Patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are often complicated with acute cardiopulmonary dysfunctions, particularly neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) and takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy (TCM). This study retrospectively investigated the incidence, demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients with SAH complicated with both NPE and TCM (NPE-TCM). The effects of aneurysm location and other clinical variables on the incidence of NPE-TCM were also investigated. Among 234 SAH patients treated during 5-year period, 16 (7%) presented with NPE, and transthoracic ultrasonography revealed that 14 of these 16 patients (88%) also had TCM. All 14 patients with NPE-TCM had poor-grade SAH (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grades IV and V). Ruptured posterior circulation aneurysm was predictive of NPE-TCM, but other clinical variables were not. Eight of the 14 patients with NPE-TCM could undergo treatment for ruptured aneurysm. Long-term outcomes were favorable in 5 of the 8 patients. Grade IV SAH patients had significantly better outcomes than grade V patients. TCM develops frequently in SAH patients presenting with NPE, and transthoracic ultrasonography should be conducted routinely in that population. Patients with ruptured posterior circulation aneurysm may have elevated risk of developing NPE-TCM. Endovascular obliteration of the aneurysm may be preferable to open surgery, but the optimal treatment modality needs to be evaluated further. Considering the limited number of SAH patients complicated with NPE-TCM, a multi-center cooperative study may be required.
Giant intracranial aneurysm is a life-threatening lesion and treatment of the aneurysm could be hazardous and complex. This study describes direct surgical treatment of giant middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms using microvascular reconstruction techniques in 13 patients treated between 2006 and 2009. In all 13 patients, superficial temporal artery (STA)-MCA (M2) anastomosis was performed as a precaution prior to attacking the aneurysm. During surgery, microvascular reconstruction of incorporative arteries was additionally performed if the aneurysm was removed. Direct neck clipping was performed in four patients, trapping and removal of the aneurysm in one, and removal of the aneurysm with vascular reconstruction of the MCA in eight patients. Minor ischemic complications due to perforator ischemia were recognized in 6 patients, and 10 patients achieved functionally favorable outcomes (modified Rankin scale score 0 or 1). In direct surgery for giant MCA aneurysm, precautionary STA-M2 bypass could provide appropriate surgical strategies tailored to individual cases, including direct clipping and removal of the aneurysm with or without vascular reconstruction. Microvascular reconstruction techniques are essential for complete cure of giant MCA aneurysms.
Our previous study using human Daoy medulloblastoma cells showed that the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene was significantly upregulated (2.5-fold) in cells positive to prominin-1 antigen (CD133), a possible marker for cancer initiating cells. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is known to degrade PML protein and has been used for the treatment of patients with acute PML. In the present study, the effect of PML targeting therapy with As2O3 and cytarabine (Ara-C) on Daoy medulloblastoma cell proliferation was investigated. Daoy cells were pretreated with As2O3 for 6 weeks. The As2O3-pretreated Daoy cells were cultured in medium containing Ara-C and cell viability was examined. Next, the As2O3-pretreated Daoy cells were inoculated into the nude mouse brain and the effect of Ara-C on the tumor size was evaluated. A significant increase in chemosensitivity to Ara-C was observed in the As2O3-pretreated Daoy cells in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. PML and CCND1 (cyclin D1) protein expression of Daoy medulloblastoma cells was downregulated by As2O3 treatment. PML has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target to eradicate quiescent leukemia-initiating cells, and PML-expressing CD133-positive cells are similarly a potential therapeutic target of treatment for medulloblastoma.
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using a 3.0 tesla magnetic resonance scanner was used to investigate white matter changes caused by idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) in 10 patients diagnosed by clinical symptoms (gait disturbance, dementia, and/or urinary incontinence) and Evans index >0.3, and compared with findings for 10 age-matched controls (≥60 years). Then, using a computer-automated method, fractional anisotropy (FA) brain maps were generated and finally transformed into the standard space. Voxel-based FA values within two regions of interests (ROIs), the forceps minor and corticospinal tracts, were then separately evaluated. Within each ROI, statistical comparisons of results from the INPH and control groups were performed. In addition, for INPH patients, grading scores for clinical symptoms and FA values were correlated. The forceps minor mean FA value was much smaller for the INPH group (0.504) than for the control group (0.631). The corticospinal tract mean FA value was slightly smaller for the INPH group (0.588) than for the control group (0.632). Additional analyses indicated that lower FA values within the forceps minor tended to be associated with clinical symptoms such as urinary incontinence and gait disturbance. Our findings indicate FA values decreased in the forceps minor of INPH patients. We also found that lower values were associated with severer clinical symptoms, implying that DTI techniques may be developed for more accurate diagnosis.
