This paper aimed to clarify the concrete situation of introduction and development of imitation tree, imitation stone, and imitation rock as modern landscape material in and around Osaka and Hanshinkan area. As the results of documents analysis and field survey, this paper led the following. There are: Imitation tree had introduced into this area around the end of Taisho era. About introducing imitation tree, landscape architect SHIIHARA Hyoichi, Landscape engineer HASHIMOTO Yaezo and KOBAYASHI Kanzan had played an important role. In the early Showa era, imitation tree, imitation stone, and imitation rock were being used widely in residential gardens and public parks in Osaka and Hanshinkan area. Imitation tree were used for garden furniture as arch, bench, bridge, and so on. Imitation stone were used for stone arrangement of waterfall and mound. Imitation rock were used for animal’s pasturage exhibition facilities they are monkey mountain and polar bear cage. These were designed and constructed by landscape architect and landscape engineer of the above three. Also, it was found that the modern plutocrat NITTA Chojiro introduced garden furniture made of imitation tree and rock arrangement consisted of imitation stone into his residential garden in Koshien area of Nishinomiya, Hyogo Prefecture.
432 Japanese gardens are already made outside of Japan, and approximately 35% of 152 gardens surveyed were constructed to commemorate the friendship, and as for the order according to the country, most things are 54 cases in U.S.A. (43%), subsequently it is 16 (70%) in Australia. It is unique that 70% of the Australian Japanese gar dens are friendship gardens by the presentation from Japan. But the Japanese garden in Australia could be taken. This study defined the history and prese nt of Japanese gardens in Australia by on-site research for the important 17 gardens, questionnaires to the city councils both Australia and Japan. There are 28 Japanese Gardens in Australia and having been made first embassy by 1961as the stage of the national interchange. The Japanese garden which the Japanese well -known landscape architect who took in a Japanese traditional style of Japanese garden in each major cities by 1991. After, a local landscape gardening company in Japan cooperated as a member of the sister cities, collaborated of both sister cities. In this way we could find 3 passage of the time. They have important role for cultural exchange between Australia and Japan and be enjoyed or relaxed for the Australian peoples in spit e of there is a little support from Japan.
Ogawa Jihei VII, also known as Ueji (1860-1933), is a famous landscape architect who significantly contributed to Japanese modern gardens. Some aspects of Ueji’s garden creation process are still little researched. The Seifuso-garden in Kyoto, constructed from 1912-1913 by Ogawa, is currently under repair. For efficient repair, we needed to know how he had constructed the garden. This paper presents a summary of our findings regarding the garden’s construction process and spatial characteristics, namely: 1) the Seifuso-garden was completed in 9 months from July 1912 to April 1913; 2) the tea garden was completed in 6 months from November 1912 to April 1913; 3) the pond was completed in 7 months from September 1912 to March 1913; 4) the artificial hills were completed in 3 months from October to December 1912; 5) bamboos were planted in front of the entrance in April 1913; 6) the grass garden was completed in 7 months from October 1912 to April 1913. Regarding spatial aspects, we found that Ogawa changed the layout and direction of a pre-existing garden by 1) shifting the tea houses and expanding the pond; 2) changing the garden’s direction (seen from a point in the building) from east to south.
This paper is a part of the research intends to shed light on the model of ideal scenery in Muromachi period. In this paper, we focus on Joei-ji Garden in Yamaguchi City and aim to clarify the landscape composition through on-the-spot investigation of the garden along the rout surmised as those days. We divided the whole garden into 5 areas along the route, and selected scenes representative of each area. The 13 scenes selected are analyzed by considering the arrangement of garden elements according to the line of view, and divided into 4 types: 1) wide type; 2) layer type; 3) contrast type; 4) depth type. The composition of the whole garden was considered from the arrangement of areas and types. As a result, we made it clear that the garden consist of two parts connected by diagonal line, one is south open areas from where ‘wide type’ scenes are representative, and in contrast another north passage areas provide ‘contrast type’ and ‘layer type’ scenes. This contrast parts are visually connected by ‘depth type’ and ‘layer type’ along the diagonal line from south to north.
The Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture begins the concrete action of aiming at the conservation of modern landscape heritage. The Agency for Cultural Affairs is also proceeding to protect the gardens and the parks of the modern age. Most of the existing gardens in Tokyo are the feudal lord's gardens of the Edo period and a few modern gardens which were constructed during and after the period of the Meiji era and still are remain the same shape they were originally. However, the main portion of the Aiison-so garden which was constructed by Eiichi Shibusawa (1840-1931) still exhibits the same organizational structure. It is a remaining case considered to be very precious within the modern gardens of Tokyo. Therefore, we considered the composition design of the Aiison-so garden restoring it according to the material of the visitor's records, and defined that while the Aiison-so garden was destroyed by air raids in 1945 to Eiichi who settled down in the Aiison-so in 1901 to assume basic materials for maintenance. The present study shows that Aiisonsou garden is a typical of garden that had most of the element of a modern garden.
