The clinical characteristics of head trauma were evaluated in 18 wrestlers belonging to a female professional wrestling organization, 13 regular members and five trainees aged 15-34 years. Medical examinations for head trauma were performed in all wrestlers, and wrestlers treated at our emergency outpatient department were clinically evaluated. In addition, the relationships of head trauma with duration of the wrestling career of 1-16 years (mean 8 years) in the regular members, and less than 1 year in the five trainees, and body mass index (BMI) of 21.0-32.0 in the 16 subjects, excluding two trainees, was evaluated. Chronic symptoms were noted in four of the 18 wrestlers with long wrestling careers (16 years in 1, 13 years in 1, and 5 years in 2). Three wrestlers with symptoms immediately after head trauma showed recurrent retrograde amnesia and had low BMI (21.6, 21.6, and 23.1). Five wrestlers were treated at our emergency outpatient clinic, three required hospitalization and two showed intracranial traumatic changes on computed tomography (acute subdural hematoma in 1 and diffuse brain swelling in 1). Head trauma in female professional wrestlers is associated with longer wrestling career and low BMI. Periodic medical examinations are recommended to monitor for signs of head trauma.
Internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation aneurysms are relatively uncommon and frequently rupture at a younger age compared to other intracranial aneurysms. We have treated a total of 999 patients for intracranial aneurysms, of whom 89 (8.9%) had ICA bifurcation aneurysms, and 42 of the 89 patients were 30 years of age or younger. The present study analyzed the clinical records of 70 patients with ICA bifurcation aneurysms treated from mid 1997 to mid 2003. Multiple aneurysms were present in 15 patients. Digital subtraction angiography films were studied in 55 patients to identify vasospasm and aneurysm projection. The aneurysm projected superiorly in most of these patients (37/55, 67.3%). We preferred to minimize frontal lobe retraction, so widely opened the sylvian fissure to approach the ICA bifurcation and aneurysm neck. Elective temporary clipping was employed before the final dissection and permanent clip application. Vasospasm was present in 24 (43.6%) of 55 patients. Forty-eight (68.6%) of the 70 patients had good outcome, 14 (20%) had poor outcome, and eight (11.4%) died. Patients with ICA bifurcation aneurysms tend to bleed at a much younger age compared to those with other intracranial aneurysms. Wide opening of the sylvian fissure and elective temporary clipping of the ICA reduces the risk of intraoperative rupture and perforator injury. Mortality was mainly due to poor clinical grade and intraoperative premature aneurysm rupture.
Ruptured aneurysms of the distal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) are relatively rare and surgical management provides some unique technical challenges. This retrospective analysis of 20 patients with distal ACA aneurysms evaluated the clinical features and surgical strategies. The characteristic findings were small and common concurrent aneurysms, and frequent intracerebral hematoma (ICH). Aneurysms were divided by location on the genu (n = 13), infracallosal (n = 5), and supracallosal portions (n = 2). All patients except one underwent surgery via an interhemispheric route. Unilateral craniotomy was performed for aneurysms on the genu portions without massive ICH. Bilateral craniotomies were selected for aneurysm located on the infracallosal portion or combined with massive ICH. No intraoperative rupture was observed. Favorable outcomes were achieved in 15 of 20 patients, and only one patient died. The preoperative Hunt and Kosnik grade was closely correlated with the outcome.
The expression of Wilms’ tumor gene WT1 protein was investigated immunohistochemically in 73 glial tumors, including 60 astrocytic tumors, eight oligodendroglial tumors, and five ependymal tumors. WT1 protein was detected in 70 of the 73 glial tumors (95.9%) examined. Almost all glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic ependymomas, and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas expressed high levels of WT1 protein. A significant (p < 0.001) correlation was found between WT1 protein expression and MIB-1 staining index. Histological examination found that WT1 protein was strongly expressed in the anaplastic portions and areas with perivascular proliferation and high cellularity, implying that WT1 gene might be important in glial tumor cell proliferation. WT1 gene is overexpressed in various types of solid tumors and WT1 protein is a target antigen for cancer immunotherapy. This study indicates that many malignant glial tumors are good candidates for cancer immunotherapy targeting WT1 protein and that WT1 protein expression could be used as a proliferation marker in glial tumors.
