Things present are judged by things past. Any person that would know what shall be must consider what has been. The quality assurance activities on our computer software products must learn many things from that of experienced hardware production. Especially any lack of understanding on the dispersion and the control chart may cause much chance loss for the improvement and maintenance of the software production process. And the drawing a sharp line between the variation within subgroup and the variation between subgroup is very important. In this way the reliable software production process can create new things by reviewing various old things.
Requirements analysis is an important process in system development for scheduling and fixing functionality. However it is difficult to fix functionality accurately causing delay in performing requirement analysis. In this report, I analyzed factors involved in requirements analysis and classified them into several groups and proposed methods of improvement in process productivities of each group. The main factors considered in grouping are; (1) Domain to be developed (2) Corresponding method of developing The methods to be developed for improving process productivity from the factors are follows; (1) Find the local practice of a business processes. Main routes in business process are similar among companies but local practice in business process varies from individual companies. Often, the local practice makes projects confused. (2) Transformation method from real world to computer world Easy, formal, and rapid. Then the method would solve the problem of requirements change. (3) Discover tacit knowledge in certain businesses. The method should be developed using not only computer science but also various science such as psychology, social sciences, and so on.
Managing dispersion is a core concept of quality management. This concept can be applicable to both hardware and software. The dispersion is divided into two categories ; systematic dispersion and random dispersion. This paper describes experiences on perception of the systematic dispersion and its application to process capability improvement, focusing on software design process which sometimes seriously affects development speed and product quality. This paper indicates that fact-based categorization of human behavior leads to a stabilization of software design process and that sharing business goals and innovating design methodology lead to a significant improvement of process capability of entire organization. This paper suggests that risks associated with a short period software project can be effectively managed through the use of organizationally accumulated knowledge of countermeasures which are created and applied to prevent systematic dispersion.
The main change factor in the software test and the inspection process is the defective number of cases, the correction, and the confirmation work. That is, this is a quality issue in the narrow sense. In this thesis, the focus is applied to the quality control operation in the test and the inspection process. First of all, the organization to accomplish the software quality control activity effectively is described. That is, the software factory system and the mechanism of the inspection section are described. Next, it explains the idea and the test technology of a systematic test to achieve stabilization and the quality improvement of the test process. In addition, an actual practical management method of the test process is described. Finally, the problem and the measures policy of debugging that occupies a big ratio in the test process are shown.
Software area increased in the embedded system as well as business computer system because of flexible feature of software and high performance microprocessors. Software systems are developed as projects, but many management problems are occurred as well as technical or engineering problem. Project management means that various stakeholders are satisfied to get QCDSME objectives using PDCA management circle just like enterprise management. In project management, quality, cost and delivery management are common, moreover, problems related to person, organization, technology, knowledge and communication must to be resolved for the complex software projects. This paper is described about the fluctuation in the project management. It begin with "what is project?", "what is project management?" and some characteristics of software project management, success or failure factors in project management, some difference from planned or ordinal state and systematic fluctuation to know whether project goes by under well management. For project success, it is very important to know the project group or type as systematic fluctuation, which are related with 7 factors, i.e. objective field, customer's intention, customer's domain knowledge, project member's domain knowledge, project member's technical knowledge, communication between customer and project members, and communications between project manager and project members.
Software Quality Control in Japan emerged in late 70's or 80's. In those days, Japanese Quality Control or Japanese Quality Management changed their style, from "Bottom up" to "Top down". Therefore, software development companies in Japan are weak in "bottom-up" problem solving activities, except some traditional mainframe vendors and system integrators. To improve software quality management level and software quality itself, we should classify "software". Ask ourselves why these classes are classified in this manner. We may find some controllable parameters to improve software quality.
Although customer satisfaction and customer loyalty have been widely studied as well as their influential factors, there has been little study on their relationship with cultural factors or individual values. While an extant literature on cross national comparison of customer satisfaction attributed the international difference to national culture, it is expected that cultural influence is also significant at individual consumers' level. Our research will investigate effects of individual-level culture and value on customer satisfaction and repurchase intent. A questionnaire survey was carried out to measure individual-level culture, variety seeking, switching cost, customer satisfaction, and repurchase intent with eight different types of products/services. As an indicator of cultural difference, Hofstede's cultural dimensions were employed : "Power Distance", "Individualism vs. Collectivism", "Masculinity vs. Femininity", and "Uncertainty Avoidance". The results suggested there exists a moderating effect of switching cost on the relationship between customer satisfaction and cultural factors. In the high-switching-cost group, customer satisfaction is positively influenced by individualism and negatively influenced by uncertainty avoidance. Besides, we also found the negative influence of variety seeking on repurchase intent in particular in service industries rather than products, in addition to the known positive effect of customer satisfaction and switching cost.
Selective assembly is an effective approach for improving a quality of a product assembled from two types of components, when the quality characteristic is the clearance between the mating components. In this paper, optimal selective assembly is discussed when the two component dimensions are normally distributed with unequal variances, and the component with the smaller variance is manufactured at two shifted means. We give conditions for the mean shift which minimizes the variance of the clearance, and show its uniqueness. It is also shown that the optimal mean shift increases when the difference between the two variances of the two component dimensions becomes larger. Finally, some numerical results are given to show that the method studied in this paper gives much improvement over the previous method (not shifting), especially for the case when the two variances are much different.
This paper discusses how to apply the genetic algorithm method with signal response robust parameter design for determination of the best levels of controllable factors effectively. Although there have been many studies on genetic algorithm for robust design, most of them focused on simple response problems, while recently complicated signal response problems have gradually become indispensable. To enhance the effectiveness of genetic algorithm in dynamic robust design, the advantages of traditional orthogonal array experiment concepts i.e. noise factors and the two-step procedure are combined. The average loss function is taken as a suitable performance measure because it has been noticed that maximizing SN ratio does not always guarantee a minimal average loss which is the most desirable result of parameter design. By taking advantages of the unique features of genetic algorithm enhanced by the suitable performance measure, the signal response robust parameter design is achieved within one step. In addition, changing slope target can be accommodated by altering only adjustment factors according to the two-step method. Its application is demonstrated by a "Golf striking design" example to show its effectiveness.
In simulation experiments, consistency with actual experimental results has to be ensured. A procedure to meet the numerical solutions by simulation experiment with the results of actual experiment is referred to as "calibration" Efficiency of calibration is essential to further reduction of lead-time. However, its procedure has not been established. In this paper, the two-step optimization is applied to the calibration. Resonance issue of wire bonding is analyzed as a case study of the application.
This study surveyed and analyzed the status of quality education conducted by leading companies that have supported the development of the Japanese manufacturing industry since the end of World War II while running their own quality management systems. This paper hypothesizes and verifies in what ways the education contributed to management innovation. The targets of the investigation were Toyota Motor Corporation, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., NEC Corporation, Denso Corporation, Konica Minolta, Komatsu Ltd., and Sanden Corporation-Japanese leading manufacturers top-ranked in the "Corporate Quality Management Survey" carried out by JUSE (Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers) and Nikkei Shinbun, Inc. in 2004 and 2005. The following historical considerations in this study revealed the need to strategically promote TQM: First, quality education progresses and develops in response to the evolution of quality management. Second, quality education leads to business innovation and always involves at least four common best practices with important roles to play. Third, quality education is synchronized with business strategies and innovation through the characteristics of the human resources that receive the education (stock-type resources) and the nature of the rapidly changing business environment. These three factors will give good guidelines to the concept of what corporate management innovation and quality education should be.