In this study, we analyzed both Grammaire des Jardins written by Belgian landscape Architect René Pechère, who successfully reevaluated and reproduced techniques in formal gardens, and the gardens he designed. We also examined the modern significance of the formal garden in modern garden-making, and its characteristics and techniques. As a result, the following three points were indicated: First, the formal garden possesses greater possibilities than the landscape garden, for exercising artistry and creativity in modern garden-making. Second, in order to secure a large, flat surface area that can help establish a horizontal, geometrical garden, it is important to have certain height differences and drainage at the site as well as construction techniques for stairs. Lastly, formal gardens tend to bring to mind inorganic and horizontal space construction principles, due mainly to our preconceived notions of geometry. In this paper, however, the findings of a re-verification of the design principles and examples of Pechère revealed that formal garden design is the application of principles based on very human visual perception.
Focusing on the term of Borrowed Scenery, this paper probes into the historic evolvement and variety of this term in Chinese gardening, in other words how this term started, evolved and changed from classical to modern times. The study here is mainly based on literature survey, which could be divided into three parts: etymologic, classical and modern literatures. On the other hand, the space composition related to the term of Borrowed Scenery is summarized in aspects of both visual and body feature. Then the characteristics of this term and historic variety are concluded. The Pavilion of Borrowed Scenery recorded by Huang Tingjian is the first example of this term, and it played an important role in the classical times, in which the devise to the visual medium became important. In modern studies since 1930s, this term is mainly grounded on the literature of Yuan Ye, and greatly influenced by modern scholars. As a result, the concept of Borrowed Scenery is expanded from small-scale to large-scale, from the field of garden to others, gradually close to the concept of View.
This study aims to consider the change in value cognition of tree of city and clarify the species and the location of valuable trees in case of Osaka from the Edo Period to the present day. The sources to obtain data necessary for analyzing what the valuable trees were like are the lists of them contained in some publications focusing on famous tree in the Edo Period, the pre-modern age, and protected trees and giant trees in the modern age and the present day. The analyses of the lists made it clear that the value of tree of city was placed on object of appreciation in the pre-modern age and object of conservation as natural treasure after the modern age, and is placed on symbol of nature in the recent day, that the most valuable trees were changed from pine and cherry tree in the pre-modern age to camphor tree after the modern age, and that it has been unchanged shrines and temples are the major location for valuable tree all the time since the Edo Period.
Coppice gardens have been widely accepted in modern Japan. This paper discusses and describes the background of these gardens and the role of Dr. Uehara in introducing them through his writings. (1) In 1919, Uehara perceived that gardens required new elements and innovative designs for the future. (2) He proposed new trees such as the coppice, which were different from the conventional ones planted in residential gardens in 1923. (3) He moved to Mitaka (i.e., Musashino) in the suburbs west of Tokyo, where he explored the Musashino woods and studied various trees. (4) He suggested several trees as important elements of the gardens for the coming age in which some of these trees had been used for charcoal. (5) He did not consider Quercus serrata Thunb. and Quercus acutissima Varrutherus as horticultural trees suitable for a coppice garden. He perceived coppice gardens as gardens in which some of original trees were left untouched. (6) He followed Kiyoshi Inoshita’s opinion in naming new garden trees. (7) He described a coppice garden as a “natural garden,” “naturalistic garden,” and “garden of coppice woods.”
It can be said graft is important technique from a viewpoint of landscape from some their feature. However, their techniques have developed in pomological field. In this study, we examined about the historical transition of graft use through literature. In addition, we considered about position of graft at the industry of tree production in recent years and transmitting of graft techniques through a listening to people who have graft techniques and nursery stock producers. As a result, graft has already been done for ornamental trees at Heian era. It was thought that graft techniques were actively used in the background of the gardening cultural prosperity at Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo era. Afterwards, object of graft shifted to the fruit tree since Meiji era. About the transmitting of graft techniques, there were a lot of cases with transmission to the relative. There is a tendency to transmit movements of graft only when it is not relative. Intention of graft is the overall techniques include that caring and environmental making at the before and after graft. Depression of plant industry, difficulty that compete in plant industry and weakening of the consciousness that taking over the family business caused a decreases in the number of workman of the next generation.
