All of the Imperial Audience Hall of State Compound ,which we can know now, have the corridors. These corridors have the incomprehensible numbers at the length of themselves on the remains. But the master plans that I think were made of the multiple of some numbers, the ratio of East-West length to North-South length made simple integer numbers. The numeral "9" "40" "19 and 26" were the holy numbers. The "9" was related to the anniversary of Tenmu Tennou's death and Taoism. "40" was related to the Yi-King. "19 and 26" were related to the lunar-solar calendar because 19 solar years was equal to 235 lunar months (19 × 12 lunar months +7 bissextiles). The appointed textbook of science and the thought in 8th century show us the meaning of such numbers. I think that these numbers expressed the cosmic composition, but the designer changed the length of the corridor on the stage of the design of each building. I guessed that the plans of the Imperial Audience Hall of State Compound were made by "Onmyo-Ryo" which was the bureau of astrology, calendar and divination, and the plans implied the idea that Tennou manages the space and the time.
A pedestrian's gaze action is related to the feature of a sequence scene. It is thought that there are some garden scene elements which determine the course selection, and that those elements would have shown high fixation frequencies. This research, in order to confirm this assumption, aimed at clarifying pedestrian's visual recognition character over the garden scene elements by using eye-mark recorder in a Japanese garden. The results are as followings: Average gaze time was 0.15sec-0.2sec through the whole scene elements, pedestrian's once gaze time was quite short, and there was no differences in the each scene elements. However, the total gaze time to the flat bridge and the surface of water were in a higher rank among all scene elements, except plant leaves. Former two scene elements belong to the most important category in the element which forms the Japanese gardens. Since these two scene elements were frequently appeared as course selection motives by the questionary survey, it can be said that the "bridge" and the "water surface" are bearing the important role visually in the Japanese gardens. The total gaze time of pedestrian to the artificial scene elements area was higher than those of natural elements area in the scene for experiment. These results lead to the conclusion that different nature scene elements against the natural elements, which were easy to be fixed eyes on, are major factor for course selection.
Matsushiro, castle town build in Edo era (1600-1867), is known by the water courses systems which flow from the pond of garden to garden pond of neighbor in the town. They are called Garden Water Courses. In Matsushiro, there are about 10 plans of this castle town drawn in Edo era. And, on the 4 of them, the watercourses systems are described. This study aims to clear the formation and the characteristics of these watercourses systems and their classification. As a result, on the 4 plans, probably drawn in the 18 century, the water courses are marked in all town area, except one quarter, Tonomachi. And as the town area spread, the number of springs was increased, and the watercourses were extended. In another kind of plan in this era, called Watercourses plan, the watercourses system at Tonomachi is described in detail, included the Garden watercourses. Consequently, the watercourses system became clear throughout Matsushiro. And the classification of watercourses needs to be reconsidered.
The evolution of kashi from the point of view of land use and ownership in Nihonbashi, specifically in reference to Ura-kashi, Nishi-kashi and Yokkaichi-kashi, as seen from a historical perspective is the focus of this study. To fully understand the diversity of each kashi, kashichi maps from 1882 and official kashichi license documents from 1882 and 1889 were the main reference sources used. Kashi can be historically divided into four distinct periods from the pre-Shikukaisei and post-Shikukaisei periods through the aftermath of the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 to the modern post-WWII era.These kashi took an important role in connecting the river to the city. Each had different functions dependent upon the rear of these areas. They have decreased influenced by the adjacent land uses. From the point of view of land ownership, kashichi remained in the public sector until 1973 with the exception of two cases. Kashi was thus considered to be a very important part of the open spaces of the Tokyo urban landscape. Thirty years ago, though, this unique 350-year-old system collapsed and the areal characteristics of the riverside vanished. It is important to recognize that the disappearance of kashi was deeply connected to various laws and ordinances.
There are lots of traditional gardens inherited from Heian Period in Kyoto, and they are open to the public as good cultural heritages today. But quite a lot of gardens do not seem to provide efficient information of their meanings or histories for tourists. The purpose of this study is to clarify by questionnaire survey, desire for methods of information services and knowledge of gardens, possessed by tourists who saw the sights by sightseeing bus. As a result, it is known that there are many tourists who have little understanding of gardens in spite of having an interest in them. Additionally study of actual condition survey of 43 major gardens in Kyoto shows that there exists a big gap between information desired by tourists and that provided actually by the garden manager. We recommend that open garden managers should provide plainer and more satisfactory information services.
The Tamamo-Park, which is located at the core area of Takamatsu city, has been the (former) site of Takamatsu castle. And, in 1955, it was opened to the public, Even up to now, it still retains the historical characteristics, in spite of the current urban renewal of the surrounding area. The aim of this paper is to clarify the change in characteristics of this Tamamo-Park, in conjunction with the change in both people's use and urbanization process in the surrounding area. As a result, it also aims to characterize the modern Tamamo-Park, historically. Therefore, this is the case study, which intends to consider the meaning and possibility of making use of the cultural heritage to the public. During the periods from the latter period of Meiji Era to the just before World War II, the Ruins of Takamatsu Castle had been holding not only the historical symbols but also the modern symbols at the same time in various combinations. However, such historical characteristics were unified as (a) Park", when this site was opened to the public as the Tamamo-Park. Therefore, due to the changes in the surrounding area and also the increase in the number of other parks, the present Tamamo-Park seems to be very weak in characterizing its proper attractiveness.
