The endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach through the bilateral nostrils was evaluated for the treatment of pituitary adenoma. The surgical approach is through the bilateral nostrils via minimal or wide dissection of the septal mucosa, depending on the degree of tumor extension. After anterior sphenoidotomy, the endoscope is fixed in one nostril and required instrumentation is inserted in either nostril. In addition, neuronavigation and real-time hormone monitoring are used. Tumor removal rate, endocrinological outcomes, and complications were retrospectively assessed in 194 patients with pituitary adenomas who underwent 213 procedures between December 2001 and March 2008. Greater than 95% resection was achieved in 74 of 131 nonfunctioning adenomas, and the removal rate was significantly higher during 2005-2008 compared to 2002-2004 (p < 0.05). Endocrinological remission was achieved in 20 of 26 growth hormone-secreting tumors of Knosp grades 0-2, 16 of 17 microprolactinomas, and 6 of 9 cases of pure Cushing’s disease. Postoperative complications were cerebrospinal fluid leakage in 9 cases, visual worsening in 5, anterior pituitary insufficiency in 5, and permanent diabetes insipidus in 2. The bilateral endonasal approach provides a wide working area without the need for special instrumentation. By modifying mucosal dissection, the endoscopic approach provides flexibility and less invasiveness. The use of neuronavigation or intraoperative hormone monitoring leads to improved surgical results. The present study confirms that this approach is suitable for more extensive sellar tumors.
The early appearance of high grade glioma on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was retrospectively reviewed in the clinical records and MR images of 52 patients with intracerebral glioma treated in Osaka General Medical Center between 1997 and 2006. Three patients had no abnormal findings, and four patients had only hyperintense areas on T2-weighted imaging at initial MR examination. Five of the seven patients presented with generalized seizures. Six of the seven patients developed tumor progression within only 5 months. All patients underwent surgical tumor resection and the histological diagnoses were all high grade gliomas, glioblastomas in five, gliosarcoma in one, and anaplastic astrocytoma in one. Surveillance MR imaging should be performed at short intervals in adult patients presenting with seizures but with no or minimal abnormalities on initial MR imaging to identify progression of high grade glioma at the earliest opportunity.
Intraoperative microneurography (enabling direct measurement of sympathetic outflow) and laser Doppler flowmetry were used to measure skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) and skin blood flow (SBF) as indicators of hypothalamic damage during resection of 12 suprasellar tumors, 6 craniopharyngiomas, 4 meningiomas, 1 pituitary adenoma, and 1 germ cell tumor. SSNA was measured from a tungsten microelectrode inserted into the peroneal nerve, and SBF was measured from the foot innervated by the peroneal nerve. SBF reduction was induced by nociceptive procedures and non-nociceptive procedures before tumor exposure, on exposed tumors, and directly on the hypothalamus. SSNA could be reliably recorded in only 4 patients because of technical difficulties. In these patients, SSNA bursts appeared, followed by SBF reduction. The number of SSNA bursts was 37% to 100% of the number of SBF reduction events. Various surgical procedures involving painful stimuli or mechanical stress on the hypothalamus induced SSNA bursts and SBF reduction. The present findings suggest that SSNA and SBF can be used to detect sympathetic nerve activity, as an indicator of hypothalamic function, during neurosurgical procedures.
A 7-year-old boy suffered blunt multiple injuries to the head, face, chest, and abdomen in a motor vehicle accident. On admission he had impaired consciousness and dyspnea. Radiographic studies revealed facial fracture and pulmonary contusion. Shortly after admission, he fell into shock due to intraabdominal bleeding. Laparotomy revealed spleen rupture. His vital signs remained unstable and bloody drainage from the abdominal cavity continued after surgery. Computed tomography showed traumatic intracerebral hematoma in the right temporal lobe, enlarging and compressing the brainstem. Abdominal reoperation was performed first to control the bleeding and stabilize the hemodynamics, disclosing renal laceration. Then evacuation of the intracerebral hematoma and decompressive craniectomy was performed. Postoperatively, his hemodynamics were stabilized. Clinical course was uneventful and neurological deficits gradually improved. Three months after the trauma, the patient was discharged on foot. This case emphasizes the importance of hemodynamic stability in decisions of neurosurgical indication and timing in patients with multiple trauma including head injury.
A 43-year-old woman presented with a very rare case of hemispheric laminar necrosis as a complication of traumatic carotid-cavernous sinus fistula (CCF). The patient suffered head injury and extensive burns following a car accident. Oral intubation was performed under sedation. When sedation was discontinued 17 days after injury, the patient demonstrated left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed laminar necrosis affecting the right cerebral hemisphere. Angiography revealed a right high-flow direct CCF. Transarterial embolization of the fistula using a detachable balloon achieved complete occlusion of the fistula. However, the left hemiparesis persisted following this intervention. Traumatic CCF may be missed in patients with disturbed consciousness, so clinicians should not overlook possibility of the triad of symptoms of CCF in patients with head injury.