The purpose of this research was to attempt to divide into periods, to understand the development and conservation, and to discuss policy for the conservation of terraced paddy fields, with regard to the history of the conservation movement for cultural landscape in Sakaori Tanada, Ena, Gifu. As a result, it was found that this history can be divided into three periods. The first period was a trigger for the terraced paddy field conservation movement: I. The Period Prior to Conservation. During th is time there was a conflict of opinions over whether the terraces ought to be developed as agricultural fields or conserved as a valuable cultural landscape. This led to the start of the terraced paddy field conservation movement, namely: II. The Fledging Period. After having been designated as one of the Best 100 Japan Rice Terraces in July 1999, and having been recognized by society as a cultural landscape, the conservation movement of terraced paddy fields began. Following this period, the terraced paddy field conservation movement became firmly established in: III. The Period of Growth. After the Ninth Japan Rice Terrace Summit was held in September 2003, the Sakaori Tanada Conservation Society expanded to engage with other groups.
Daily maintenance work is crucial for protecting historic gardens from deterioration. This study examines a maintenance procedure based on the Cultural Properties Protection Act and the management manual to gain an understanding of the present situation of conservation and the implementation of appropriate and efficient maintenance methods for gardens, considered as “cultural properties.” When the descriptions of the maintenance procedure in the Cultural Properties Protection Act, the law guide, and the management manual were compared, it became clear that differences will continue to exist between the procedure described in the law and that described in the management manual unless five patterns in the law and three patterns of restoration are adjusted. Consequently, the law should be revised to enable smooth daily maintenance, and the concept of restoration should be redefined to encompass maintenance, repair, restoration, and reconstruction. Moreover, maintenance, and repair besides an important element constituting essential value must describe that a report of damage is disuse in Article 120, and repair of the important elements that constitute essential value must be described in Article 125 as “a level in maintenance.”
Aerial photographs, especially those taken before World War II, are valuable documents to know the historical changes in gardens and open spaces. In the academia of photogrammetry and geography, it is an accepted view that the existing aerial photographs of Kyoto City taken before the World War II were taken in 1928; this view is based on the work of Hattori. However, Kyoto Shimbun News (dated December 22, 1993) reported that Shimizu conducted an investigation and found that the photographs were taken in 1927. As the details of Shimizu’s investigation are unknown, both assertions need to be reexamined. First, we confirmed that the aerial photographs that were archived in three different locations were identical, and as such, the assertions of Hattori and Shimizu are conflicting. Then, we analyzed buildings, railways and roads as appearing in the photographs, and determined that the photographs were taken in 1927. Furthermore, we examined the condition of tree canopies and the shades of two buildings, and estimated the period when these aerial photographs were taken. As a result, we concluded that the aerial photographs were taken in 1927 and most likely between late August and early September.
This paper discuss on the mechanism of enhancement of the rural islands by the national political idea and academism. In 1930s’, landscape was regulated by the nomination of the National Parks and Historical Places of Scenic Beauty. Especially, the sites related with the heritage on Emperor was manifested by the Ministry of Education depended on the archives and traditional stories through the academic community. The Kasaoka islands in Seto Inland Sea were nominated as the National Park for the economical promotion of the islands, there would be no effect on sightseeing economically because of lack of hotels and souvenirs. In 1940, celebrated 2600 years established Great Empire of Japan, the Takashima island has stood as a candidate for the sites related with 1st Emperor Jinmu. And Shiraishi-jima island beside Takashima had made efforts to be nominated as Places of Scenic Beauty based upon the story on history on God by rural intellectuals used by the authority with the scholar for history of the Nation and the archeology. After the World War II , the target of resource of sightseeing was changed to Shiraishi Dance that is dedicated the dead peoples as a Cultural Heritage.
This paper studies on the developmental process of the route planning and the staying base from analyze 18 travelogues of early modern Kamakura. Firstly, the major route in the whole Edo Era conducted that many author of travel notes came into Kamakura from “Mutsuura”, and that leaved from “Katase-gawa”. Secondly, the main spots of this area were ”Tsurugaoka-hachimangu”,”Hasedera-kannon”,and “Enoshima Island” on this course, because of the travelers was able to get travel information and that are crowded. Moreover, the hotel and the tea district tended to build on around main spots. Hotels were used only as an inn at first, as well as the travel role had changed as time passed: for example, the observatory, the attraction, and restaurant like “Iwamotoin on Enoshima”. On the other hand, tea districts were located along the Kamakura coast between Enoshima and Inamuragasaki. The note was expressed that the beautiful coastal scenery from this area was very popular among the travelers.In particular, Inamuragasaki had been actively on the tourism business which a clerk sold a traditional map and lectured to a person. Conclusion, the seashore landscape was became valuable of Kamakura tourism results from diversity of travel style with time passed.