Yurinso was built as a detached residence of Magosaburo Ohara (1880-1943) in 1928 at Kurashiki City in Okayama Prefecture. Magosaburo is well-known as a founder of Ohara Museum of Art which is the first private museum of the Western modern art in Japan. The Yurinso garden (about 275m²) was constructed during 1928-1931 by a famous Japanese gardener Jihee Ogawa (1860-1933). We have found the large difference between the garden landscape at the time of completion and the current one. It was reconstructed from the garden of old-fashioned style to the modern one in 1931. This transformation could be considered as the one from a style principle garden design to a constructive modern garden design, seen as composition by simple two stones. Contrasting this transformation with the trend of the modern art in the world, we considered this change should be caught as a sprout of the modern garden design.
This paper will investigate and clarify the historical and unusual aspects of the Katsura Villa, established by Prince Toshihito-no-Miya of the Keichou and Genna terms of the Edo period. Imperial Prince Toshihito and Empeor Gomizuno shared power in the landscape during the early years of the Edo period, however much emphasis in history is place upon the Emperor Gomizunou and his Salon. My research has lead to a reexamination of the Kanei period and it's culture as both royals had different agendas and characteristic towards society and the management of their Salons. Imperial Prince Toshihito's Salon members were renga poet Satomura family and other middle class members of Imperial society. Their activities differed from that of the other salons of next term, as the Prince wanted to create a spontaneous class of poetics were the members had to construct their poems in the meeting times only. The primary purpose and emphasis was purely based on the construction of poetry. After the Prince's death, Emperor Gomizuno established power and formed his Salon. His Salon towards a more social network of Kyoto's aristocrats the emphasis towards poetry was deemed less important.
According to the owner of a garden, it will present very different garden culture. Lin Family Garden, in Banchou built from 1888 to 1893, is the representative traditional merchant garden of Taiwan. It is also the most conserved completely garden among the 48 traditional gardens of Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to make clear the social functions of this garden as a merchant garden during the Japanese Colonization. The events held in this garden during the Japanese Colonization were distilled from the newspapers published from 1898 to 1944. And the purpose, organizer, participant, progress, and place of events held in this garden were analyzed. The results revealed that garden parties, meetings, banquets, and poem salons were held in this garden for building the affiliation with the colonization government, for supporting the local events, and for the personal companionship. Moreover, it was open for the public from 1927, it was helpful for enhancing the reputation of Lin Family. Dinchin Hall zone is the center of social life in this garden because it was the most frequently used among seven zones of this garden. It was expected that the findings of this study can realize one part of garden culture of Taiwan.
The purpose of this study was to classify garden space formation and to clarify its characteristics, by focusing on the plane components of Chinese private gardens, and analyzing the types of such components and their ratio of plane surface area. Comprehensive quantitative analysis was carried out for the study, based on the data of 16 gardens selected from relevant reference materials as well as surveyed drawing. The results showed that classification consisted of three groups; group A with connected features, group B with main features and group C with a unique space formation. In addition the ratios of the space components' area of each group were also obtained. Based on the plane components of the garden, the classification of space formation and its characteristics were revealed.
This paper is to study the purification space related waterscape in Chinese gardens. By tracing back the origin and evolution of the purification from the literature, several categories of the purification space related waterscape in Chinese gardens can be classified based on the layout plan and the evolution of construction technique. In general, the purification space related waterscape has been evolved in two styles: the natural style and the artificial style. The techniques of water management and design criteria adopted for both styles are analyzed and compared in this paper. Due to its long and in-depth influence on the east Asian countries, the purification space related waterscape still exists in some of the classical gardens in China, Japan and Korea.
When we read the SAKUTEIKI, we can guess there are tow techniques of the rockwork of the KARESANSUI-style rock garden. One is the technique of having thought relative relationship among these KEISEKIes, the other is the technique of employing the feature of a KEISEKI. In this study, the purpose of the research is to clarity and to arrange about the relation of the features which a KEISEKI has, and the tendency of the stone arrangement from a quantitative viewpoint. Our procedures are there; The field survey was performed on the nine KARESANSUI-style rock gardens which were existing as a investigation ground. Then we elected the 37 sets of rockwork made of 2 or 3 stones rockwork. Furthermore, the photographs of each rock garden were taken from the set-up viewpoint, and the classification experiment which noted three points, form, color pattern, and unevenness, as a feature of a KEISEKI, was conducted with using those photographs. Lastly, we considered the result by comparing the result of a classification experiment with the result of previous researches. Consequently, it became clear that there were much tendencies of the stone arrangement by the combination of the same form and color pattern on the 2 and 3 stones-rockwork.