Our previous study of whiplash injury found that abnormalities in the cervical muscles cause autonomic dystonia. Further research has found that abnormalities in the cervical muscles cause headache, chronic fatigue syndrome, vertigo, and dizziness. We named this group of diseases cervical neuro-muscular syndrome. Patients treated within a 2-year period from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2004 reported good outcomes in 83.8% for headache, 88.4% for vertigo and dizziness, 84.5% for chronic fatigue syndrome, 88.0% for autonomic dystonia, and 83.7% for whiplash-associated disorder. A large number of outpatients present with general malaise, including many general physical complaints without identifiable cause. We propose that treatment of the cervical muscle is effective for general malaise.
A hypertensive 60-year-old man presented with a rare aneurysm arising from the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) communicating artery, manifesting as subarachnoid hemorrhage with intraventricular hemorrhage. Angiography showed a small aneurysm arising from a fine and tortuous artery interconnecting the bilateral vermian branches of distal PICAs. The right PICA was absent and its vermian territory was supplied by the left PICA through this communicating artery. The right anterior inferior cerebellar artery was also connected to the vermian branch of the right PICA. At surgery, a reddish and apparent fusiform aneurysm was noted at the top of the arterial loop under the cerebellar vermis. Microsurgical trapping and removal of the aneurysm was performed without complication. Histological examination demonstrated typical findings of a true aneurysm. Only four previous cases of aneurysm of the communicating artery between the bilateral distal PICAs have been reported. In all five reported cases including ours, the PICA communicating artery contributed to the collateral blood supply of the contralateral vermian territory based on vascular anomalies. Hemodynamic stress and congenital vulnerability may have caused this aneurysm. Trapping is suitable to treat this precarious aneurysm if other collateral vessels supply the contralateral vermian territory.
Scissoring of the cerebral aneurysm clip blades is a rare but potentially devastating complication of clipping surgery and results in aneurysm neck injury inducing rupture and/or cerebral infarction. Scissoring has been reported using titanium straight clips. Here we present two unusual cases of crossing of the blades of titanium bayonet clips by a scissors-like mechanism during surgery. The present cases suggest the following points. Bayonet clips in addition to straight clips may display the scissoring phenomenon during clipping surgery. The slipped clip should be removed immediately because the scissor-like deformed aneurysm clip may slip further and result in parent artery stenosis. Scissoring tends to happen in the presence of partial arteriosclerosis of the aneurysm neck. Before a titanium clip is used to treat an aneurysm with partially arteriosclerotic neck, reducing the amount of aneurysm filling by temporary clipping of the main vessel is useful to avoid slippage phenomena.
A 41-year-old man presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Initial digital subtraction angiography showed occlusion of the right vertebral artery (VA), which recanalized immediately, and dissecting aneurysm on the distal part of the right VA. Basiparallel anatomic scanning (BPAS)-magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed the morphology of the aneurysm clearly. Coil embolization of the entire affected artery was performed using bilateral vertebral angiography road mapping. Although acute occlusion of ruptured VA dissection may have the potential for natural healing, spontaneous recanalization seems to be hazardous because of rebleeding. In cases with acute occlusion of parent artery, BPAS-MR imaging and bilateral simultaneous vertebral angiography may give useful information.
A 59-year-old woman presented with a rare supra-diaphragmatic pituitary adenoma manifesting as a mass lesion. Her baseline data and the response of anterior pituitary hormones to the provocation test were within the normal range. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a homogeneously enhanced tumor located on the diaphragma sellae. The tumor was totally removed by the endonasal trans-tuberculum sellae approach under combined microscopic and endoscopic observation. Her postoperative course was uneventful and the histological diagnosis was pituitary adenoma located in the suprasellar region. The trans-tuberculum sellae approach is a less invasive method to remove pituitary adenoma located in the suprasellar region.
