To evaluate the changing paradigms of periprocedural antithrombotic management in neuroendovascular therapy in Japan, we analyzed the details of the current periprocedural antithrombotic therapy and compared it with those of the previous generations. We retrospectively analyzed the data from the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy (JR-NET) 3, a nationwide survey in Japan for neuroendovascular therapy between January 2010 and December 2014. A total of 26,233 patients underwent endovascular treatments to usually perform periprocedural antithrombotic therapy were retrospectively analyzed. We compared the results of JR-NET 3 with those of JR-NET 1 (January 2005 and December 2007) and JR-NET 2 (January 2008–December 2009). Post-procedural anticoagulant therapy was less utilized in JR-NET 3 than in JR-NET 2 (53.9% vs. 60.6%, P <0.001). Pre-procedural antiplatelet therapy became more frequent and more intensive with each generation. The frequency of aggressive therapy (dual, and triple or more therapy) was 65.2% in JR-NET 3, which was significantly higher than that of JR-NET 1 and JR-NET 2 (41.5% and 61.2%, respectively, P <0.001). However, periprocedural ischemic complications (2.0% vs. 5.8%, P <0.001) significantly increased, despite aggressive antiplatelet therapy. Neuroendovascular periprocedural antithrombotic therapy is focused more on antiplatelet therapy than on anticoagulant therapy. Currently, antiplatelet therapy is more frequently used with a larger number of multiple agents, however, periprocedural ischemic complications significantly increased.
Considered with a poor outcome of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of intracranial aneurysms (IAs), treatment interventions to prevent rupture of the lesions are mandatory for social health. As treatment option is limited to surgical manipulations, like microsurgical clipping, endovascular coiling or deployment of flow diverter, and these surgical interventions have a potential risk of complications in nature, a proper selection of rupture-prone IAs among ones incidentally found is essential. Today, a rupture risk in each case is estimated by several factors like patient characteristics and morphological ones of each lesion. However, unfortunately, an IA without treatment sometimes unexpectedly ruptures resulting in a devastating outcome or an IA surgically treated is turned out to have a thick wall. To achieve more efficient treatment interventions, the development of a novel diagnostic modality is required. Here, mainly through the accumulation of experimental findings, the crucial contribution of macrophage-mediated chronic inflammatory responses to IA progression have been revealed, making macrophage being a promising target for a diagnosis. If we could non-invasively visualize accumulation of macrophages in lesions, this imaging technique ‘macrophage imaging’ may enable a qualitative evaluation of IAs to stratify rupture-prone ‘dangerous’ lesions among many stable ones. Thereby, a development of macrophage imaging makes an indication of surgical interventions being more accurate and also greatly facilitates a development of a novel medical therapy if used as a surrogate marker.
In this study, we used 45 adult cadaveric cerebral hemispheres to investigate the anatomical classification of the superficial middle cerebral vein (SMCV) based on the number of stems, course, and anastomosis at the distal portion. We classified the SMCVs into five types based on embryological concept. Type A (18 cases, 40.0%) is that the frontosylvian veins (FSVs) merge with the vein of Trolard (VT) and the vein of Labbé (VL) at the distal portion of the sylvian fissure. Type B (5 cases, 11.1%) is that the temporosylvian veins (TSVs) merge with the VT and the VL at the distal portion. Type C (13 cases, 28.9%) is that no vein merge with the VT and the VL at the distal portion. The VT merges with the SMCV from the FSV and the VL merges with the SMCV from the TSV. They course along the sylvian fissure and merge at the proximal portion. In Type D (eight cases: 17.8%), the VT and the VL merge at the distal portion, and the SMCV from the FSV and the SMCV from the TSV join their confluence without merging. Type E (one case, 2.2%) show an undeveloped SMCV. Formation rate of intravenous anastomoses or bridging veins(BVs) at the distal portion between the frontosylvian trunk (FST) and the temporosylvian trunk (TST), between the FST and the temporal lobe, and between the TST and the frontal lobe was very low, because these formation may be difficult to occur during the embryological process in which the SMCV is formed from the telencephalic vein.
It is known that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsation flow sign in the lateral ventricles directly above the foramen of Monro (CPF-M) on axial fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) is a normal physiological finding as an artifact of FLAIR. In this study, whether CPF-M can be used as a neuroradiological finding related to pathological conditions in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) was investigated. CPF-M-related clinical features were retrospectively evaluated in 147 aSAH patients who underwent adequate serial MRI examinations without massive intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of the lateral ventricle within 48 h of ictus. The frequency of the CPF-M in the control group was 32% (57/178), 33% (40/123), and 38% (45/117) for the normal control, chronic cerebral infarction, and deep white matter lesion (WML) groups, respectively. In aSAH patients, the overall prevalence of the CPF-M was 57% (84/147), significantly higher than in the three control groups. Multivariate analysis showed that age <70 years, lower IVH Hijdra score of the fourth ventricle, absence of T1-FLAIR mismatch, deep WMLs, old infarction, diffuse brain swelling, symptomatic delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), shunt-dependent chronic hydrocephalus (SDCH), and favorable outcome were significantly associated with the CPF-M. Although limited to SAH patients without massive IVH of the lateral ventricles, one can conclude that, in acute aSAH, the presence of CPF-M on admission MRI suggests that the circulatory dynamics of the CSF from the basal cistern to the ventricles are approximately normal. Thus, this finding may appear to offer an indicator of a good outcome without DCI and SDCH.
A total of 482 operated idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients were divided into those aged <80 years at the time of surgery (group A: 400 cases; and male-to-female ratio, 259:141) and ≥80 years (group B: 82 cases; male-to-female ratio, 43:39) and comparatively investigated based on the following variables: (1) temporal changes in shunt efficacy rates, and (2) temporal changes in each symptom, including the patient’s fall frequency and preoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score and during follow-up at 3, 6 months, 1–4 years postoperatively. (1) The shunt efficacy rates at 3 months and 4 years postoperatively were 93% and 82%, respectively, in group A and 92.3% and 70.7%, respectively, in group B. This demonstrates a decrease in shunt efficacy at 4 years postoperatively, regardless of the persistence of shunt function or adjustments in setting pressure. This trend was particularly observed in group B. In group A, 41 (9.8%) cases had decreased efficacy rate, compared with 21 (25.6%) cases in group B, which occurred due to complications with an extracranial or intracranial disease. (2) Gait disturbance (G) and urinary incontinence (U) showed signs of improvement in the early postoperative stage, while dementia (D) and mRS score began to gradually improve from 6 months postoperatively. Patient’s fall frequency tended to become higher until 6 months postoperatively than the preoperative rate. In group A, symptom improvement was comparatively maintained until 4 years postoperatively, while in group B, all symptoms and mRS tended to gradually deteriorate beginning at 3 years postoperatively.
An electrical cortical stimulation provides important information for functional brain mapping. However, subjective responses (i.e. sensory, visual, and auditory symptoms) are purely detected by patients’ descriptions, and may be affected by patients’ awareness and intelligence levels. We experienced psychogenic responses in the electrical cortical stimulation of two patients with intractable epilepsy. A sham stimulation was useful for differentiating pseudo-responses from real responses in the electrical cortical stimulation. Inductive questions, long testing durations, and clear cues of stimulation onsets need to be avoided to prevent psychogenic pseudo-responses in the electrical cortical stimulation. Furthermore, a sham stimulation is applicable for detecting pseudo-responses the moment patients show atypical or inexplicable symptoms.