The paper considers characteristics of gaze at mountains reflected in a painter, Hokkai Takashima, who depicted the Alps and the Rocky Mountains and so on, in his landscape paintings, in the Late Meiji Era, and it evaluates Hokkai Takashima from a viewpoint of a landscape theory. These analyses are done by showing the backgrounds and actual conditions of his gaze at mountains, the characteristics of his landscape paintings, and the meaning of mountain landscape drawn in his book of paintings and his theory of paintings. Hokkai Takashima acquired the knowledge of natural science, investigated typical modern mountain landscape, and observed new mountain landscape from modern landscape view around the same time as The Theory of Japanese Landscape written by Shigetaka Shiga. He aimed at Shinkeizu (a new type of Japanese traditional landscape paintings), but he exceeded Shinkeizu of the Edo Era and produced things similar to European landscape paintings. The footprint of Hokkai Takashima can be esteemed from a viewpoint of a landscape theory about spread and fixing of a modernistic landscape view.
This paper aims to clarify the concept of design on Hoken Doro Promenade and it's spatial meaning. For this purpose, the procedure of this paper is following 3 steps; at first the formation process of Hoken Doro Promenade is given, next the originator of that ( Tokutaro Kitamura ) is identified, and third by means of rearranging his descriptions the concept of design on Hoken Doro Promenade is tried to be defined. The knowledge of Hoken Doro Promenade that has been gotten in this paper is as follows : 1 ) The plan of that was tried to make in 3 times from 1938 to 1943, 2 ) That was a promenade alongside a river, but it differed from the other contemporaneous promenades in 3 points of view; a / located in suburbs, b / specialized for pedestrian, c / tried to construct with a minimum artificial work, 3 ) That aimed to make the riverside free and keep its environments by setting the promenade alongside a river, 4 ) That was planed in scenic zones, so the design of that was considered as the view point fields, 5 ) That was hoped to play the role not only as the introducer of famous scenes but as the inventor no famous ones. So, in short, Hoken Doro Promenade was an institution that is considerd in relation with the circumstance and the pedestrian.
The purpose of this study is to propose planning guidelines for play structures and open space in out-door space of kindergartens, through searching for the characteristics of the kindergarten childrens play action. The target group for this research will be limited to that of age 4 & 5. As a result, the following proposals are made as guidelines for planning: Concerning the open space and the play structures, an area of 5 m beside play structure should be secured as the area of influence for better play action with the play structure and open space. Concerning the open space in kindergarten, the minimum length of 10 m is necessary as an area for the play tools to be used. Concerning the lay of the play structures, for play to be conducted through out the open space, an L- shaped or U-shaped situation in regard to the open space is desirable, etc.
An area of research that has received little recent attention, is the green belt purchases of the mid-1930s. An investigation into how the green belt was implemented at this time, may help understanding of why the separation of town and country remains a feature of UK planning today. The aim of this study is to look at the resistance to the implementation of the green belt and the methods used to overcome this between 1920 and 1938. First, the historical and legislative context of the 1920s and 1930s is detailed. Then, the lead-up to the London County Council's 1935 loans scheme is investigated. Finally, a case study of the purchase of green belt land, made with such a loan is employed, and the following conclusions are drawn. The results show the important role of civil servants and landowners in allowing the green belt purchases to proceed. The significance of the various methods that are used to allow the green belt to be implemented is discussed in relation to past studies and current debates.
The central concern of this paper is to examine the ways in which traditional perspectives on open spaces influenced to form modern discourses on urban parks in the nineteenth centurys London, where urbanization and modernization led to radical changes socially and spatially. How did traditional ways of developing semi-public open spaces, such as London Squares, influence the emergence of new kinds of public spaces ? This was a time when there was a need for more urban open spaces to improve urban living environment. The study examines, firstly, the development of squares in London from the concept of a single traditional garden square in a town block, to the creation of a series of squares in the broader estate developments, such as Bayswater, secondly, the reflection of ways to develop semi-public open spaces in the plans of Regents Park, and finally the pressure to let the Park open to the public. This detailed study of the transformation of squares in London is placed in the broader context of consideration on ways to establish modern discourses on public open spaces in metropolis.
In summer 2002, investigations on the temperature and the heat flux diffusion process of rooftop greening were implemented to examine the effect of vegetation density and irrigation on local thermal conditions. The sample sites with unplanted soil, low-density plantings, high-density plantings, and irrigation plantings and no-irrigation plantings with low-density plantings were set up. The temperatures were measured at the surface of planting area and beneath the soil mat of each plot, and then compared to each other. It was found that, when the soil was wet by rain and irrigation, these daily maximum temperatures were low, and the differences of temperatures with vegetation density were not significant. Besides, when the soil was dry in dry spell under no irrigation, these daily maximum temperatures were high, although these temperatures of higher-density plantings could be lower. A detailed analysis for the heat flux diffusion process revealed that heat flow directs from soil to building in the daytime and from soil to atmosphere in the nighttime. Both the values of daytime heat outflow to building and nighttime one to atmosphere were bigger in low-density plantings and smaller in high-density plantings. It is considered to be due to differences in evapotranspiration value in daytime and radiative cooling in nighttime.