A 55-year-old man present with a case of ganglioneuroma manifesting as sudden onset of severe headache. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a heterogeneously enhanced mass (3 × 3 × 2.5 cm) in the left middle cranial fossa compressing the left cavernous sinus. The tumor was totally removed through a frontozygomatic approach. The histological diagnosis was ganglioneuroma originating from the second division of the trigeminal nerve in the middle cranial fossa. Ganglioneuroma can occur wherever ganglion cells exist, but ganglioneuroma originating from the trigeminal nerve is rare, with only two cases reported.
A 45-year-old man presented with a rare case of glioblastoma associated with intratumoral abscess formation manifesting as headache and vomiting after an appendectomy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a ring-enhanced lesion mimicking malignant glioma. Craniotomy and tumor removal were performed. Abscess formation within the intra-axial tumor was found intraoperatively. Histological examination revealed glioblastoma with abscess, and the etiological agent was anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. The suspected route of microbial migration and colonization in this tumor was bacteremia from appendicitis.
A 49-year-old male presented with a rare case of acute lower extremity paresis caused by spontaneous thrombosis of a spinal conus perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) after a subacute myelopathic course. Magnetic resonance imaging obtained after deterioration showed that the flow voids around the conus medullaris had changed from hypointense to hyperintense lesions. Surgery with thoracic laminoplasty was performed to determine the nature of the lesion because angiography was negative. During surgery, thrombosed abnormal vessels were observed, consistent with thrombosis of a spinal conus perimedullary AVF. Histological specimens of the thrombosed vessels exhibited vascular wall injury such as intimal alteration, wall dissection, and mural thrombus. Hemorrhage and infection were excluded. Vascular wall injury of draining veins and varices were probably one of the causes of thrombosis in the present case. Spinal arteriovenous malformation generally causes progressive venous congestive myelopathy, but the congestive myelopathy may rarely rapidly deteriorate with spontaneous thrombosis, known as Foix and Alajouanine syndrome.
A 76-year-old woman presented with an extremely rare case of symptomatic gas-containing disc herniation manifesting as left posterolateral thigh pain and ankle dorsiflexion motor weakness. The diagnosis was L3-4 vacuum disc associated with epidural pneumorrhachis. The patient underwent partial hemilaminectomy and cyst incision. After incising the cyst, the thecal sac and root were decompressed sufficiently. Vacuum disc is a common phenomenon in the elderly rarely associated with pneumorrhachis and is usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic epidural gas-containing herniated discs with the vacuum phenomenon are very rare. Gas aspiration should be considered, but excision of the gas-containing herniated disc should be performed in patients with neurological deficits, frequent recurrence, or difficult location to approach.
A 34-year-old man presented with a case of subdural empyema and cerebral abscess that developed 12 years after initial neurosurgical intervention for a traffic accident in 1998. Under a diagnosis of acute subdural hematoma and cerebral contusion, several neurosurgical procedures were performed at another hospital, including hematoma removal by craniotomy, external decompression, duraplasty, and cranioplasty. The patient experienced an epileptic seizure, and was referred to our hospital in March 2010. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cerebral abscess extending to the subdural space just under the previous surgical field. Surgical intervention was refused and antimicrobial treatment was initiated, but proved ineffective. Surgical removal of artificial dura and cranium with subdural empyema, and resection of a cerebral abscess were performed on May 12, 2010. No organism was recovered from the surgical samples. Meropenem and vancomycin were selected as perioperative antimicrobial agents. No recurrence of infection has been observed. Postneurosurgical subdural empyema and cerebral abscess are recently emerging problems. Infections of neurosurgical sites containing implanted materials occur in 6% of cases, usually within several months of the surgery. Subdural empyema and cerebral abscess developing 12 years after neurosurgical interventions are extremely rare. The long-term clinical course suggests less pathogenic organisms as a cause of infection, and further investigations to develop appropriate antimicrobial selection and adequate duration of antimicrobial administration for these cases are needed.
Arachnoid cysts are well known to induce chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) after head injury. However, histological observations of the arachnoid cyst and hematoma membrane have only been rarely described. An 8-year-old boy and a 3-year-old boy presented with CSDH associated with arachnoid cyst. Surgical removal of the hematoma and biopsy of the hematoma membrane and cyst wall were performed. Clinical courses were good and without recurrence more than 1.5 years after surgery. Histological examination suggested that the cysts did not contribute to hematoma development. Pediatric hematoma membranes, similar to adult hematoma membranes, are key in the growth of CSDH. Therefore, simple hematoma evacuation is adequate as a first operation for CSDH associated with arachnoid cyst.