Neuroimaging of the extension of meningioma into the optic canal was evaluated for planning the surgical strategy. Intracanalicular extension and localization were retrospectively analyzed in 13 patients with frontal base meningioma near the optic canal, based on the findings of visual field defects, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and surgical observations. MR imaging confirmed intracanalicular localization in one of three patients with tumors extending into the optic canals, and indicated the tumor in the others. The visual field defect did not precisely correspond to the tumor localization. Unroofing of the optic canal was performed in four patients and no adverse effects were observed. The interhemispheric approach was employed for tumors localized medially in the canal, and the pterional approach for tumors localized laterally. MR imaging is useful to evaluate the intracanalicular extension, but aggressive confirmation during surgery is essential. Tailored unroofing of the optic canal and removal of the intracanalicular tumor can be performed with few adverse effects and results in good tumor control.
Sixty-five clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas were studied by immunohistochemistry, and 12 cases were also analyzed by electron microscopy. Thirty-nine cases (60%) were immunohistochemically identified as hormone-producing adenomas. Six adenomas produced multiple hormones. Electron microscopy found seven null cell adenomas and five oncocytomas. The oncocytomas had a significantly higher incidence of hormone expression than the null cell adenomas. These results indicate that clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas produce hormones, even though blood hormone levels are normal or low. Furthermore, the evidence of multihormonal production implies that two or more cell lineages including a protein hormone-producing type and a glycoprotein hormone-producing type may exist in the same nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma.
A 4-year-old boy presented with chopstick penetration into the cerebellum via the temporal squamosa and tentorium cerebelli, which resulted in a cerebellar abscess 1.5 years after the injury. The neuroimaging appearance of the wooden chopstick were unusual, hyperdense on computed tomography, and isointense on T1-weighted and hypointense on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Abscess aspiration and continuous drainage was performed with real-time intraoperative ultrasound guidance. The chopstick fragment was surgically removed and the patient discharged with minor neurological deficits. Wooden foreign body may show changes in properties after a long period of intraparenchymal retention. Extra care is required to remove wooden foreign bodies because of the high risk of infection.
A 37-year-old female died of cerebral vasospasm as a complication of rewarming following hypothermia therapy for severe head injury. She presented with severe consciousness disturbance and anisocoria after falling down a flight of stairs. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a right acute subdural hematoma and temporal contusion. Following surgery, mild hypothermia was started and rewarming was completed by the 11th day. Neurological examination showed no abnormalities, but intracranial pressure (ICP) suddenly increased and she manifested anisocoria on the 13th day. Repeat CT revealed a low density area in the right middle cerebral artery region and cerebral angiography showed diffuse narrowing of the main arterial trunks. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample was collected using an intraventricular ICP monitoring catheter. The CSF level of 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine was elevated during the rewarming period, indicating substantial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oxidation. She died on the 15th day due to uncontrollable ICP. Histological examination at autopsy of the narrowed artery found the waving phenomenon in the internal elastic lamina and invasion of inflammatory cells into the adventitia. These findings constitute the possible evidence that free-radical-mediated oxidative DNA damage may be important in the genesis of severe vasospasm due to rewarming following hypothermia.
A 16-year-old female presented with a rare case of subepicranial varix in the left temporal area manifesting as a soft mass in the left temporal area when she laid down in the left lateral position. Bulging of the mass was observed when intracranial venous pressure was raised by the Valsalva maneuver, the left lateral position, or the prone position. Bone window computed tomography (CT) revealed a tiny hole, 1 mm in diameter, in the outer bone table. Three-dimensional CT (3D-CT) angiography clearly visualized a mass with a diameter of approximately 10 mm connected to the diploic vein. The mass was totally resected by operation. Venous bleeding was observed from the tiny hole. Histological examination revealed a venous lesion mimicking sinus pericranii and containing endothelial cells. No communication with the intracranial venous sinuses was identified, so the diagnosis was subepicranial varix. Radiological examination by direct injection of contrast medium is usually performed to identify subepicranial varix, but 3D-CT angiography is a non-invasive preoperative examination that can visualize this small venous lesion. Adjustment of the CT acquisition conditions may allow 3D-CT angiography to identify sinus pericranii in the future.
A 77-year-old female presented with a giant aneurysm of the azygos anterior cerebral artery (ACA) manifesting as acute onset of akinetic mutism caused by enlargement of the aneurysm resulting from rapid thrombus formation within the aneurysmal sac. Thrombus removal to obtain decompression of the aneurysmal bulk and tension was performed before parent artery occlusion to prevent thromboembolic events. The aneurysmal neck was completely clipped with preservation of the parent artery and all branches. This strategy for direct neck clipping of a giant thrombosed distal ACA aneurysm can reduce the possibility of ischemic sequelae.
A 79-year-old female presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of a rare true posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm and with poor general condition. Endovascular therapy was performed in the chronic stage. Right carotid angiography just before embolization demonstrated unusual multiple aneurysms of the internal carotid artery (ICA)-PCoA complex. Superselective angiography and aneurysmography using microcatheter revealed two separate aneurysms arising from the PCoA and the ICA-PCoA junction. Endosaccular embolization using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) was successfully performed for both aneurysms and complete occlusions were achieved with the PCoA fully patent. Embolization with GDCs is a good alternative to surgical clipping for PCoA aneurysm after careful evaluation of superselective angiography.
A 24-year-old female presented with Terson syndrome secondary to bilateral ventricular hemorrhage as a complication of moyamoya disease. Ophthalmoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging clearly demonstrated vitreous hemorrhage in the left eye globe. Various visual symptoms are associated with moyamoya disease, almost all of which result from ischemic lesions in the visual cortex and optic pathways. In this case, the visual disturbance was caused by Terson syndrome secondary to ventricular hemorrhage. Close ophthalmological and radiological evaluation is mandatory even in patients with moyamoya disease and hemorrhagic manifestation located in the intracerebral, subarachnoid, or intraventricular space.
A 34-year-old female presented with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) manifesting as severe postural headache and meningism. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with gadolinium showed diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement. She developed bilateral chronic subdural hematomas 4 weeks after the onset of the symptoms. MR imaging showed descent of the midline structures of the brain. The bilateral chronic subdural hematomas were surgically drained, with no remarkable pressure. Postoperative MR imaging showed complete resolution of the pachymeningeal enhancement and reelevation of the midline structures of the brain. SIH is an uncommon and probably unrecognized condition because of the usually benign course. However, this case emphasizes that SIH is not entirely benign. SIH should be considered if there is no identifiable risk for intracranial hemorrhage, particularly in young patients. Neurosurgical intervention for the treatment of the underlying cerebrospinal fluid leak may be required if SIH persists.
Two patients presented with hypoglossal neurinoma extending both intra- and extracranially. A 63-year-old male presented with right trigeminal neuralgia and hypoglossal nerve paresis. The intracranial part of the tumor was removed totally via a suboccipital craniectomy. Over-coagulation of the venous collaterals, particularly the emissary veins, resulted in dural venous sinus thrombosis and cerebellar infarction. Unfortunately this patient died. A 48-year-old male presented with pareses of the VII, IX, X, XI, and XII cranial nerves and cerebellar sign. The tumor extended both extra- and intracranially, and was completely removed by opening the hypoglossal canal and the jugular foramen without over-coagulation of the venous collaterals. Preservation of the venous collaterals is very important for the prevention of postoperative venous complications.