The effect of the wall greenery to reduce the heat flux and the accumulated volume of heat flow toward indoor from the wall for 24 hours in summer was analyzed for 3 different types of buildings where heat flux and other data were measured in the past. The reduction of the heat flux by the wall greenery at the time when the heat flux through the wall without vegetation was maximum were from 84. 51 to 13. 56 W (watt) / m² and from 96. 0 to 61. 6 % in ratio. The reduction of the accumulated volume of heat flow for 24 hours were from 1186. 79 to 265. 52 KJ/m2 and from 86. 4 to 59. 3 % in ratio.
The heat shield effect weighing device which uses a 100mm concrete board is made, and the insulation efficiencies by greening in summer and winter season on the rooftop are compared with the 40mm styrene foam board. It has been understood that a single greening insulated specification which obtains the insulation efficiency more than the equal to the outside insulation of the styrene foam 40mm thickness, and does not use it together with other insulated materials for greening lowers the average temperature of a building internal side as a result of the analysis of the temperature and heat flax change in summer seasons. However, it was judged that single greening insulation was unsuitable for a remarkably an effect inferior, and expert year use in winter. Moreover, when the amount of moisture decreased, the plant confirmed working effectively to the insulated performance improvement.
This report examines trends in the varieties and numbers of shrubs and trees planted each year in parks in Tokyo Metropolis, and covers 100 parks opened up to 1977, 103 parks opened in 1990, 160 parks opened in 1995 and 1996, and 83 parks opened in 2000 and 2001. This study found that, up to 1977, fast-growing trees were selected as a pollution-reduction measure; in 1990 there was a rapid increase in flowering trees -- such as cucumber trees and dogwood -- and plants that provide soil cover, in 1995 and 1996 there was a shift to a wider variety of seasonal nursery trees and plants, flowers and fruits. Such trends continued in 2000 and 2001, but the number of varieties was greatly reduced to cut costs, reflecting the worsening economic situation.
A structural analysis of "YUKIZURI" was conducted using a model equation in order to show the dynamic effect of tree damage caused by heavy snow cover. 1 ) a questionnaire survey was done on the visually balanced angles of straw ropes. 2 ) the crossbar was used to simulate the lowest branch of a tree for the experiment to verify the theoretical value (the axial force) of the crossbar, the straw rope for lifting and the pole based on the model equation. 3 ) experiments were done to examine the greatest tensile strength of the straw rope. Results showed that the optimum angle for the lifting straw rope was around 40 degrees which reduced the snow load on trees by a maximum of 40%. The number of lifting straw ropes for "YUKIZURI" was determined by the tacit knowledge and past experience of landscape gardeners. However this study demonstrated that the appropriate number of lifting straw ropes can be calculated by the model formula used here.
Street lighting delays autumnal leaf coloring and the leaf fall of some kind of deciduous trees. This phenomenon was reported in 1990 for the first time. However there is little information about the lighting conditions, which causes this phenomenon. The aim of this research was to clarify the degree of the light, which causes abnormal leaf coloring and the leaf fall, and to acquire fundamental knowledge for better lighting design to make roadside trees' growth condition and streetscape well. The investigation was performed on roadside trees, Liquidambar styraciflua, from November 16 in 2002 to January 11 in 2003. It was found that lighting of more than 20lux influences autumnal leaf coloring and the leaf fall, and especially lighting of more than 200lux influences more greatly. Based on the results, recommendations for lighting in urban streetscape are discussed.
In order that reclamation forests which utilized the trees and forest topsoil lost by development of a woodland might verify whether it recovers to the forest ecosystem which was similar with the natural forest, the soil fauna were taken up as an evaluation index of forest. The two survey sites, which are the topsoil transplant sites and the trees transplant sites, are adopted for the monitoring. Although the change of the soil fauna in these survey sites that has decreased within 1 and / or 2years, it become the composition of the soil animal group which has recovered gradually. It was also similar with the natural forest after 4 years from the transplant. Moreover, the soil fauna was also shown for increasing in the man-made land soil for planting of the trees transplant sites of the herb dominance. It turns out that the soil fauna is closely connected with the changes of vegetation cover of above-ground part. These changes are the change of cover degree of the upper story by the survival conditions of the transplanted trees, and increase in the floor vegetation by growth of pioneer tree species and herb's invasion.
The purpose of this study is to examine the intensity of pruning on the leaf-area, the number of leaves and root-growth of Quercus myrsinaefolia Blume. We compared the root-growth, leaf-area and the number of leaves among three sections; severity pruning, slightly pruning, no pruning;. As a result, the slightly and severity pruning was considered to enlarge leaf-area. These were considered recovery reaction against the pruning. About the number of leaves, the slightly pruning was considered not to affect the total number of leaves, but to decrease the spring leaves, and contrarily the severity was considered to decrease the spring and summer leaves. These considered to affect top-growth in the severity pruning trees, in spite of the large leaves developed. About root-growth, the slightly pruning was considered not to affect the dry weight of roots, but many roots centered around the trunk, and contrarily the severity was considered to control the root-growth. The reason was that the balance was held between top-growth and root-growth.
