In order to develop new naturally occurring bioactive chemicals, field research on useful plants in the tropical rain forest in Cameroon was carried out in 1983 and 1985. A total of 110 species of plants was selected during the research and the biological activities of these plants, such as insecticidal, fungicidal, and herbicidal activities were examined from an agrochemical viewpoint. Furthermore, anticancer activity in a medical sense was also tested. Among the plants tested, 12 species exhibited insecticidal acitivity, 33 species herbicidal activity, 30 species fungicidal activity and 33 species anticancer activity.
An eruption occurred on the southern flank of Nyamuragira at 15 hours local time on July 16, 1986, after two years and four months' dormancy. A swarm of earthquakes preceded the eruption by thirteen hours. Much lava poured out from a small lava pond during the first two days of eruption. The eruptive activity became lava fountain type and much scoria and lava were ejected. New scoria cones were formed at craters and were growing up to a cone with diameter of 700m and height of 80m until the end of eruption. The new cone was called Kitazungurwa (meant the irreplaceable place) by the local people. Eruptive activity changed to Strombolian eruption on three days before the end of eruption. Simultaneously, seismic activity changed from continuous tremors to isolated ones. A lot of small or micro-earth-quakes were observed when the eruptive activity ceased. The sources of tremors were located just beneath the craters and hypocenters of earthquakes were at south of them. Lava flowed about 19km toward south with mean width of 1km and mean thickness of 2m. Total volume of scoria and lava erupted is estimated to be 50×106m3.
Trade in East Africa is the so called “the long distance caravan trade”. It is different from the caravan trade of other areas; the Sahara, Arabia peninsular, Middle East, etc., because of the means of transportation. The transportation in East Africa depends on manpower, because the existence of tsetse flies prevents the use of animals for transportation. For this reason the trade caravan consisted of many thousands of people. The caravan trade was mainly for ivory. At first slavery was not the main item, but later it became a major item of the trade. The caravan trade had been started by African peoples, the Yao, Nyamweji, Kamba, about the first decade of the 19th century. They extended trade routes upcountry. Then Arab and Swahili caravan traders came into the scene in the third or fourth decades of the 19th century. The organization of the caravan trade came to need so much money, only Indian merchants were soon able to provide enough money for large caravans at that time. In the latter half of the 19th century the caravan trade became international. African, Arab, Swahili, and Indian traders took part in these caravans. Africans were mainly porters, Indians were financiers, Arab and Swahili traders were organizers and conducters. It could be said that the real owners of the trade caravans were Indian merchants. The significance of the caravan trade in the 19th century is that the first direct trade between the East African coast and the inland, which had no contact with each other before the 19th century, started. The inland regions were strongly influenced, e.g., the introduction of guns, the appearance of the Arab Settlements, the extention of Swahili language, the slave trade, the appearance of powerful African chiefs like Mirambo, Arab trade kingdoms like Tippu Tip ruling territories, and so on. As for the slave trade, since ancient times many African slaves were sent to Arabia, India, China, and other places. There is a record of a slave who came to Japan in the 16th century. It must be noted that the caravan trade in East Africa was one of the first movements to connect the East African coast with the inland regions, and brought an international economic element into the inland countries.
The Bemba, who live in the woodland in the Northeastern Zambia, are known that they have a unique slash-and-burn cultivation called citemene system and a matrilineal society. Also, it is known that they once formed a powerful kingdom under a paramount chief. I have been continuing the human-ecological research of the Bemba since 1983. This paper's aim is to reveal the structural characteristics of the Bemba villages, which are supported by the matrilineal principal, by analyzing the micro-politics of women on the ownership and usage of daily utensils at the village level with women's point of view. Daily utensils of the Bemba are very simple, and naturefacts are used efficiently. The research on the ownership of the daily utensils of each household in the village revealed that the utensils are always “wanting”. For example, only elder women have mortar and stone pestle, while the younger women do have neither of those. As a result, the borrowing and lending of these utensils takes place frequently in their daily life. There are no liabilities on the material used, nor does the borrower repay anything to the owner. Practically, the rights to use the utensils are shared by the women in the village. It can be thought that the ownership of these things have symbolical connotations rather than practical ones. The increase in things owned by a woman related to her rise in the life stages and therefore tend to symbolize her social rank in the village. This is the reason why the younger women do not have their own utensils. Borrowing and lending of the utensils becomes a chance for women to make the time for communication and gathering. At the same time, the gathering is a opportunity to exchange information. The house of an elder woman who owns the utensils becomes a place where all the women in the village get together with various information. Consequently elder women are able to grasp the information brought by the women in the village. With this background, together with the traditional authority accompanied in the matrilineal society, the elder women can exercise the political power over the social relationship of all the members in the village including men. The action of individual women in the “borrow and lend” relations reflects her social rank and social relationship. At the same time, it becomes a way to recognize the relationship with each other. Under such a socio-cultural setting, the whole body of the micro-politics performed by individual women becomes a significant factor to support and move the social and political structure of the village.
The intent of this study was to show the Neogene mammalian faunal change of the sub-Saharan Africa and the Relationships of the late Miocene mammalian faunas of the sub-Saharan Africa and the Eurasia. I reviewed the Neogene mammalian fauna of the sub-Saharan Africa and studied the phylogenetic relationships of some taxa from the Namurungule Formation (late Miocene), Northern Kenya. The sub-Saharan mammalian fauna of Neogene and its environments change from forest type to savanna type at the late Miocene. Tetralophodon from the Namurungule Formation was the most advanced type of Gomphotheriidae (Proboscidea) of the Eurasia and Africa, the large form of Hipparionine (Equidae, Perissodactyla) was very similar to Cormohipparion perimense of the Siwaliks, Iranotherinae (Rhinocerotidae, Perissodactyla) was similar to the taxa from Spain, Iran, the Siwaliks, and China. These facts support the idea that the Namurungule mammalian fauna consists mostly of the common Eurasian taxa and the unique African taxa, and this late Miocene fauna becomes the nucleus of the Pliocene to Pleistocene mammalian fauna of the sub-Saharan Africa.