During the two years since 2007, the Kyoto-Gyoen National Garden Office, which is affiliated with the Ministry of the Environment, has formulated a park construction and management plan for the Kyoto-Gyoen National Garden through citizen participation. On the basis of this plan, some trial work has been carried out through citizen participation, such as the construction of some facilities. In addition, some trial events have been organized for park visitors. This park is recognized not only as an important urban forest in Kyoto City, but also as a sacred space with a significant place in history, since it was part of the imperial household garden before the Second World War. It is to say that the park has a kind of special cultural setting and environment. Therefore, this park is regarded as one of the places symbolizing Japan’s cultural and spiritual identity from a national respective. The organization of trial activities through citizen participation has led to the rediscovery of the park’s attractiveness and uniqueness. This study clarified that even for special sites like the Kyoto Gyoen National Garden, which is esteemed and held in reverence by the people, the method of citizen participation is useful for park planning and that utilization activities are effective for their proper management.
Inaiishi-stone is black slate which has been produced from Ishinomaki city, Miyagi prefecture, Japan. The development of the facilities made in Inaiishi-stone for Shinto-shrine yards in modern Ishinomaki city was investigated from field survey and literature reference. Shinto had been the established state religion in modern Japan (1868–1945), therefore Shinto shrine yards were re-maintained. Most of the elements of established state Shinto shrines were there in Ishinomaki city. The development time of stone-works of Inaiishi conspired to the development time of established state Shinto. Various new facilities made in Inaiishi-stone, including sign of shrine name with status, monument of the death in international war (loyalty to the Emperor), and obelisk style facilities, had been founded in Shinto shrine yards in Ishinomaki city. And traditional “Torii” gates of Shinto shrines had been renewed into Inaiishi-stone Torii. Large Inaiishi-stone Torii gates were founded due to technical improvement in Inaiishi-stone masonry. Some of Inaiishi-stone facilities were carved with the prayers of the people lived in the periods when international wars had been continued.
The Katsura Hedge, a bamboo hedge, and its rear stand of Phyllostachys nigra var. Henonis at the Katsura Rikyu (the Katsura Imperial Villa) in Kyoto were investigated. For the hedge, the number of culms was 815, and the mean diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) of these culms was 4.3cm. The mean d.b.h. of culms at its rear stand was 5.0cm in 2004 and 5.1cm in 2005. The culms for the hedge were thinner than those at the rear stand irrespective of the location, perhaps this is because thinner culms are easy to make into the hedge. For the stand, the mean d.b.h. differed according to location, with culms at flat sites and slopes neighboring flat areas thicker than those on slopes not adjacent to flat sites. Different maintenance may be needed according to the location.
This study was examined the planting forms and the actual condition of use on the roof-top buildings which was covered with greenery space more than 100 m2, extracting from the questionnaire that was intended for building owners. As a result, about a half of the buildings were opened and able to use, and private facilities have much higher rate of open facilities than public, but open areas were occupied about 80 % by the public. It was supposed that the green area needs on planning and designing more than 1,000 m2 in order to open the roof-top greening facilities to the public. As a main use form, the garden use was the most many in both public and private, occupying about 50%. The rate of planting tall trees and medium-height trees showed much higher in private facilities than in public, and the construction cost and maintenance cost were showed similar tendency, it was suggested that the level of construction and maintenance of the rooftop-greening showed marked differences between both facilities.
This study aims to assess the influence of maintenance regime on tree growth in the planting sites of city parks. By using a numerical model, we compared the soil properties and tree growth rate spanning a period of 100 years. Site preparation and maintenance factors (pruning, litter removal and trampling) were identified as factors that influence tree growth, and decided 3 levels on 4 factors, simulated 34 = 81 cases of planting sites. The results were as follows: (1) By using a long time simulation, it was determined that tree growth rate is influenced by a combination of site preparation and maintenance factors. (2) Site preparation had the most dominant influence on tree growth during the first 30 years after the parks opened; however, gradually the influence of maintenance factors on tree growth increased from 30 years after the parks opened, 60~100 years after the parks opened, the maintenance factors had about as much influence as site preparation on tree growth. (3) Of the 4 factors, site preparation had the highest degrees of influence on tree growth, which was followed by pruning and trampling during the first 10 years and litter removal 30 years after the parks opened.
In Japan, the public tends to believe that shrine forests are remnant of primary vegetation of a region. However, recent studies show that several shrine forests in Kansai region were once dominated by pine trees. We studied relationship between vegetative landscape of the Kamo-wake-ikazuchi Shrine and resource utilization from the 17th to 18th century. Comparison of old drawings and the historical documents on forest management of the shrine indicated that there were pine, Japanese cedar, Japanese cypress and broad-leaved trees at the precinct and that the neighboring shrine mountains were dominated by pine trees. The historical documents also revealed that 1) trees including Japanese cedar were planted at the precinct for aesthetic purposes, 2) illegal collection of forest resources at the shrine mountains was prohibited, 3) the right of forest resource utilization including loggings were bid, 4) underbrush were cut and collected by shrine families. These results indicated that the shrine mountains were protected not as sanctuaries but as properties of the shrine. Comparison with another shrine indicated that periodical loggings and underbrush cleanings were once common management at shrine forests and pine trees were naturally regenerated by them.