The potential of foamed waste glass material as molding for roof planting was assessed using Zoysia matrella, which is often planted for roof planting, as the specimen. The foamed waste glass material, which is composed of 20% lime (CaO) , was initially considered to impede the growth of plants due to its soil compaction effect and alkaline property. However, the soil hardness of a degree that can act as a barrier to growth was not observed, and the pH (H2O) of the soil was confirmed to decrease with the eluviation of the soil due to time passage. This experiment revealed that the growth form of Zoysia matrella was compact (i. e., the plant length was small), when the glass material was used as lightweight molding. This is a rather favorable condition for maintenance.
Brown Hawk Owl (Ninox scutulata) is a migratory insectivorous bird which breeds in tree cavities, and a target species for old woods in urban areas of Japan. Population of the owl is decreasing recently because of diminishing of old woods in Japan and also in tropical rain forests: their habitats during non-breeding season. A habitat model using statistical methods is a good tool to answer the question how much forest is required for conservation of a target species. We made a habitat model for the owl using a logistic regression model. We searched for owls by examining almost every large tree with cavities in a 25 urban area in Kyoto City during the breeding season (May to July) of 2002. Fourteen trees determined to be habitats of owls and 15 trees with cavities but without nests were found. Applying logistic regression analysis with the stepwise method and AIC, the area of tree cover and the area of urbanized area within a radius of 100 m were determined to be variables for the habitat model of the owl. From the result, at least 1.1 ha of woods including an old tree with a cavity is necessary for conservation of the owl habitat.
Traditional rural landscapes, Satochi and Satoyama in Japan are important factors for conservation of biological diversity. We conducted line transect counts of birds and vegetation research on the Keihanna Hills from May 2001 to April 2002, to describe relative abundance of bird species and bird-habitat relationship in Satoyama and Satochi, and to offer materials for comparisons to similar studies. Through the counts we recorded a total of 10069 birds of 74 species. Dominant five species amounted approximately 60% of the total number of birds counted. The vegetation type with which the number of a bird species correlated changed depending on which species was being focused. The species richness did not correlate to the percentage of woodland area in the study sites. Species richness of breeding birds correlated with no vegetation type. Species richness of wintering birds correlated with percentage of grassland area, and numbers of landscape units in the study sites; this result suggested that human activities that created landscape mosaics were important for bird diversity.
A field census was conducted in 384 study meshes each with the size of approximately 500 by 500 meters. Number of great tits (Parus major) was recorded in each mesh. The results of the census showed that the great tits tended to use forested area in the breeding season and moved to river and urban areas in the non-breeding season. Using the same data, multiple regression models were constructed to predict the relative abundance of great tits from several environmental factors relating to land use and forested area read from 15m-grid satellite imagery taken by EOS Terra / ASTER sensor. One of the models explained more than sixty percent of the variation in great tit numbers. Utilization of the evaluation method such as this model in wide area land use and urban planning was discussed.
The present study was performed to examine the pteridophyte species richness of Japanese gardens in the city matrix as urban wildlife habitats. We investigated the relationships between the number of species in 24 Japanese gardens with ponds or streams and various landscape factors in the Kyoto city area. Our results demonstrated a significant positive correlation between species richness and garden size. Comparison of the pteridophyte species-area curve of Japanese gardens with that of fragmented forest patches indicated greater species richness in the former as compared with the latter. This was considered to be because the fragmented forest floor undergoes drying with increases in edge effect with reduction of patch size or increases in the isolation distance, while the ponds and streams in Japanese gardens mitigate the dehydration of forest floor plants by providing a moist environment.
All woody stems ≥ 10 cm diameters were measured in 1991 and 2002 in the whole area (9.08 ha) of Tadasu-No-Mori Forest to clarify interactions among 4 dominant species, Aphananthe aspera, Celtis sinensis, Zelkova serrata and Cinnamonum camphora, where invasion of C. camphora had been concerned. Relative growth rates and mortality rates of these species were calculated and size-dependencies of these rates were examined. Consequently, the most dominant species in Tadasu-No-Mori Forest has changed from A. aspera in 1991 to C. camphora in 2002. The high growth rate and the low mortality rate of C. camphora led to increase of the species. The growth and mortality rate differed among Ulmaceae species. A. aspera showed the low growth rate and the low mortality rate, C. sinensis showed the high growth rate and the high mortality rate. On the other hand Z. serrata showed the low growth rate and the high mortality rate. These results predict that A. aspera and C. sinensis will tend to increase slightly but Z. serrata will tend to decrease in the near future.
