アフリカ研究
Online ISSN : 1884-5533
Print ISSN : 0065-4140
1992 巻 , 41 号
選択された号の論文の11件中1~11を表示しています
  • 浜本 満
    1992 年 1992 巻 41 号 p. 1-22
    発行日: 1992/11/25
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Among the Duruma, a Bantu-speaking people in the Coast Province of Kenya, many illnesses are attributed to the possessing spirits of various kinds who afflict their human victims for the purpose that their requests for goods, food, and recognition are to be met. There are specialists (called muganga) who can treat such illnesses and who themselves once were victims of the afflicting spirits. Gourds, elaborately decorated with beads and representing particular possessing spirits, play an important role in the activities of these specialists. These gourds, called ‘gourd-children ana a ndonga (sing. mwana wa ndonga)’, were given to them when they were initiated into their present vocation, and are thought to help them with their divining and curing practices. A similar gourd, also called gourd-child, is sometimes given to a patient with fertility problems in the course of her treatment.
    In the present paper I will describe and analyse two types of rituals where a gourd-child is given to a patient; initiation rites for ritual specialists, and ritual treatment of fertility problems. It will be shown that the main aim of both rituals is, by incorporating as a ‘child’ the dangerous spirits of the bush (nyika), who caused the patient's illness and infertility into the orderly human world (mudzi lit. ‘compound’), to transform them into benevolent spirits who help the ritual specialists with their activities or who assure the patient's fertility and health. A gourd-child proves to be the central symbol which effects this transformation. In the course of the ritual, a gourd-child, being prepared and ‘taken out kulaviwa nze’, represents three different and mutually incompatible propositions in turn; (1) a gourd-child is a child of the spirit, (2) a gourd child is a child of the patient, (3) a gourd-child is the spirit himself. The whole ritual is analyzed as an attempt to establish all these propositions at once through the manipulation of a single central symbol, i.e. a gourd-child.
  • 中条 廣義
    1992 年 1992 巻 41 号 p. 23-45
    発行日: 1992/11/25
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. 熱帯多雨林のサバンナ化のメカニズムを解明しようとする研究の一環として, 筆者は熱帯半落葉樹林の生態環境を, 1989年9月と1990年10月に, 土壌学的および植物生態学的に調査した。調査は, 西アフリカ・カメルーン東部のベルトアの北北西約20-40Kmの地域 (標高約700-800m) でおこなった。
    2. 半落葉樹林の土壌は, 薄いA層, 塊状構造, 軽埴土~埴土, 赤褐色のB層, 球状結核および鉄瘤塊などによって特徴付けられ, 土壌学的には鉄アルミナ質土壌に属する。地温測定の結果, 半落葉樹林内では地表面下約25cmまでは, 地上部の温度変化の影響を絶えず受けている。
    3. 半落葉樹林内の8個の調査地に出現した植物種総数は87種を数え, そのうち63種が高木種そして24種が草本・低木種であった。階層構造は高木層が3層, 低木層および草本層が各1層の計5層からなり, 最高高木層の高さは35-50mであった。原生状態の半落葉樹林の階層構造は次のような特徴を示した: 最高高木層が常緑樹林にくらべ疎開している。高木第3層の植被率がきわめて高い。低木・草本層の発達が悪い。
    4. 高木種63種のうち41種が後継稚樹および若木をもたなかった。41種の多くが, 最高高木層の構成種で, 陽樹および風散布種であることから, 更新においては伝統的焼畑跡地とか小伐開地というような大きなギャップが必要と考えた。
    5. 半落葉樹林では, 更新が自然状態できわめて貧弱であった。このことから, この森林は, 将来現在の高木層の種類組成が維持できなくなり, 1代かぎりになると考えた。
    6. 半落葉樹林の多くの構成種は常緑樹林域からサバンナ植生域の一部にまで分布が可能であることから, この森林は環境に対する生態的適応幅がきわめて大きい樹種の集合体であると考えた。
    7. 半落葉樹林の種の多様性は, 伝統的焼畑や小規模伐採 (択伐等) によって形成される大きなギャップと多様な動物相によって維持されていると考えた。
    8. 半落葉樹林を保護するために, 森林に一切の人間活動を排除した聖域を設けることは, 植物や動物の多様度の低下を生じさせることになる。
    9. 現在の森林の破壊・消失は, 急激かつ異常な人口増加と都市化に附随して生じている。半落葉樹林の持続的利用を計るには, 高い人口圧のもとでも自然と共存できる農業システム及び林業システムの確立が急務である。そのためにも, 半落葉樹林の生態系を詳細に調査し, 森林の多様な潜在力を認識する必要があろう。
  • 今村 薫
    1992 年 1992 巻 41 号 p. 47-73
    発行日: 1992/11/25
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Central Kalahari San have been significantly changing their traditional subsistence and way of life under the influence of the sedentarization program of the Botswana government. Gathering, which formerly supplied 80% of their diet in caloric value, has receded greatly, with the vegetable resources around the settlement overly exploited in a short period of time. However, they still continue gathering activities. Collecting firewood and building materials is needed more than before. The purpose of this study is to analytically describe the features of their gathering activities at the present time.
    Comparing the pre-and post-sedentarization time, the author finds that the San's gathering activities have remarkably changed in quantity: frequency, time length and harvest amount; but not in quality: their favorite plant species, methods and group formation in gathering. Their gathering is more frequently done in groups than individually, and group gathering shows greater efficiency. The size of a group depends on the seasonal and spacial change of plant distribution, and the distance to the collecting site. The author emphasizes the significance of social interaction processes such as cooperation and information exchange in group gathering.
  • 南里 章二
    1992 年 1992 巻 41 号 p. 75-83
    発行日: 1992/11/25
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Joseph L. Masawe
    1992 年 1992 巻 41 号 p. 91-110
    発行日: 1992/11/25
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    As a first study in a series of studies aimed at analysing the informal credit sector, and utilize its many positive qualities to improve rural credit in Tanzania, this paper presents the findings of a study on the organization of the informal credit market in selected farming communities in Morogoro Region. A questionnaire survey of 200 households coupled with participant observation, group interviews as well as informal discussions were used to obtain information on informal credit structures among different ethnic groups and different areas, so as to establish the objectives of borrowing and relationships determining the flow of credit in different localities and different ethnic groups. The study was conducted from May to August 1991.
    The study revealed that, the main categories of informal credit in the study area are commercial and non-commercial categories. In the commercial category, moneylenders dominate, while the non-commercial one is made up of friends and relatives, savings and credit groups, as well as mutual assistance groups. About 86.7% of respondents indicated informal sources as the main source of credit, with friends and relatives supplying about 47% of the credit obtained from informal sources. Loans are used for both production as well as consumption purposes, but loans for consumption purposes dominate. Proportionate borrowing from the various sources vary according to the level of economic activity and social setting, but the general mode of operation was found to be socially organized, and very similar in all areas studied.
  • 井関 和代
    1992 年 1992 巻 41 号 p. 111-117
    発行日: 1992/11/25
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 川端 正久
    1992 年 1992 巻 41 号 p. 119-122
    発行日: 1992/11/25
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 慶田 勝彦
    1992 年 1992 巻 41 号 p. 122-124
    発行日: 1992/11/25
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 江口 一久
    1992 年 1992 巻 41 号 p. 124-125
    発行日: 1992/11/25
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 和崎 春日
    1992 年 1992 巻 41 号 p. 125-127
    発行日: 1992/11/25
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 岡田 昭男
    1992 年 1992 巻 41 号 p. 127-130
    発行日: 1992/11/25
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
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