Quick and reliable setting of programmable pressure valves (PPVs) is important in the treatment of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), especially for reducing overdrainage complications and related medical costs. A new quick reference table (QRT) was developed for improved PPV control and outcome. Shunt control can be based on the pressure environment in the sitting condition, given as hydrostatic pressure (HP) = intracranial pressure + PPV setting + intraabdominal pressure (IAP). Using this relationship, and estimating HP and IAP from the patient’s height and body mass index, respectively, a QRT was designed, consisting of a matrix of the patient’s height and weight. The QRT was used to make initial PPV settings in 25 patients with iNPH and the clinical outcomes were evaluated. Postoperative readjustments of the PPV were not necessary in 15 of the 25 patients. At 1 month after operation, the PPV setting was decreased once in 5 patients and increased once in 2 patients. Four of these 7 patients improved after a single readjustment. Three patients required further readjustments. At 3 months after operation, another 3 patients required a single readjustment and all improved after this readjustment. The readjustment rate was 40% and readjustment number was 0.68 times/patient. The mean PPV setting at 1 year after operation was 15.5 ± 3.9 cmH2O. Use of the QRT in non-bedridden iNPH patients results in a low incidence of PPV readjustment.
Pituitary adenomas frequently invade the cavernous sinus. The standard transsphenoidal approach does not provide satisfactory visualization of the cavernous sinus structures. The transcranial approach has no advantages, and increases the operative trauma and complications. The oblique transsphenoethmoidal approach, a modified standard transsphenoidal approach, was used to treat 19 patients with pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus. Complete tumor removal was achieved in 15 patients and subtotal removal in 4 patients. The patients tolerated this modified transsphenoethmoidal approach well and the postoperative results were satisfactory. Although the number of patients was too small to allow any statistical analysis, the results, compared with other series, are encouraging.
This study is a retrospective analysis of 146 patients, 85 males and 61 females aged 21-80 years (mean 52 years), with cervical disk disease who underwent anterior fusion and titanium cage implantation with follow-up periods of no less than 72 months after surgery. All patients underwent the conventional anterior cervical approach. After removing the protruded disk and osteophyte, cylindrical titanium cages were placed. Single, two, and three level fusion was performed in 76 (52%), 64 (44%), and 6 (4%) patients, respectively. Functional assessment used the Neurosurgical Cervical Spine Scale (NCSS). The curvature index and range of motion were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. The clinical outcomes were satisfactory and there were no significant complications. The mean NCSS was 9.7 before and 12.7 at 1 year after the operation, and 12.1 at final examination. No postoperative cage extrusion or pseudoarthrosis occurred, but the cages descended in 10 patients (7%) although alignment was satisfactory. At 5 years after the operation, 140 of the 146 patients (96%) had solid fusion. The long-term results of anterior fusion with titanium cage implantation in patients with cervical disk disease were satisfactory. Titanium cage placement is a highly useful alternative to the conventional treatment method in these patients.
Two patients presented with sudden onset of occlusive thrombosis of the atherosclerotic carotid artery. The patients underwent carotid endarterectomy. Histological examination of the specimens clearly showed the presence of pre-existing atherosclerotic plaque with moderate stenosis and occlusive organized thrombus. Blood flow was maintained through a honeycomb pattern of multiple neovascularization within the organized thrombus. These cases suggest that both the degree of stenosis and the plaque characteristics should be considered when evaluating the risk of stroke in patients with carotid artery stenosis.
A 58-year-old male, with a past history of hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage 12 years before, presented with gradually exaggerating gait disturbance, memory disturbance, and urinary incontinence. On admission, he had gait disturbance represented by petit pas and anteropulsion in addition to significant recent memory disturbance. Cranial computed tomography (CT) revealed a hyperdense mass in the third ventricle with triventricular dilation. Cerebral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR angiography identified the third ventricular lesion as saccular basilar apex aneurysm. No other intracranial abnormal intensity contributing to his clinical symptoms was recognized. Cervical MR angiography showed normal findings. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements revealed diffuse CBF reduction in the cerebral hemisphere. The patient underwent coil embolization which accomplished complete aneurysm occlusion. He showed only slight improvement in his gait disturbance after embolization, and CT following embolization revealed persistent ventriculomegaly. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting was carried out. Intraoperative neuroendoscopy demonstrated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obstruction caused by the embolized aneurysm at the level of the third ventricle, with normal CSF findings. Postoperatively his gait disturbance and intellectual impairment showed remarkable improvement. Basilar apex aneurysm associated with obstructive hydrocephalus has complex underlying pathology and should be treated by a combination of definitive aneurysm obliteration and CSF diversion.