The actual conditions of commercial sales and productions of 2 species of wild Rhododendrons growing on the Boso Peninsula were studied through fieldworks and interviews to gardeners. The results showed these 2 species were treated as the same plant in the marketplace, due to difficulties in visual differentiation. Sales of these plants were at their height during 1982-1985 when they were heavily hunted from their native habitat. The production of seedlings was started in the 1970' s with the great demand for them as garden trees.
In this study, we designed simple method to evaluate of soil seed banks for vegetation management in fallow fields. Soil seed bank of eleven fallow paddy fields, which were various in period and management forms, in hilly and mountainous areas was sampled in summer, 2002. The paper provides effective method to predict succession stage of fallow period by referring to seed banks. We designed screening test system applied Washitani (1987) , which is method of gradually increasing temperature. We showed germination rate more than 80% of last germination rate mainly on paddy weed by this method. Therefore, this was confirmed that a convenient method was effective for grasp of seed bank. However, similarity was low between seed banks and vegetation, it needs that more improvement of the evaluation system made reflect succession stage.
Agricultural reservoirs are now regarded as important habitats for some aquatic organisms, though their value as habitats of algae has clarified little. Diatom is often the most dominant component of freshwater algal communities and its contribution to species diversity can not be negligible. We studied periphytic diatom assemblages in 24 agricultural reservoirs in Awajishima Island, Japan to find major factors controlling diatom species composition. As it has often been reported and discussed, influence of eutrophication to species composition was detected. However, surrounding land cover was estimated to be the most important factor: some dystrophic or soil diatoms characterized diatom assemblages in reservoirs surrounded by woodland. Compositional difference caused by substrate was not detected. It is concluded that water quality management considering eutrophication and land use management where conservation priority is put on woodlands surrounding reservoirs are possible means to conserve diatom assemblages in agricultural reservoirs.
We controlled the ecological conditions of the irrigation pond of Sakasamaike in Manno park to regenerate of the aquatic plant community in order to inspect the effect of ecological management which was imitated the traditional methods. As a result, the improvement of the light condition of the water surface and underwater caused to the aquatic plant community expanding. And, being shallower of the water depth by the accumulation of sand mud exerted a similar influence. Similarly, the community extension speed of some aquatic plants appeared also according to the difference of the accumulation thickness of humus under the water quality being maintained in a state of poor nutrition. It was possible to recognize that the ecological character of those aquatic plant species became an indicator for evaluating the effect of community expansion.
The research was conducted to clarify relationships between frogs abundance and environments such as arrangement, grass height, and grass coverage of levees around paddy fields in an alluvial fan. Target species ware Rana porosa porosa adults, yearlings, and Hyla japonica yearlings that were widely distributed in study region. Walking on the levees, frogs abundance and the condition of levees were recorded. When a ditch was adjacent to the levees, the environments of ditch were investigated. R. porosa porosa adults were abundant levees where the earth ditch was adjacent, whereas R. porosa porosa yearlings were abundant levees where plant height was low. On the other hand, H. japonica yearlings were abundant levees where a concrete ditch and the woods are adjacent or plant height was high. In the agricultural landscape, It is important to conserve the habitat for R. porosa porosa whose range of environmental preference is narrower than that of H. japonica. We should be conserved the good ditch environments such as the earth ditch with high grass coverage, and clarified the best management practices of levees for frogs.
The Genji-firefly (Luciola cruciata) is an endemic insect of high conservational interest. We discussed relations between the abundance of the adult L. cruciata and land covers in agricultural landscape in southeastern Tochigi prefecture, Japan. The abundance survey was conducted during the adult period of June at 35 observation points where aquatic and stream edge conditions were mostly homogeneous. Land covers adjoining streams were surveyed by interpretation of aerial photograph and by using GIS. A multiple linear regression analysis and a regression tree analysis were performed for the L. cruciata abundance with surveyed land covers on the bottomland and the valley wall. In the multiple linear regression model obtained, the abundance of the L. cruciata was influenced by the ratio of areas of paddy fields, idle fields and artificial area on the bottomland and woodland on the valley wall. The regression tree obtained suggested that the microhabitat where high rate of areas of paddy fields on the bottomland and woodland on the valley wall, and a low rate of artificial areas on the bottomland had much abundance of the L. cruciata. We concluded that the abundance of the L. cruciata was influenced by land uses around the microhabitat where aquatic and stream edge conditions were mostly homogeneous.
It has been attempted in this paper to explicate the factors surrounding the occurrence of plant species growing in natural forests into artificial forests planted with native tree species constituent mainly of climax-forest on land reclaimed from the sea around Tokyo Bay, Chiba Prefecture. The woodlands investigated had a canopy covering of over 60% and were selected from 20 stands of artificial forests planted 12-35 years previously, and 36 stands of natural forests. The occurring species having few parent plants in or near the stand were separated into two groups: the first group showing a higher abundance rate of occurrence in the all stands consisted of 7 species, and the second showing a lower rate was made up of 11 species. And many species in the first had higher occurrence than those in the second under either light conditions indicated by the canopy coverage. The former also included many species which favored sites at the edge of the woodlands, while the latter preferred areas further in. However, the shore location had very little affect on the plant species occurring in the artificial forests.