This study focused on traditional crafts manufactured in Kanto district and investigated the relationship between raw materials used and the origins of these materials. Analyses revealed that more than half of the traditional crafts are made from the raw materials transported from areas outside. A proportion of crafts relying solely on supplies from their local areas has decreased to none. While artisans who has been using the raw materials all supplied from outside since establishment were more flexible in where the raw materials come from, artisans who had previously obtained the raw materials within their local areas expressed needs for obtaining raw material within their locals. These results suggested a necessity of separate policies differing in raw material supplies at establishment, and a necessity to expand and improve production network for conservation of skills of traditional crafts.
We aimed to investigate the seasonal effects of removing invasive plants on the herbaceous community invaded by Coreopsis lanceolata, especially in terms of the restoration of the native vegetation in gravelly riverbeds. Invasive plants were removed either in June (once) or in June and October (twice). This was performed for 1, 2, or 4 years. After the 4-year experiment, the number of existing seed banks, emerging seedlings, flowering individuals, and total shoots of C. lanceolata decreased in the plots after removal both in June and in June and October. Therefore, the effect on controlling C. lanceolata did not differ among the different seasons of removal. On the other hand, removal in June resulted in increased dominance of native perennial herbs in the plots. However, a significant increase in the dominance of alien annual and biennial herbs was also observed, and recovery of dominance of native perennial herbs was suppressed in the plots after removal in June and October. In conclusion, this study shows that the native vegetation in gravelly riverbeds was more effectively restored on removal in June than that in June and October.
A proposal to use Virginia buttonweed- Diodia virginiana L. (Rubiaceae), one of the exotic grass species native to North America, on the reservoir slop in the dam has actively been presented for revegetation in Japan. Therefore, this paper deals with seed germination and growth of young seedling of D. virginiana to evaluate behavior of this species on natural and semi-natural ecosystem for biodiversity conservations. Results obtained were as follows; (1) Seed germination of D. virginiana was shown at 25°C or more, (2) Within a range of 25-35°C, the germination rate increased at higher temperatures, (3) Light or dark conditions did not affect the seed germination, (4) The germination was also observed under 1‰ NaCl solution, (5) Seeds carried out cold stratification (5°C with dark and wet conditions for 90 days) had an increased germination rate, comparing with untreated seed, (6) Young seedling of D. virginiana would possess the high flood-tolerance because the seedlingt had survival rate of 100% after the submergence for 180 days, and (7) The seedling would become an annual in a cold region with sub-zero temperatures and be a perennial in a warm region without the above temperatures although D. virginiana has been described as an annual plant species by a good many reports.
Sloping meadows lying beside rice paddy fields have among the highest floristic species richness in the hilly agricultural ‘yatsu’ landscape in Japan. Little is known about factors, especially the non-local-scale factors, affecting the distribution of these semi-natural meadows. I investigated the relationships between the landscape structure and local environmental variables, and the species distribution in the sloping semi-natural meadows in Chiba prefecture, Japan. I surveyed species in 54 plots measuring 1 X 10 m. TWINSPAN classification defined four groups of plots. One group consisted of significantly greater numbers of species characteristic of the Miscanthetea sinensis community than in the other 3 groups, indicating floristically diverse semi-natural meadows. The distribution of plots was well explained by non-adjacency of paved farm roads, adjacency of secondary woodland in the 1940s, and >34% relative light intensity in the meadows. Both present local environmental conditions and present or past landscape patterns determined the distribution of this semi-natural habitat. These results will contribute to the selection of appropriate management strategies to conserve this valuable habitat. Keywords: linear habitat, characteristic species of Miscanthetea sinensis, Yatsu landscape, adjacent land use, land use history, paved farm road
Maruyama wetland-one of the largest spring-fed wetland in Hyogo prefecture-was faced with two main problems owing to the fact that its vegetation was shaded by surrounding trees. These problems included a decrease in both the area of the wetland and the richness of the plant species characterizing the wetland vegetation. Therefore, for the purpose of conserving Maruyama wetland, vegetation management was carried out in 2006. Vegetation management, involved the clearance of all the trees growing in the wetland and its periphery (i.e., at a distance of approximately 5-10 m from the wetland) and the thinning of forests surrounding the wetland. In order to clarify the effect of vegetation management, the areas of four wetland communities, flora, and plant species composition of these communities were investigated before and after vegetation management. The following results were obtained after vegetation management: (1) Among the four wetland communities, the areas of three wetland communities increased, and the area of the wetland increased. (2) New plant species that characterize the wetland vegetation appeared. (3) The mean species richness per square meter increased in the case of two wetland communities. Although this study was a case study of a spring-fed wetland, the abovementioned results indicated that vegetation management of a wetland and its surrounding forest is effective for maintaining both the area and the species richness of the wetland.
