant communities in the wetland environment by improving the site condition closer to the wet side.
There were few researches in Japan on revegetation techniques for the restoration or reclamation of semi-natural grasslands. Miscanthus sinensis is a major dominant species in the Japanese semi-natural grasslands, which sometimes produces species-rich plant communities. The present study aimed to describe the early stage of growth patterns in M. sinensis and two subordinate species, Aster microcephalusand Potentilla freyniana, taking competitive interaction for light into account. We made a one-year pot experiment observing the growth of the subordinate species surrounded by pots with M. sinensis with and without fertilizer input in a hexagonal design. Results showed that M. sinensis in unfertilized pots failed to establish closed canopy within a single season. M. sinensis in fertilized pots had quarto biomass compared with that in unfertilized M. sinensis. Relative photosynthetic photon flux density at the ground level was 20% after one and a half month onwards after establishment. P. freyniana significantly decreased biomass due to its low statue by the severe shade of M. sinensis compared with those in unfertilized treatment, while A. microcephalus did not decrease the biomass escaping from shade by developing leaves at vertically higher position than that in unfertilized treatment. Possibility for the persistence of subordinate species under the predominance of M. sinensis with or without fertilizer input was further discussed.
In the urban area of Kyoto, woods and scattered trees of Celtis sinensis, Aphananthe aspera and Zelkova serrata with historical and cultural value aregrowing, but they have been decreasing due to urbanization. In this research, GIS analysis was conducted based on the information about detailed distribution survey in 1986 to clarify the habitat that needs to be considered for the conservation.As a result, the following facts were revealed.First, woods were divided and shrunk in the temples, not only for development aimed at the role played by temples such as cemeteries but also for development to enhance the accessibility of touristic implications such as parking lots. Second, scattered trees have been largely lost in residential areas, commercial lands, and public lands, mainly because of urbanization. In the residential areas, in addition, cutting scattered trees seems to have occurred due to the loss of spatial margin that affects the consciousness of landowners. Finally, woods and scattered trees were preserved in large-scale parks and buffer areas such as riverside and the foot of mountainsthat are not developed.In conclusion, it is necessary for the conservationto preserve spaces in declining trend and to create habitable environments in preserved spaces.
Sennan Satoumi Park on a reclaimed shore has attempted to improve coastal forest environment and constructed a new ecological path that connects coastal forest to shore for conservation of Chiromantes haematocheir. However, the effects of environmental improvement after 2008 on occurrence of the crabs along the coastal forest were unclear. Therefore, we compared change of occurrence, and identified effects brought by the environmental improvement. The results indicated that the path and the environmental improvement in the coastal forest had positive effects on number and range of occurrence of crabs. On the other hand, we found that spatially continuous dry sections along the coastal forest were obstructions of movement of crabs.As we confirmed that crabs have relatively high ability to migrate in daily activity, improvement of the dry sections for migration of crabs is recommended in order to mitigate impacts of predators and disasters. Ecological path and the environmental improvement in the coastal forest implemented in the present study site may be effective to enhance movement of crabs in a park on a reclaimed shore.