O negro brasileiro nunca esteve, na primeira metade do século XX, no palco do movimento pan-africanista, que envolveu negros dos Estados Unidos a do Caribe britânico a francês, apesar de que o Brasil teivesse uma população afro-descendente muito grande e uma rica herança africana na sua sociedade. Por que? Será que o “isolamento” do negro brasileiro teria impedido a sua participação no movimento panafricanista, não obstante a sua predisposição africanista, ou faltava-lhe uma orientação africanista? Este trabalho é uma tentativa de avaliar a consciência africana ou a africanidade dos militantes negros brasileiros da primeira metade deste século, através da análise de artigos da imprensa negra da eépoca. Para a imprensa negra cujo alvo era a elevação da posição do negro brasileiro e o melhoramento da sua situação, a referência ao exterior-assuntos sobre a África e a diáspora africana fora do país nela mencionados-não era rara de modo algum. Por um lado, a imprensa aponta negros valorizados pelo padrão do mundo ocidental com desejo de refutar a idéia da dita “inferioridade” da raça negra e, sobretudo, eliminar o complexo de inferioridade dos negros; por outro, ela denuncia a discriminação persistente e a perseguição brutal particularmente nos Estados Unidos, para protestar contra a sociedade branca e conscientizar os negros brasileiros do problema. Face ao movimento pan-africanista, porém, a postura dos redatores não era explícita, uma vez que a maioria dos artigos deste assunto ou era mera transcrição de publicações estrangeiras ou era reportagem de carater objetivo, a para com o separatismo, advogado por Marcus Garvey, exprimiram até a franca oposição. É razoável julgar que a imprensa se referiu ao movimento pan-africanista não em conseqüência da firme adesão à sua orientação mas simplesmente com a intenção de conscientizar os negros brasileiros. O tom moderado de denúncias ao colonialismo europeu na África também confirma isso. Assim, apesar de que a lideranca negra brasileira estivesse bastante consciente das idéias do pan-africanismo no exterior, optou por não aderir declaradamente à causa. Poder-se-ia concluir que era realmente fraca a orientação africanista no movimento negro brasileiro da época.
The relationship between pastoral movement and spatio-temporal changes of ecological conditions was analyzed in this case study. Movement of camel camp in 1975-1976 in the Rendille Land, northern Kenya was dealt with as an illustration. The Rendille Land, included in the Marsabit District is comprised of central lowland and surrounding mountains. The annual rainfall precipitated mainly during two rainy seasons, is 200mm in the lowlands and over 1, 000mm in the mountainous area. The lowland is vegetated with annual grasses with sparse trees, while the skirts of mountains are covered with evergreen to semi-deciduous trees with perennial grasses. Dense forest is observed only near the top of mountains. In this study the distribution of water points and change in vegetation cover has been estimated using satellite images, these were considered as ecological conditions. Locations of water points were obtained from the map published by the Kenya Government in 1970. Positive films of Landsat/MSS images were scanned into the analysis system and transformed into physical values using regression analysis between different dates/forms. The scanned data was used for deriving NDVI (normalized differential vegetation index), popular index for vegetation cover, on the five dates from September 2-3rd, 1975 to February, 11-12th, 1976. These data were then overlaid with the movement of camel camps in 1975 and 1976 surveyed by an anthropologist. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Predominant area is included within the range of 30km from water points. This is marked merit for nomads compared to other dry lands. 2. Water is not a determinant for the location of camel camps. Camel camps were primarily established on the skirts of mountains. Vegetation is more significant in these locations. 3. When rain is plentiful the lowland is also utilized for camel camps. 4. For cattle and small stock such as goats and sheep, water is an important factor. Camp sites were limited to near Mt. Kural, Mt. Mara, Mt. Marsabit and the highlands extending to Samburu, bordered by Marsabit on the south. 5. In bushland, vegetation growth after some rainfall, within about two months delay promotes the shift of camel camps. In the semi-desert grassland, on the other hand, that delay appears to be shorter.
The main goal of this thesis is to examine the Law of Marriage Act in the United Republic of Tanzania, which went into effect on May 1, 1971, in terms of “the equality of the sexes.” Specifically, it aims: 1) to review a number of discussions which went on during the process leading to its enactment, and 2) to consider how the three key expressions advocated by the Tanzanian government, namely, “the equality of the sexes, ”“the equality between husband and wife”, and “the equality of all human beings, ” were used variously in this very process. Chapter 2 summarizes the backgrounds to the enactment of the Law of Marriage Act. The enactment of this new law was prompted by the government's movement to unify existing marriage laws and the policies stipulated in the government's Second Five-Year Development in 1969 as well as Tanzania's international relations after 1964. Chapter 3 reviews diverse discussions which appeared during the enactment process. The fact that there was a wide diversity of opinion both among the general public and in the parliament shows that marriage was practiced in many different ways according to the customs in each local community. Chapter 4 analyzes the Law of Marriage Act in detail. It was found that while this law guarantees the rights of all women in most areas regarding marriage, including their right to contract a marriage only with a free and voluntary consent and to acquire, hold, and dispose of their property, the law shows some reservations on each local community's customs. This implies that inequalities between men and women could remain in society even after the enactment of this law. Chapter 5 examines the relationship between Ujamaa socialism from 1969 to 1971 and the expression “the equality of the sexes.” It was revealed that Ujamaa socialists needed this expression as their slogan and that during the enactment process of the Law of Marriage Act, “the equality between husband and wife” was associated with Ujamaa socialism. In sum, this thesis argues that the three key expressions advocated by the Tanzanian government, namely, “the equality of the sexes, ” “the equality between husband and wife”, and “the equality of all human beings, ” were discussed within the framework of Ujamaa socialism from 1969 to 1971 and promoted the improvement of women's status; however, it had a limitation in that the government had to take account of the diverse customs in many different local communities.