Agrarian crisis has affected most African countries these years and has shown the rural populations' crucial importance in the development process. Each country in Africa has dealt with the crisis in a different way. Most strategies, however, have failed to improve the economic situation. Zaire and Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) centered their rural development strategies on the liberal model, while Tanzania attempted to apply a socialist rural development policy. The comparison of these strategies shed light on the main features of the rural development process, its problems and perspectives in an African context.
There are currently two prevailing approaches to explaining the stagnation of African agriculture over the last two decades. One emphasizes external factors which have contributed to the distortion of African agriculture. Colonization by the European powers and the current unequal international division of labour are listed among the determinant causes. The other approach focuses on the state's relationship with the peasants, over whom it is attempting to exercise political and economic control. This approach claims that the main cause of Africa's agricultural stagnation is the disfunction of the state's agricultural policies. This article, by analyzing the case of Senegal in the, post-colonial era, attempts to detail the successive agricultural policies initiated by the Senegalese government, and their failure to reach the rural areas. The New Agriculture Policy of 1984 was yet another attempt to gain the confidence of the peasants, who had grown tired of ambitious government slogans.
This study consists of a provisional synthesis of research on Japan's relations with Africa based on an extensive examinations of pre-war Japanese consular reports regarding economic conditions in Africa. The purpose of this study is to make an interpretation of how economic relations between Japan and Africa developed in the period between 1913 and 1924. Japanese scholars have recently come to appreciate the value of consular reports as historical sources. Consular reports provided detailed information on a wide variety of commercial topics by agent stationed all over the world. They were printed and made available to merchants and businessmen from 1881 to 1943. This study focuses on the fifth series, entitled the Official Commercial Reports (Tsushoo-Koohoo), published from April 1913 to December 1924. After the First World War the number of commercial reports coming from Japanese consuls residing in various parts of Africa and other areas increased and the range of topics grew as well. The reports on North Africa almost all on Egypt and afterwards reports on Tunis, Algeria, French and Spanish Morocco were added. Special attention was paid to the number and tonnage of ships passing through the Suez Canal. There were also reports on cotton crops, on Japanese merchandize such as cotton textiles, knit-ware, matches and brushes. Reports on South Africa focused on the Union of South Africa, Southern and Northern Rhodesia, and South West Africa. The wide range of reports on the Union of South Africa included reports on foreign trade, on mining, on market for wool and wool products, on ports and harbors, on expected yield of cotton crops and on Japanese general merchandize such as cotton goods, medicines, glass bottles, matches, cement, fishing instruments and the like.