This study investigated the incidences of persistent primitive arteries in patients with moyamoya disease, unilateral moyamoya disease, and quasi-moyamoya disease. Cerebral angiograms of 50 patients (39 moyamoya disease patients, 6 unilateral moyamoya disease patients, and 5 quasimoyamoya disease patients) were retrospectively reviewed. There were 35 females and 15 males, aged from 3 to 63 years (mean 27.4 years). Persistent primitive carotid-basilar artery anastomoses were observed in three patients: primitive hypoglossal artery in one moyamoya disease patient, primitive trigeminal artery variant in one unilateral moyamoya disease patient, and an anastomosis between the accessory meningeal artery and the anterosuperior cerebellar artery in one quasi-moyamoya disease patient. The ophthalmic artery originated from the middle meningeal artery in three moyamoya and two quasi-moyamoya disease patients. The incidence of the persistent primitive arteries is significantly higher in patients with moyamoya disease (10.7%) and quasi-moyamoya disease (60%) than in patients with other disease (0.67%) (p < 0.001), so congenital factors may be important in the pathogenesis of moyamoya disease.
Preoperative planning of craniofacial synostosis can be achieved through the use of two or threedimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images and by 3D solid models. The advantage of using 3D models was evaluated by calculating the amount of blood transfused and the operating time for 36 craniosynostosis procedures, 21 planned with 3D models and 15 with CT images performed in the past 7 years. The use of 3D models reduced both blood loss and operating time for fronto-orbital advancement with reshaping, LeFort III advancement, and LeFort IV minus Glabellar advancement; blood loss for fronto-orbital advancement without reshaping; and operating time for total cranial reshaping.
The sternal splitting approach for upper thoracic lesions located anterior to the spinal cord is described. The sternal splitting approach can be effectively applied to lesions from the T-1 to T-3 levels. The aortic arch prevents procedures below this level. The approach is straight toward the T1-3 vertebral bodies and provides good surgical orientation. The sternal splitting approach was applied to five patients with metastatic spinal tumors at the C7-T3 levels and three patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament at the T1-3 levels. No postoperative neurological deterioration occurred. Two patients had postoperative hoarseness. The sternal splitting approach to the upper thoracic spine is recommended for hard lesions, extensive lesions requiring radical resection, and lesions requiring postoperative stabilization with spinal instrumentation.
Seventeen patients with unstable C1-2 injuries were treated between 1990 and 1997. Various methods of instrumentation surgery were performed in 16 patients, excluding a case of atlantoaxial rotatory fixation. Posterior stabilization was carried out in 14 cases using Halifax interlaminar clamp, Sof''wire or Danek cable, or more recently, transarticular screws. Transodontoid anterior screw fixation was performed in four cases of odontoid process fractures, with posterior instrumentation in two cases because of malunion. Rigid internal fixation by instrumentation surgery for the unstable C1-2 injury avoids long-term application of a Halo brace and facilitates early rehabilitation. However, the procedure is technically demanding with the risk of neural and vascular injuries, particularly with posterior screw fixation. Sagittal reconstruction of thin-sliced computed tomography scans at the C1-2 region, neuronavigator, and intraoperative fluoroscopy are essential to allow preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative guidance.
Two rare cases of intracranial dissecting aneurysms of the anterior circulation associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are described. A 56-year-old female presented with a dissecting aneurysm in the proximal segment of the left middle cerebral artery. Proximal occlusion of the affected artery and a superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis were performed, but the outcome was poor. A 61-year-old male presented with a dissecting aneurysm in the proximal segment of the left anterior cerebral artery. Clipping was enhanced by a piece of fascia lata, allowing patency of the affected artery with a satisfactory outcome. Dissecting aneurysm of the carotid system should be considered in a patient with SAH but no evidence of berry aneurysm.
A 64-year-old female presented with right trigeminal neuralgia. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated a tumor attached to the right petrous apex. MR imaging also revealed that the trigeminal nerve was compressed and distorted by the tumor. Tumor removal and microvascular decompression (MVD) were performed via the anterior petrosal approach. The trigeminal nerve was distorted by the tumor and the superior cerebellar artery compressed the medial part of the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve. The surgery resulted in complete relief of the trigeminal neuralgia. Posterior fossa tumors causing ipsilateral trigeminal neuralgia are not rare, and are often removed via the suboccipital retromastoid approach, as MVD for trigeminal neuralgia is usually performed through the retromastoid approach. The advantages of the anterior petrosal approach are shorter access to the lesion and direct exposure without interference from the cranial nerves, and that bleeding from the tumors is easily controlled as the feeding arteries can be managed in the early stage of the surgery. We conclude that the anterior petrosal approach is safe and advantageous for the removal of petrous apex tumor associated with trigeminal neuralgia.
A 46-year-old male presented with a rare primary non-Hodgkin''s lymphoma of the central nervous system of T-cell lineage, localized primarily in the right parietal region. There was no evidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Biopsy of the tumor allowed immunohistochemical confirmation of the diagnosis. Irradiation and chemotherapy were given, and the patient has remained well for 24 months. The clinical manifestations, management, and outcome of T-cell lymphoma are very similar to those of B-cell lymphoma.
Multi-stage reduction cranioplasty was performed on two children with severe macrocephaly secondary to hydrocephalus. One patient underwent a four-stage operation, and the other underwent a two-stage operation. The postoperative course of both patients was uneventful. Reduction cranioplasty improved quality of life for both patients, and good cosmetic results were achieved. Reduction cranioplasty is effective for the treatment of macrocephaly, and multi-stage surgery can reduce the associated risks.
A 73-year-old female presented with a large empty sella with herniation of an elongated third ventricle concomitant with herniation of the surrounding subarachnoid space into the sella, manifesting as visual impairment and amenorrhea without galactorrhea. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography cisternography clearly showed the large empty sella, without evidence of either hydrocephalus or benign intracranial hypertension, which is extremely rare.
A new hypothermia bed system was used to induce mild hypothermia (33-35°C) in six patients with stroke due to subarachnoid hemorrhage, hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage, or embolic internal carotid artery occlusion. The system bed contained all necessary equipment including a respirator, a cooling unit, physiological monitors, and a storage battery. Surface cooling of the patients was performed using water-circulating blankets, and core temperature was maintained based on bladder temperature and a feedback computer program. During hypothermic therapy, patient transfer and radiological examination including computed tomography and positron emission tomography could be easily and safely performed. Differences between the measured bladder temperature and the target temperature were approximately ±0.1°C. The proposed hypothermia system bed may be useful for serial radiological examination of patients with stroke.