In this study, we identified bottom environments suitable for habitation by Vargula hilgendorfii, or the sea-firefly, whose habitat is the sea floor in shallow water, and environmental conditions which may affect habitation. The study areas included 70 points at 17 sandy areas off the eastern coast of Osaka Bay, where environmental degradation has been a concern. The quality of water and sediment on the sea floor was assessed, and the number of sea-fireflies inhabiting the locations was evaluated using bait-traps. The results showed that no or only a few sea-fireflies survive in the following places; places where salinity and dissolved oxygen were reduced due to nearby rivers, places where the bottom sediment was deoxidized due to artificial structures hindering tidal currents, and places where there was an accumulation of fine sand due to its drifting along rapid currents. The majority of the sea-fireflies live at limited locations in the center of Osaka Bay. Statistical analysis of a generalized linear model found the following conditions necessary for sea-firefly inhabitation; dissolved oxygen (explained deviance; 27.2%), oxidation-reduction potential (18.3%), salinity (12.8%), and mud content (7.3%).
The Tokyo salamander (Hynobius tokyoensis) indigenous in the Miura peninsula, is threatened with extirpation due to habitat loss from development. Artificial breeding sites in running water were introduced; however, many of the sites are not considered to be high quality breeding habitat. This species normally deposits its egg-sacs in still water, attached to a suitable twig, leaf or grass stem. We studied the retention of egg-sacs at two different types of running water sites. Our study showed that 48.7% of egg-sacs were washed away at natural stream sites, and 76.8% of egg-sacs were washed away by small streams created by erosion at abandoned rice paddy sites. We created still water sites in the abandoned rice paddies, and the results showed that only 5.3% of the egg-sacs were washed away. For conservation of this species, it may be necessary to protect a wide variety of riparian zones, groundwater systems, and forested areas.
Recently, the loss of diversity of aquatic plants has become an important issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between aquatic plant distributions and environmental conditions in canal networks in order to develop appropriate conservation species. Six types of water areas (river, reservoir, paddy field, irrigation canal, drainage, and fish-breeding pond) in canal network in Ina district, Nagano prefecture, central Japan were selected as the study sites. The dominance of the aquatic plants in these sites was surveyed using provisional quadrates. The flora of aquatic plants in these study sites were surveyed in the summer and the fall seasons of 2009. The environmental conditions were measured and recorded as follows; water quality, agricultural and dredging managements and so on. The number of appearance species was 51 in the summer. On the other hand in the fall, the one was 26. It was recognized that the species richness of the paddy field plots were highest with the exception of mid-summer drainage ones. There were a large number of appearance species in the irrigation canal plots with periodic artificial disturbance. As a result, it seems that the maintenance such as paddy field farming with periodic artificial disturbance can be increased the species richness of aquatic plants.
To examine the influence of site scale (vegetation) and landscape scale factors (e.g., surrounding land cover) on avian communities in patchy urban woodlands, we censused birds at 52 stations located in 13 urban and suburban woodlands in and around Tokyo, Japan from 2006 to 2007 in both the wintering and breeding seasons. The recorded species were divided into three groups, urban avoiders, urban adapters, and urban exploiters, based on literature in which the response of bird species to an urbanization gradient was considered. Vegetation surveys were also carried out each season. Hierarchical linear models were constructed using avian species richness as the response variable, vegetation structure variables as site scale explanatory variables, and average vegetation structure variables in each woodland and surrounding land cover variables as landscape scale explanatory variables. The results indicated that the percentage of open lands including agricultural fields and grasslands had a positive effect on urban avoider species richness, perhaps because the percentage of open lands is a good indicator of non-urbanization and the distribution of urban avoider species was determined based on the landscape-scale potential of species inhabitation. Open lands may also contribute to the ease of movement in birds and/or play a role of a part of habitat.
The changing of phenology is one of the effects of them and it is said that are driven by the phenological shiftsurrounding land cover to reveal the influence of urbanization on tree phenology. As a flowering date at a maximum and the trees flowered earlier tended to appear surrounding land cover on phenology was confirmed, but the ’relationship to flowering date. from the trees. Besides, it was supposed that not just surrounding land cover but also environment influence on the difference of flowering timing.