A 37-year-old man was treated for lung cancer by chemo-radiation therapy. Subsequently, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging identified a ring-enhanced lesion in the left temporal lobe. Gamma knife radiosurgery was performed under a diagnosis of brain metastasis. Nevertheless, MR imaging showed regrowth of the tumor 1 year later, so radiosurgery was repeated on the same lesion. Two years after the first radiosurgery, MR imaging revealed an irregularly enhanced lesion with increasing perifocal edema in the left temporal lobe. Emergency surgery was performed under a diagnosis of impending uncal herniation. The histological diagnosis was cavernous malformation. This case demonstrates that gamma knife radiosurgery can cause radiation-induced cavernous malformation.
A 17-year-old woman presented with an anaplastic oligodendroglioma manifesting as generalized seizure. Neuroimaging studies revealed a right frontal tumor. Histological examinations of biopsy specimens revealed that the tumor was oligodendroglial in nature. Total resection was repeated four times, and malignant change was evident within the tissues. The final diagnosis was anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Despite irradiation, combination chemotherapy, and interstitial hyperthermia, the tumor grew rapidly but was confined to the cavity created by previous removal operations. She suffered bone pain in the last 3 months of her life, when neuroimaging examinations disclosed multiple bone lesions. She died at the age of 29 years. At autopsy, generalized metastases from the tumor were identified at various sites, including the dura mater covering the frontal lobes and thoracic cord, cavernous sinus, tuberculum sellae, spleen, liver, pancreas, lungs, paratracheal lymph nodes, vertebral bodies, ribs, sternum, pelvis, dorsal root ganglia, and iliopsoas muscle. This rare case of cerebral anaplastic oligodendroglioma developed in adolescence, and rapid hematogenous spread of the glioma cells into the systemic organs occurred after a relatively long clinical course.
An 18-year-old male presented with multiple cavernous angiomas of the cauda equina manifesting as acute onset of severe low back pain radiating into the bilateral legs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 20 mm by 15 mm nonenhanced, heterogeneous intensity intradural mass at the L-1 level, which had completely obliterated the spinal canal. After laminectomy at T12-L1 and dural incision, a 20 mm dark-bluish, mulberry-like tumor was seen, displacing the cauda equina circumferentially. After total removal of this tumor, four more small tumors were found adhering to different nerve roots, which were not resected. Histological examination revealed cavernous angioma. Although the postoperative course was uneventful, close observation of the residual tumors is required.
A 61-year-old woman without rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was admitted with atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) and a retroodontoid mass at the craniovertebral junction manifesting as a 1-year history of numbness and mild weakness of the right upper extremity. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed AAD and a mass at the craniovertebral junction. She had no past history of RA or trauma in the head and neck. She underwent surgery to obtain the histological diagnosis of the mass and to improve AAD-induced instability. The lesion was approached through the right transcondylar fossa approach with C-1 laminectomy. Intraoperative pathological examination showed cicatrizing collagen fibers and no obvious tumor cells. After partial removal of the lesion, the AAD was fixed with the posterior approach. The symptoms subsided soon after surgery and the mass decreased on MR images taken 3 months after surgery. If a pseudotumor is suspected based on the preoperative radiological investigation in a non-RA patient with AAD and the symptoms are not progressive, stabilization can be expected to induce spontaneous regression without urgent direct excision of the mass.
Postoperative hemorrhage is one of the most dangerous complications following microvascular decompression (MVD), and usually occurs within the first 24 hours after MVD operation, whereas delayed hemorrhage is extremely rare. The possible mechanisms of acute and delayed postoperative hemorrhage following MVD seem to be different. Three of 685 patients treated by MVD developed delayed hematoma more than 24 hours after surgery, including two cases at the operative site and one at a remote site. The possible causes of such delayed hemorrhage are discussed. Postoperative monitoring is extremely important after the MVD procedure. If any hemorrhage can be identified at the early stage, valuable time can be won for treatment and better outcome.
Posterior C1-2 fixation with individual screw placement in C-1 and C-2 was performed in three patients presenting with progressive myelopathy caused by retro-odontoid pseudotumor associated with chronic atlantoaxial subluxation. Postoperatively, all patients demonstrated neurological recovery with gradually diminishing pseudotumor. Posterior C1-2 fixation with the cancellous screw and rod system is a safe and reliable method, and can be used to treat retro-odontoid pseudotumor associated with chronic atlantoaxial subluxation.