In this study, distribution characteristics of coastal plants were examined in relation to zonation. The field investigation was carried out by using the belt transect method at 34 beaches located along the Bay of Osaka. As a result, 10 beaches were classified into the barren type, and 8 were classified into the type with single vegetation in some parts, which showed that coastal plants were in poor condition in more than half of the beach studied. Moreover, the distribution characteristics were influenced by factors related to beach use, including land use, facility location, and accessibility to and usability of areas neighbouring the beaches. This study suggests that combination of land use and usability of areas neighbouring the beaches is the main factor that influences distribution characteristics.
In this study, we researched the habitat of terrestrial crabs, which migrate to the seaside to disperse their eggs in reproduction season, by marking the distribution of burrows and the number of the crab. The eggs hatch at the same time as they are dispersed. The larvae go down to the sea to grow up and after a while, they come back to the same habitat. Therefore, they need the area where the coastal forest, beach and the sea are unified to feel the tidal cycle and migrate safely from the forest to the sea. From this survey, we investigated the relationships between the habitat and environmental characteristics, which are topographic and conditions. As a result, the crabs tend to dig burrows on steep sides which are more than 50% slope in the forest or near the water. Moreover, their habitats are separated each other by the effect of the distance from the water. In conclusion, it would be a good way to protect the habitat that corridors such as rivers or creeks to connect the coastal forests and the sea, and to link each other are built in this area. Moreover, it would be another effective plan to distribute water places like small ponds or springwater in every 50m along the forest.
Many people have recently been appreciating country forests as an amenity area in their daily lives. In order to keep the forest floor vegetation in good condition, it is necessary to set a clear target for a management plan of the forest based on analysis of relationships among the forest floor vegetation, the landforms and other environmental factors. The purpose of this study is to examine how to categorize habitats and how to set a target of a management plan based on the analysis. A case study was conducted to understand the relationships in Michinoku Lakewood National Government Park in Kawasaki Town, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. It was found that the species composition of the vegetation, the accumulated air temperature and the soil moisture were different in different landforms (i.e. valley and ridge / slope) . The relative photon flux density of the valley was not higher than the one of the ridge slope, although the tree density of the ridge / slope was lower than the valley's. Based on these results, we proposed that it was necessary to categorize the habitats into two types, valley and ridge / slope, and to set a target of the management plan based on the characteristics formed by the species composition and environmental factors of the two types.
The study aims to understand chemical characteristics of soil solution and spring water on different vegetation management regimes in secondary woodlands of Tama Hills, central Japan. Soil samples were collected at different vegetation management regimes and EC, pH and ion concentration in dissolved water were measured. In results, management types determined the soil chemical characteristics. Ion concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+, and NO3- was significantly lowest at the surface of moved and fallen-leaf-rid sites and highest at those of abandoned. Soil solutions were collected at different micro-scale landforms in a neglected watershed and a managed one. At crest slopes and head hollow, accumulation of EC, Ca2+, and NO3- was significantly higher in the neglected watershed than in the managed watershed. The similar trend was also found in subsurface soil solutions. At valley bottom, however, NO3- concentration declined remarkably, and then it was few in spring water of both watersheds. On the contrary, Na+ and Ca2+, concentrations were increased. Therefore, there was no management effect on chemical characteristics of spring water. This implied denitrification and mineral elution from geological formation could characterize ion components of spring water at an ordinary water-stage.
Embankments or levees of each paddy lot found in traditional agricultural landscapes have been focused as semi-natural grassland habitats with high species richness. In case of Yatsuda landscapes in hills, although there are several embankments or levee types, secondary forest verges to paddy fields on lowermost hillside-slopes are an important habitat not only for grassland plants but for well-managed forest species. We researched floristic compositions of the verges in the Kitsuregawa Hills, and understood how the differences of upslope forest vegetation and geomorphologic properties affect the species composition. In results, herbaceous vegetation of the verges consisted of several habitat-type plants such as specific species of forests and their margins, wetlands and grasslands. Species composition was drastically different in between valley-head-domain verges and crest-slope-domain ones. We concluded forest verges to paddy fields in hills were strongly influenced by upslope forest vegetation, and furthermore by periodic mowing: these could make species richness high.
To examine the effect of girdling on natural regeneration of summer-green forests, vegetation management by girdling, as well as by cutting evergreen shrubs, was conducted to Quercus serrata in a summer-green forest in Himeji, Hyogo Prefecture. The technique of girdling is suitable to avoid rapid changes of optical conditions on managing the forest, and is easy to conduct by forestry volunteers working for the conservation of "Sato-yama", rural forests. During seven years following the girdling, the relative light intensity began to increase in two years and finally reached approximately 80%. The species, appeared newly after the girdling, were mainly the dominant ones of coppice. Young seedlings appeared after the girdling showed high survival rate. After optical conditions were improved, their height growth was also good. Therefore, it is considered that the girdling, which causes the death of upper layer tree, is effective to promote natural regeneration in summer-green secondary forests.
