A subgroup analysis of spinal vascular lesions registered in the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy 2 (JR-NET2) and JR-NET3 was performed. About 172 analyzable cases of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) were assessed, including the characteristics, treatment strategy, and treatment outcome. SDAVF was more common in middle-aged and older males. The most commonly affected area was the thoracolumbosacral region (83.7%), and most cases had a non-hemorrhagic onset (89.0%). Complete obliteration was achieved in 54.7%. Treatment-related complications occurred in three patients (7.0%). Post-treatment neurological improvement was achieved in 48.3%. The primary endpoint [modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0–2 on postoperative day 30] was achieved in 60.5% of the cases. As a new discovery, the incidence of cervical SDAVF increased from 1.8% in JR-NET2 to 19.7% in JR-NET3. Compared with non-cervical SDAVF, cervical SDAVF was characterized by a higher proportion of hemorrhagic onset (P <0.01), incomplete obliteration of the shunt (P <0.01), and embolization-related complications (P = 0.01). Overall, a mRS of 0–2 on postoperative day 30 was correlated with a pre-treatment mRS of 0–2 (P <0.01) in a univariate analysis. Complete obliteration of the shunt was the only predictor of postoperative neurological improvement (P = 0.001) in a multivariate analysis. Endovascular treatment for SDAVF has been safely administered in Japan. The incidence of cervical SDAVF, which has more aggressive features, appears to be increasing. Early diagnosis and complete obliteration of the shunt are important for improving the treatment outcomes of patients with SDAVF.
This study consisted of 29 patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) who underwent lumbosubarachnoid-lumboepidural (L-L) shunting under local anesthesia in accordance with our surgical indications of L-L shunting. (1) CSF absorption within the lumbar epidural space and shunt clearance were confirmed in all patients after operation. (2) Shunt responders (R) were 25 of 29 cases (86.2%) 3 months after surgery. Among the R, symptom exacerbation was confirmed in three patients (12%) within the follow-up period (mean, 25.1 months). In each of these patients, shunt function were maintained and remained unchanged even with pressure resetting, the cause being an intracranial/extracranial disease other than iNPH. (3) The initial pressure setting for this method was 8 cmH2O, with gradual change to higher pressures, such that the setting for Patient 11 and thereafter became 20 cmH2O. (4) As postsurgical complications, subcutaneous cerebral spinal fluid collection (SCC) was confirmed in five patients (17.2%). In high-pressure resetting and follow-up observation, SCC was not observed in all patients. Epidural catheter displacement was confirmed in three patients (10.3%). No recurrence was noted after the secure fixation of the catheter at the fascia insertion portion and 2 days’ postsurgical bed rest. Hence, L-L shunting is an effective shunt therapy for iNPH.
Our hospital, located on the mainland, serves as a hub center for nine hospitals on the remote islands of Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. There are no stroke specialists on these islands. We can transfer emergency patients from these islands to our hospital at any time, using a teleradiology system and three types of helicopter transport. We examined the efficacy of the drip and ship (DS) method for treating patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) on these islands, in comparison with patients on the mainland. From 2010 to 2017, we reviewed 98 consecutive patients with AIS who received intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA) in our hospital or were transported to our hospital after IV rt-PA. Patients were divided into the Islands group (received IV rt-PA on the islands, DS; 31 cases) and the Mainland group (67 cases). The median transport distance from the islands was 112 km. The rate of patients achieving favorable outcomes was 54.8% in the Islands group and 64.2% in the Mainland group, with no significant differences. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients living on isolated islands did not have increased risks of unfavorable outcomes. Endovascular therapy (EVT), as part of the drip, ship, and retrieve method, was performed in 22.6% of patients in the Islands group and EVT in 38.8% of those in the Mainland group. The DS method seems feasible and safe for patients living on isolated islands with the use of 24-h helicopter transportation and teleradiology.
To describe the far-anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach for the treatment of a central neurocytoma at the roof of the lateral ventricle. In comparison to the view obtained during the usual anterior transcallosal approach, the far-anterior approach allowed for a higher view of the lateral ventricle to be obtained without further injury or retraction of the corpus callous. Two patients with central neurocytoma in the lateral ventricle were treated with the far-anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach. Gross-total resections were achieved in both the patients without any postoperative neurological impairments by only 2–3 cm incisions of the corpus callosum. With the anterior transcallosal approach, which was usually used for the intraventricular tumors, the surgical view was relatively downward into the lateral ventricle and suitable for the resection of the tumors located at the base of the lateral ventricle or even in the third ventricle through the foramen of Monro. However, it was relatively difficult to reach the roof of the lateral ventricle using this approach. In contrast, the surgical corridor of the far-anterior transcallosal approach reaches upward to the roof of the lateral ventricle. The far-anterior transcallosal approach provides an alternative to reach the lesions, especially those located in the upper region of the lateral ventricle near important structures, such as the pyramidal tracts.
Although direct bypass is effective at preventing intracranial hemorrhage in moyamoya disease, the optimal strategy for achieving this purpose has rarely been addressed. The tailored targeting bypass strategy is a novel technical modification of direct bypass focused on hemorrhage prevention. The strategy is based on the promising theory of periventricular anastomosis, which explains the mechanism of hemorrhage in moyamoya disease. The strategy is defined as the use of multi-imaging modalities to predetermine in a tailored manner a target vessel at the point at which the medullary artery directly extends from the periventricular anastomosis of interest. Direct bypass with a wide craniotomy was performed on 13 hemispheres in eight patients according to this strategy. Marked shrinkage of the periventricular anastomosis of interest was observed in all but one hemisphere after surgery, and no new hemorrhages have occurred as of this writing. The present case series illustrates the technical aspects and preliminary results of the tailored targeting bypass strategy, an approach that might expand the potential of direct bypass in preventing hemorrhage.
The C1 lateral mass screw (LMS) is widely used as one of the screws for atlantoaxial fixation. Tight bicortical screwing from the posterior to anterior cortical margin of the atlas is recommended. However, important structures, such as the internal carotid artery, are located around this area so precision is required to avoid injuring them. We describe the usefulness of a new electronic conductivity device (ECD) with a pedicle probe and a multi-axis angiography unit for inserting the C1 LMS. Four consecutive patients who were treated with C1 and C2 posterior fixation using an ECD and a multi-axis angiography unit in the hybrid operating room were included. All patients were treated successfully. Seven of eight bicortical screws could be inserted into the perfectly ideal location. The median (interquartile range) distance from the anterior margin of the atlas to the tip of the screw was 0.81 mm (0.43, 1.21 mm). This study suggested that the ECD and multi-axis angiography unit are useful for inserting the C1 LMS safely and tightly.