A reconsideration on the social structure of wild chimpanzees was made on the basis of ranging and association patterns of discriminated individuals inhabiting Kasoje in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. Records of roll-call for each chimpanzee at the feeding station and in the bush have been maintained continuously since 1966. The bulk of the data analyzed in this paper was collected at the two permanent feeding stations, Myako Camp and Kansyana H. Q., as well as in the bush between October 1973 and March 1974 and between December 1976 and November 1978. As for the males two unit-groups (K- and M-groups) were easily identified by their ranging and association patterns: the home range of a unit-group was accordingly defined as the area utilized by all its males and each unit-group was found to occupy a partially separate range, which was entirely consistent with the data reported by Nishida and Kawanaka (1972). On the other hand, the following five categories for females were perceived according to their ranging patterns and formation of associations with the male (s) of different unit-groups: (1) Females whose ranges lie within the home range of K-group and whose formation of associations is restricted to those with the male (s) of this group. (2) Females whose ranges lie within the home range of K-group but who associate alternately with the male (s) of K- and M-groups at the overlapping area utilized by both groups. (3) Females who use the home ranges of both K- and M-groups and form associations alternately with the male (s) of respective unit-groups. (4) Females whose ranges lie within the home range of M-group but who associate alternately with the male (s) of M- and K-groups at the overlapping area utilized by both groups. (5) Females whose ranges lie within the home range of M-group and whose formation of associations is restricted to those with the male (s) of this group. Diachronic data of Kasoje indicate that some females have shifted their ranges of their own volitions from within K-group's range to within M-group's and that no female has been continuously recorded for long period to remain in categories (2), (3), and (4) while females in categories (1) and (5) are relatively stable. These facts strongly suggest that the aforementioned five categories can be regarded as female stages, not idiosyncrasies, and that categories (2), (3), and (4) can be considered unstable transitional stages of female transfer between unit-groups. Thus chimpanzee unit-groups are better described as bisexual units. The theory proposed by Wrangham (1975, 1979) that the community (=unit-group) concept should be limited to males is discarded here because it only explains phenomena observed in a relatively short-term study.
It is widely known that not only Lord Lugard who had not hesitate to say about quasi “heaven-born” superiority of the Northern Nigeria, but also many British administrators had acknowledged their preference for the northern Nigeria than southern Nigeria. It is discussed in this paper what the origin of this “British administrators' preference for the north (Nothern Nigeria)” is. Before the year of 1830 when the River Niger's mouth was discovered, the main British people who were active on the coast of the Bight of Benin and the Bight of Biafra were slave traders and explorers. Slave traders overwhelmed explorers in number, but as far as information is concern which they had brought in to the Britain, their cotribution was nominal. In contrast to this, explorers had brought many kinds of and large quantities of information about both of the South (coastal area) and the North (inland area). They wrote many reports and books, in which they depicted the northern area as highly organized Mahomedan countries where people were modest. About ten years after the discovery, many kinds of peoples began to come to both coastal and inland areas. Among those groups, the most important groups were non-slave traders, missionaries, and administrators. All these new-comers arrived to Nigeria with the information and knowledge which was available in Britain. That is; continual political coflicts in the south, and well organized Mahomedan Emirates in the north; wild “pagan” people in the south, and polite and honest islamic people in the north; highly humid weather in the south, and dry and relatively comfortable weather in the north. But as missionaries in the north had experienced failure of missionary work because of strong resistance by islamic people and they had succeeded in the south, they began to change their image of Nigerian people. Contrary to this, administrators whose main interest was to find the means to secure their country's economic and political interest over the new territory, felt no need to change their image of Nigeria. For them well organized society in the north seemed to be favorable for their future rule. And this is one of the most important reasons why British administrators in the north concentrated their attention upon establishment of administrative and taxation systems in the first stage of British administration, and the British administrators in the south did not.
This study was designed to survay on factors of physique, physical fitness and capacity from the rotated factor loading measured by the age, weight (W), 6 circumference (C), 2 height and 3 diameter (D), 6 skinfold (SF) and nine to ten physical fitness test (P) variables, on five to thirty-two years old of aboriginal people in Winneba and Cape-Coast of Ghana, which was devided into age groups according to the differences of performance tests and of the minimal number of the subjects, as in Table 2. From the observation on the order of roated factor loadings throughout the developing age groups factor were interpreted. Factor I consisted of W-C on top and D on second, which dicreased toward elder groups. D was replaced by SF in female. Factor II consisted of SF vs. a part of P. The contribution of SF in twelve to fourteen years old female became to the bottom and work capacity increased sharply toward elder groups in female. Characteristic structure of factors of physical capacities in Ghana contrasting to Japan were minor loading of vital capacity and sharp declination of the flow of SF and P in female.
We conducted a field survey to investigate medical situation in the Republic of Rwanda in July, 1979 as Japanese government had a project to provide the country with assistance without compensation. The Republic of Rwanda is an inland country and has a population of 4.6 million. Trade in 1977 was 2, 840 million Rf. of import and 2, 190 of export which was exceeded by import. Main export item is coffee and import item is food. The Republic of Rwanda is least developed country and whose increase ratio of population is 3% per annum, therefore the country requested Japan the following medical supplies; Coplete Unit of Xray equipment 15 units Small size, portable X-ray equipment 15 units Negatoscope 10 units Dry heat sterilizer (220V) 10 units Operating table 100 units Operating table of orthopedics 100 units Large size freezer 1 units Ambulance 30 Medical vehicle 10 Small truck 10 Large truck (10 ton) 10 This request has been approved on the Cabinet council end of two years ago. The Rwanda embassy has been opened early last year in Tokyo and the assistance of medical supplies from Japan is performes smoothly.