Although most African colonies became independent between the late 1950s and early 1960s, Western Sahara remained a Spanish Colony until 1976. In February 1976, Spanish handed over the territory to Morocco and Mauritania instead of following the course of decolonization mapped out by the United Nations General Assembly and affirmed by the International Court in an Advisory Opinion rendered in 1975. The article attempts to clarify why the Western Sahara nationalist movement for decolonization was formed much later than most other African nationalist movements, which had achieved their independence in the 1960s. This time gap in contemporary African context is analyzed in the light of the historical relationship between the Western Sahara people and Spanish colonization. Three major findings which resulted from examining the socio-economic aspects of the region are stressed; 1) the Spanish government, which had previously administered only the Atlantic littoral, extend their effective control throughout the Western Sahara, when it was discovered that it possessed substantial mineral potential in the early 1960s. This discovery, in turn, aroused the acquisitive instance of both Morocco and Mauritania. 2) Although Western Sahara nomade people had a conception of territory in the forme of grazing grounds, the concept of a linear boundary was foreign to them. 3) Western Sahara society, which had enjoyed relative autonomy because of the ineffective Spanish colonial administration and the mobility of its nomade society was awakened to its national identity as Spanish colonization was accelerated in order to exploit the area's natural resources. Therefore, it could be argued that the time required for the Western Sahara people to achieve independence will depend upon the rate at which the nomade society looses its relative autonomy through their contact with the world economy.
This paper aims to analyze the social change from the 1950's to the 1980's in the Taita ethnic group which is one of the Bantu agriculturalist groups residing in southeast Kenya. The traditional social organization of the Taita consists of three groups: (1) kichuku (a patrilineal descent group), (2) weni (a religious ritual group), (3) mitalo (a numbered group). Among these three groups, kichuku has played the most important role in the social life of the Taita. Kichuku has four subgroups: (a) kinyumba which consists of three generations (ego's father and mother, ego's own generation except married sisters, and the first descending generations except married females), (b) kichuku kitini which consists of four generations, i. e. small lineage, (c) kichuku kibaa which consists of seven or eight generations, i. e. large lineage, (d) izanga which consists of some large lineages, but is not a clan. Weni is a group whose members are offsprings of a great grandfather and consists of ego's own consanguineous generation. Weni members pray to a great grandfather's skull kept in a cave (ng'ome) as their own god. The function of weni is the performance of religious ritual. Mitalo is a fairly complicated group in comparison with the above two groups. Mitalo means number in Taita and this consists of one to ten numbered groups. For example, in Sungululu, where I conducted my research between May 1984 and April 1985, people belong to group No. 4 (wanya), and in Taita four is inya. It is, therefore, quite obvious that these ten groups are numbered in Taita. We can analyze the membership of mitalo as follows: (1) as Taita or non-Taita, (2) as an agriculturalist or a pastoralist, (3) as a member of a patrilineage or not, (4) as a male or a female, (5) according to a residential area, hills or plains, (6) according to friendly or hostile human relations. Although the members life in kichuku and weni has been restricted to the Taita alone, mitalo has covered other ethnic groups: Kamba, Pokomo, Giriama etc. Identity as a Taita consists of these three traditional groups. It is, however, the current of the times that brought a new situation to the Taita, with which the three traditional groups could not cope by themselves. There have been several important historical influences on the Taita society: (1) Christianization from the late 19th century, (2) Colonization, (3) Independence in 1963, (4) Land consolidation etc. In this current of times, muzi has become a modern administrative unit. Muzi means a village in Taita and its background is kichuku kibaa. However, the new social function of muzi is wider than kichuku kibaa; muzi manages administratively the three traditional groups of the Taita. Muzi members hold elections every two years and they select the members of the muzi committee. The most important role of muzi is to promote a cooperative work among the members. In this way, the functions of the three traditional groups have been gradually declining and were almost replaced by muzi). We can see the social change from kichuku to muzi mainly in religious ritual. I will discuss the change of the participant groups in birth, initiation, marriage, funeral, crisis, divination and justice. The number of the rites of passage and divination ritual has been decreasing year by year and the christian church has taken the initiative in them. The function of justice has been transfered from the council of the traditional kichuku kibaa's leaders (mwandu) to the modern muzi committee (wagosi wa muzi). The christian Taita is not so interested in the traditional diviner (mlagui) any more. The ownership of ng'ome in which ancestors' skulls had been kept turned from the kichuku kibaa
Republic of Kenya achieved independence from England in 1963. But it is well known that the process of her independence was not so easy. There were so many conflicts against British colonial rule in Kenya. Mau Mau revolt was the largest and most intensive uprising in Kenya independent movement. Several reasons of this uprising already have been said by writers, historians, politicians and Mau Mau survivers. But even now no fixed theory to interpret Mau Mau revolt is appeared. It is obvious that Mau Mau revolt was the fight for Kikuyu land and freedom of Kikuyu people by Kikuyu people. The problem is that Mau Mau revolt included the phase of independent movement of nationalist, or not. Because most people who took part in this uprising were almost Kikuyu people, above all young Kikuyu people who had no land to cultivate. In this respect Mau Mau revolt was regarded as civil war between “haves” and “have-nots” in Kikuyu land. Kikuyu Central Association in 1920s and Kenya African Union in 1940s were leading organization of political movement in Kenya. These organizations were led by more or less “haves” who were educated in the school of the Christian Missionaries. They were not always against British colonial rule and their purpose was wealth and political power in colonial system. Their movements were improvement of life to accept European life style and European civilization. Mau Mau revolt was different from these movement. Because most of people who took part in Mau Mau uprising were young and had not education of Christian Missionaries. In this point Mau Mau revolt was anti-European Christian civilization movement to keep identity of African. In the beginning of 1900s Christian Missionaries came to Kikuyu land. They established Christian Missionaries schools. In 1910s they want to suspend the custom of girl's circumcision in Kikuyu land. Some of the Christian Missionaries decided to compel Kikuyu people give up the custom of girl's circumcision in 1920s. But Kikuyu people repulsed these policies of Christian Missionaries. As a matter of course, anti-Christian Missionaries movement was increased in violence in Kikuyu land. Kikuyu people denied to educate their children in schools of Christian Missionaries. They established their own schools and churches, which were Kikuyu Independent School to educate their children and Kikuyu Karinga School to educate Kikuyu traditional religion apart from Christian Missionaries. The conflict between Kikuyu and Christian Missionaries in Kikuyu land had given influence on the independent political movement, especially later Mau Mau movement. In fact there are several reasons of Mau Mau revolt under British rule, which is labour policy, land policy and so on. The conflict between Kikuyu and Christian Missionaries was also one of the most important impact on Kikuyu Nationalism Movement.
I studied the history of nature conservation, the behavior of visitors in national parks, the wildlife conservation and the conservation movement in Kenya. The main subject of the nature conservation in Africa has been the construction and the maintenance of the national park system. The disturbance to wildlife by visitors may become a problem in the near future, because they tend to concentrate in some national parks near Nairobi and at particular time i. e. early morning and evening. The most harmful wildlife to men and their farmlands is elephant followed by leopard and buffalo. However, the elephants decreased drastically as well as black rhinoceros in Kenya. Japan has some responsibility for this problems as one of the largest consumers of ivory. As concerns conservation movement in Kenya, conservation education is new and successful, though the target people is still limited.