A 55-year-old man presented with a rare case of multiple isolated sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) associated with antithrombin (AT) III deficiency manifesting as sudden onset of headache and gait disturbance. Increased arterial shunting flow had caused intraventricular hemorrhage after incomplete repeated transarterial embolization procedures for dural AVFs. Multiple isolated sinus dural AVFs were located in the anterior superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and transverse sinus, which were completely embolized by direct packing of the isolated sinuses via the SSS. The development of dural AVF is complicated and associated with a number of factors, such as congenital abnormality, head trauma, craniotomy, radiation, hematological abnormality, and sinus thrombosis. Hematological abnormality is a risk factor of sinus thrombosis. In the present case, the multiple isolated sinus dural AVFs might have resulted from the aggravation of multiple dural AVFs and the coagulative tendency due to AT III deficiency. Direct sinus packing should be considered if transvenous catheterization is difficult or fails.
An 8-year-old boy presented with a rare case of optic nerve apoplexy caused by an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) manifesting as severe headache and blurred vision. Computed tomography (CT) showed a hyperdense suprasellar mass. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging indicated a hematoma in the right optic nerve. MR angiography showed normal vessels. Right fronto-temporal craniotomy identified an aggregate of abnormal, nidus-like vessels adhering to the medial surface of the swollen right optic nerve and a drainer-like ectatic red vein. The diagnosis was probable AVM. To avoid optic nerve damage, the malformation was left intact. Two years later, the boy was readmitted with headache. CT showed bleeding, and angiography revealed feeder arteries and nidus in the suprasellar lesion. The diagnosis was optic nerve apoplexy due to AVM. His symptoms improved without intervention within days. He has not experienced any recurrence of the bleeding for 2 years.
A 55-year-old man presented with a rare lipomatous meningioma associated with acute subdural hematoma manifesting as sudden onset of severe headache, but no neurological deficit. No evidence of trauma or underlying predisposition to hemorrhage was seen. Fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery magnetic resonance imaging showed a thin hyperintense area in the right temporal convexity, and an extra-axial mass appearing as mixed hypointensity and hyperintensity. Two weeks later, right temporal craniotomy was performed and the tumor was totally resected with the attached dura. The hematoma was localized at the inferior margin of the mass and connected directly with the tumor. Histological examination of the resected specimen revealed typical meningothelial meningioma admixed with mature adipose tissue. Longstanding intratumoral congestion probably caused hyaline deposition in the tissue, leading to vessel rupture.
A 53-year-old man presented with a rare meningioma associated with Werner syndrome. Screening brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with gadolinium had detected multiple homogeneously enhanced tumors in the right convexity and in the anterior and posterior thirds of the falx cerebri after surgery for osteosarcoma in his right leg at age 52 years. Ten months later, the right convexity tumor was removed because follow-up MR imaging detected tumor growth. The histological diagnosis was transitional meningioma. The postoperative clinical course was good and the patient remains healthy. Review of the literature found meningiomas associated with Werner syndrome occur about two times more frequently in men than in women, and typically in the fourth decade. Most meningiomas associated with Werner syndrome are benign, but are sometimes complicated with extracranial tumors such as sarcoma, thyroid carcinoma, and others. Patients with meningioma associated with Werner syndrome should be carefully followed up to detect the occurrence of other extracranial tumors such as sarcoma by brain MR imaging, echography, or body computed tomography.
A 20-year-old male presented with an extremely rare spontaneous epidural pneumocephalus which was successfully treated by a single neurosurgical intervention. The patient had a habit of nose blowing and a 1-year history of progressive headache and nausea. Cranial computed tomography (CT) revealed a 2 × 7 cm right temporo-occipital epidural pneumocephalus with extensive hyperpneumatization of the mastoid cells. Right temporo-occipital craniotomy with a right superficial temporal artery and vein flap repair resulted in radiographic resolution of the pneumocephalus, and he remained neurologically free of symptoms at 1-year follow-up examination. Early identification and monitoring of symptomatic pneumocephalus followed by decompression and prevention of infection via closure of the bone defect can avoid possible serious consequences. The underlying mechanisms may involve a congenital petrous bone defect and a ball-valve effect due to excessive nose blowing in our case.