In order to evaluate the effect of site protection for restoration of uncovered stand floor vegetation due to trampling, we carried out the restoration experiment at three secondary stands of Quercus serrata from June 1998 to October 2002. The restoration experiment was carried out with the cultivating surface soil both in the protection site and in the opened site, at each stand. As results, only in the largest stand with nine hectors width, the coverage and the numbers of species of herb layer were increased more in the protected site than in the opened site. Also, the percentage of the species, which are characteristic in the secondary stands of Quercus serrata, was increased at the protected site only in the largest stand. Thus, the site protection is concluded as effective for applying larger stands than nine hectors width to restore stand floor vegetation due to trampling.
The coppice forests (summer-green secondary forests) in Sanda city, Hyogo Prefecture were managed by cutting lucidophyllous shrubs and bamboo grasses for the purpose of creating the physiognomy of summer-green high forests, increasing the species richness in the forests and proposing a method of the management of the coppice forests by citizen participation. Six quadrates of 100m² were set in the forests, which were identified with Quercetum variabili-serratae. Persons ranging from 8 to 15 investigated the floristic composition and tree census, and managed the vegetation of each quadrate. In this method of forest management, lucidophyllous shrubs and bamboo grasses were cut one species after another species, and the time required for cutting and the number of individuals each species were recorded. The basic rate needed for the above mentioned management work of the coppice forest by citizen participation was 5.1m² per man-hour.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how existing bamboo forests expanded and to estimate their expansion. The bamboo forests were followed from 1968 to 2002. The data obtained were collected by using the GIS system at four points in time: 1968, 1978, 1992, and 2002. They were statistically analyzed to examine changes over time. The results showed that before 1992, bamboo forests with increasing area largely outnumbered those with decreasing area, while after 1992, the number of bamboo forests with decreasing area approached that of bamboo forests with increasing area. Then, the relative expansion rate was calculated using a logistic equation. The relative rate reached its peak in 1978, which it maintained until 1992, when the rate started to slow. When the relative expansion was evaluated in relation to land use, the relative rate of bamboo forests surrounding relatively untouched land was higher, while the rate of expansion of bamboo forests surrounding residential areas became slower. This study offers fundamental knowledge helpful in the proper management of bamboo forests.
In order to suggest desirable openspaces in terms of biodiversity in urban riparian, it was studied that relationship between wintering avifauna and habitat structures and landuse around study sites. 24 study sites were located on 2 urban riparian areas in northwest part of Chiba Prefecture, Japan. As a result, significant negative correlations of the number of water bird species with the slant of water edge were found. Considering avifauna composition, the 24 sites were classified into 2 types by TWINSPAN. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that the area of water, area of the artificial structures can interpret the classifications by TWINSPAN. The results showed that the waterside such as a sharp slant has a negative influence on the number of water bird species and the area of artificial structures affected some birds. This study revealed the importance of the area of waters and the waterside form for water species. In planning the form of rivers regarding the preservation of avifauna, it is important to consider the riparian environment, such as vegetation and the structure of the water's edge. In addition, it is necessary to pay attention to the relationship between riparian areas and these surroundings.
In the urbanized society, the influence of human activity is reflected greatly, the ecosystem which exists there is peculiar to urban area. In the process of urbanization, green spaces and forests have been decreased. Especially, the influence appears in the center of Tokyo because of extreme urbanization. The purpose of this study is to explore landscape changes from the past to the present along with the land use change, and analyze the relation with landscape and geographical features. The research area was 6400ha in area and 34.5km in circumference which corresponds with JR Yamanote line. The transition for more than 100 years from Edo to the present was compared about six periods. We have exploited lands and made uniform city, although the relation of landscape elements and geographical features become stronger and stronger, it is prove that scarcity and value of green spaces and forests in the location are much precious as the years go by. In the relation with the geographical features of the landscape element, residential lot which contain forest, residential lot and meadow are unevenly distributed among plateau, forest, residential lot which contain forest, field and residential lot which contain meadow are unevenly distributed among slopes, residential lot and residential lot which contain meadow are unevenly distributed among flat lands.
In this paper, the basic concepts and subjects of biotope mapping with an eye on the standard method establishment of the Japanese version were arranged by using Kamakura city as a case study. It was shown that the basis-strategies of biotope mapping are the previous determination of extraction units and the systematization of biotopes of an ecologically similar character. Because of the natural characteristic in Japan that a rural landscape had functioned as an important biotope, we extracted fundamentally every rural space as a biotope of ecological worth. As for the systematization we followed the German style higher lower rank classification and obtained five groups based on the present condition of Kamakura city as higher rank classes. Although a simultaneous preparation of a selective biotope mapping and a comprehensive one was made possible by display processing on GIS, the meanings of the extraction unit were different from each other. Following the procedure mentioned above, a biotope mapping (1 / 10,000) of the city level was prepared based on GIS environmental information maps. However, we considered that the standardization of biotope types and the description form for biotope lists, the positioning of some biotope types on the systematization of biotopes needed to be examined again.