This paper aims to analyze the plants compositions of the “Vertical Gardens (Mur Végétal)” by a French botanist Patrick Blanc. The analysis focused on the plants layout drawings which Blanc had sketched by hands when he designs a plant scheme for each project of the Vertical Garden. I have examined five drawings which were published: i) Hotel Pershing Hall in Paris, ii) Quai Branly museum in Paris, iii) 21st Century Museum of Contemporary Art in Kanazawa, iv) Boutique Marithéet Francois Girbaud in Osaka and v) Cité de l’Espace in Toulouse. Following an elaborate work to identify of all the names of plants which were indicated in the layout drawings, I have investigated their characteristics. Accordingly, the species or genus of the plants which were specially preferred to be used in the Vertical Gardens had been revealed. Then, I analyzed the association between the characteristics of the plants and the composition in the drawings. As the consequences, I showed diagrammatically the characteristics of the plants, which are the habitat, growth form, seasonal changes, sun exposure, stratum or vertical strata and so on, have some influences on the composition of the Vertical Gardens, and furthermore I explored the plants compositions of the Vertical Gardens.
The purpose of this study was to consider about the landscape planning of the large-scale retail stores based on the consciousness of enterprises and users. Therefore, we grasped "Current state of landscape planting", "Effect of landscape planting ", "Possibility of greening promotion in the future", and "Preferable landscape planning" in Large-scale Retail Stores by the questionnaire survey and the site investigation. The results are as follows. 1) The investigation enterprises of 69.4 percent did landscape planting to the large-scale retail store. 2) The investigation enterprises expected "Corporate image improvement" and "CSR is accomplished" by the landscape planting to the large-scale retail store. 3) The investigation users of about 90 percent changed the impression of the enterprise by the landscape planting to the large-scale retail store. 4) The investigation users hoped for the green coverage ratio of about 15 percent over in the large-scale retail store 5) The investigation user thought that you may cooperate in the landscape planting to the large-scale retail store. The contents of cooperation were "Fund-raising" and "Cooperation of planting and management activity"
The eco-tour has been encouraged in Shiretoko, a world heritage site, northern Japan, to balance nature conservation with local economy. To keep the number of participants of the tours, acquiring both of new visitors and repeaters is needed. The purpose of this study is to examine what kind of eco-tour should be provided to acquire the new visitors and the repeaters. To understand the preferences of them, choice experiments were applied to general public which contains potential new visitors and on-site visitors which contains potential repeaters. The result shows that the potential new visitors prefer the famous destinations such as Kamuiwakka, while the potential repeaters prefer the sites where they can enjoy primitive settings such as Lake Rausu. Furthermore, there are differences between the preferences for the quality of lecture provided by tour guides and the number of the participants of a tour. The potential repeaters only prefer detailed explanation of the guides and the tour with the small number of participants.
The relationship between guide roles on the ecotourism and environmental conservations was comprehended by organizing the change of Japanese ecotourism. Japanese research articles from 1990 to 2009 were investigated. The Japanese ecotourism period can be categorized into four different stages; 1) introduction period of ecotourism, 2) examination period of Japanese ecotourism, 3) development period of Japanese ecotourism and 4) working period of Japanese ecotourism. There are 2 types of environmental conservations by ecotourism guide. One is environmental education to stakeholders: tourists, local people and themselves. The other is participation in environmental conservational activities. As ecotourism is social system, environmental conservation by environmental education and environmental load reduction of guiding tour is insufficient. It is necessary for the ecotourism guide to get more positively involved in the environmental conservation and tourism resource in future.
This study examined previous studies to get important intellectual insight for developing visitor risk management associated with park planning and management. As a result, frameworks of risk management authorized in sociology have never been surveyed to apply domestic visitor risk management in protected areas in Japan. All outdoor recreation involves some level of risk which is an important component of park tourism management. Visitor risk management is the systematic identification, analysis and control of the broad range of visitor risks. There should be a structured process to identify, assess, manage the risks, and monitor and review. For manager and tourism providers, perceived risk is one of the core components of controlling visitors’ attitudes toward actual risks. Issue of heterogeneity of visitors’ perceived risk levels is assumed to difficult subject on visitor risk management. Based on dimensions of the risk construct in natural resource recreation settings, adoption of visitor market segmentation or shared responsibility is thought to be worth to reduce or eliminate the occurrence and consequences of incidents, and to balance between the levels of risk associated with recreational activities.