We report a case of ruptured tectal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) that was demonstrated angiographically only after removal of an unruptured occipital AVM. A 57-year-old man presented with sudden onset of diplopia and tinnitus. Computed tomography revealed a small hemorrhage in the right tectum mesencephali with intraventricular hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging and angiography disclosed AVM in the right occipital lobe which was separate from the hemorrhagic lesion. Angiography demonstrated that the right occipital AVM was fed by the parieto-occipital artery and drained into the superior sagittal sinus and vein of Galen. However, no abnormal vascular lesion was detected near the tectum mesencephali. As venous hypertension was considered the reason for hemorrhage, the occipital AVM was completely resected. Postoperative angiography demonstrated disappearance of the occipital AVM, but it also disclosed a small tectal AVM fed by branches from the superior cerebellar artery, which had not been detected on preoperative angiography. This was considered the true cause of hemorrhage, and gamma knife surgery was accordingly performed. Even if an AVM is demonstrated, if the lesion does not correspond to the hemorrhage we recommend serial angiographical evaluation so that a small AVM is not missed.
A 61-year-old man presented with an extremely rare neoplastic cerebral aneurysm caused by brain metastasis from pleomorphic lung carcinoma manifesting as intracerebral hematoma and sudden onset of semicoma. Computed tomography demonstrated huge intracerebral hemorrhage in the left cerebral hemisphere, which had collapsed into the lateral ventricle. Cerebral angiography disclosed a fusiform aneurysm in the periphery of the left middle cerebral artery (approximately 2 mm diameter). Resection of the aneurysm and removal of the hematoma were performed. Histological examination revealed that the aneurysm walls were invaded by pleomorphic carcinoma. The present case indicates that neoplastic cerebral aneurysm may be the cause of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with pleomorphic lung carcinoma.
A 29-year-old man presented with a primary sellar turcica osteochondroma manifesting as intratumoral hemorrhage mimicking pituitary apoplexy. The patient suffered sudden onset of headache concomitant with vision loss in the left eye. Radiography and computed tomography detected destruction and calcification of the sellar turcica. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneously enhanced suprasellar mass that had elevated and compressed the optic chiasm. The preoperative diagnosis was hemorrhagic pituitary adenoma, craniopharyngioma, meningioma, or chordoma based on the signal heterogeneity of the lesion. To relieve the symptoms and make a definitive diagnosis, surgical removal via a basal interhemispheric approach was carried out. The tumor was not totally removed because of tight adhesion to the pituitary stalk, but postoperative ophthalmological examination revealed improvement of the visual disturbance. The histological diagnosis was osteochondroma based on the presence of mature chondrocytes and osteomatous tissue. Osteochondroma should be included in the differential diagnosis of tumors with acute hemorrhage in the sella turcica.
The anteromedial superior cerebellar tumor can be accessed by various routes. For tumor presenting at the cerebellar surface in this region, the optimal approach remains contentious. Furthermore, which of the various routes offers the optimal approach to a tumor that is not present at the cerebellar surface but lies deep anteromedial superior cerebellum is a matter of debate. We report herein the case of a 44-year-old woman with hemangioblastoma deep within the subcortex of the anteromedial superior cerebellum. Preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and three-dimensional anisotropy contrast MR axonography using diffusion-weighted MR imaging demonstrated that the posterior subtemporal transtentorial (PSTT) approach would provide a shorter surgical corridor, minimal cerebellar split, and better preservation of nerve fibers, compared to the other approaches. Surgical tumor removal was successfully achieved using the PSTT approach. During surgery, the PSTT approach provided an operative field that enabled visualization of the proximal side of the superior cerebellar artery as the tumor feeding vessel. Although the vein of Labbé inserted just into the transverse-sigmoid junction, injury to this vein was avoided using optimal head position, cerebrospinal fluid drainage, and various devices. For patients with tumor located within the subcortex of the anteromedial superior cerebellum, the PSTT approach is recommended as an optimal surgical route. Scrupulous evaluation using preoperative neuroimaging is crucial when deciding on the surgical approach.
A 17-year-old female with Chiari 2 malformation developed cerebral infarction with angiographically typical bilateral moyamoya vessels manifesting as sudden onset of moderate left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple infarcts in the right frontal lobe, agenesis of the corpus callosum, upward herniation of the dorsal cerebellum, tectal beak of the midbrain, and downward herniation of the cerebellar vermis. Cerebral angiography demonstrated occlusion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries and basal moyamoya vessels. Single photon emission computed tomography showed significantly reduced regional cerebral blood flow in the right frontoparietal cortex. The cerebral vascular reactivity to acetazolamide was diminished in both cerebral hemispheres. She underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis combined with encephalo-myo-synangiosis on the right, and on the left 6 months later. Cerebral angiography performed 4 months after the second operation showed good patency of the bypasses and substantial collateral vessels in both cerebral hemispheres. This association may have happened by chance, and a common etiology is uncertain, but a currently undetermined genomic component might have contributed to the disease progression.