Mt. Fuji has 4 major paths to the top and most climbers use 4 trailheads located at the mid-slope of the mountain (5th step) presently. It goes without saying that climbers’ experience on 4 routes differs. In order to have climbers deeply satisfied with climbing experience, it is important to clarify the quality of experience and the attractiveness of route and to convey the information of them to potential climbers who have willingness to climb. This study aimed at evaluating the quality of climbing on the routes by using indicators of satisfaction level and employed a questionnaire survey. In concrete terms, the purpose of this study is 1) to grasp the characteristics of climbing on each route, 2) to evaluate the quality of climbing on the routes through climbers’ satisfaction classified by use of trail head and 3) to make clear the relationship between the attribute of climbers and the satisfaction level. As a result, satisfaction level with some expectations related to landscape from the route, rural beauty and solitude and others differed. In other words, differences of the quality of climbing existed on 4 routes at Mt. Fuji.
We believe that a characteristic of rebuilt residential complexes that makes effective use of existing trees—many of which have been conserved and replanted, giving residents a view of such greenery—enables residents to benefit from the effects of greenery in their daily lives. In this study, we chose the Musashino Midoricho Park Town residential complex, which makes use of existing trees, to examine the relationship between the state of greenery that is visible from the homes and the perception of its residents. With respect to resident perception of greenery within the residential complex, 90% of the residents cited benefits of being able to view trees from the south-facing side of their home, and the relaxing effect of having a view of trees. We found that these responses resulted from the following: that 80% of the residents were able to view trees while seated in a south-facing room in their homes, the relaxing effect of having a view of trees, and understood that if eIt moisture regardless of a hierarchy if a tree was seen.
The purpose of this study is to reveal the attitude of people, who are considering purchase of a house, toward having a private garden and its quality. To confine study objects, we handed out questionnaires in a housing exhibition, and to obtain answers similar to the situation when they actually buy a house, we made a questionnaire using the conjoint analysis that can make examinees consider tradeoff. As a result, we found that when people buy a house, they place more emphasis on whether there are some facilities such as a hospital, a school, a commerce facility and a public park close to their houses, and less emphasis on having a private garden. Moreover, we found that when people make a private garden, they place more emphasis on the time and labor for the maintenance of a garden and less emphasis on the characteristics of a garden: for example, whether various creatures can live in the garden. And it also becomes clear that a person who has a garden desires a garden in his/her new house and that the age of people affect their awareness of a private garden.
Senjogahara Moor had been visited botanists and many tourists for a long time and is the one of the moor where relations with the human being are particularly strong in Japan. This study clarified changes of conservation consciousness on Senjogahara Moor from the Meiji period to the Showa period by various documents. As a result, it became clear as follows: (1) Importance of Senjogahara Moor was already discovered by botanists in the Meiji period, and conservation consciousness already occurred to botanists during the Taisho period. (2) The national park administration kept conservation consciousness continuously while being affected by the thought of the sightseeing promotion, from the designation of the national park to about 1965. (3) Senjogahara Moor was recognized as a place of the comfortable scenery and the tourism development from the Taisho period, conservation consciousness is not watched besides botanists and the national park administration until about 1965. (4) Change to positive conservation consciousness that national park administration took conservation measures was watched from about 1965, and it changed measures of other people and organizations.
This study is investigation for finding to create new park life and culture, with the aim of improving in food service in parks and advancing growth of local industry by park management, in a case of Echigo Hillside National Government park, Sanuki Mannou National Government park, Bihoku Hillside National Government park. As a result, it was shown possibility that park users ask for park cafe with cooked local farm products, and outdoor cooking, example of baking bread and pizza in the oven, and so on. And, when park users choose food menu in park restaurant, they ask for cheap, fast, and seasonable food menu, but in restaurant with cooked local farm products, park users ask for seasonable, original food menu more than cheap and fast food menu. So this study was found the possibilities of improving in food service of parks in cooperation with local industry.
National Government Parks (NGPs) having large area and various facilities, were demanded a high management standard and introduction of new management administration technique. NGPs has introduced social needs to accept social involvement and supported the citizen participation activity including a volunteer to collaborate for park management administration from 1990. The purpose of this study is to make clear what the characteristics of citizen participation activities in NGPs, by researching of the historic process from establishment, the current activity contents, support methods by park manager and the opinion of volunteers of the citizen participation activities in 14 NGPs managed by Parks and Recreation Foundation. This study shows that the citizen participation activities in NGPs carried out a role for management administration, had the future problem of continuity and independence of the activity, a relationship with the park.
In this research, the desirable direction in planning of a neighborhood park that responds to the demand of short-term residents such as university students, as well as that promotes their participation in the park management and maintenance. For the specific university students in a suburban city, the evaluation experiment to the hypothetic characteristics of the neighborhood park was conducted. Through the factorial analysis on the result, two factors of the evaluation are extracted, and it was verified that these are interpreted as the degrees of two different aspects of enjoyment of the park desired by the students, that are the enjoyment of the park respectively as the facility for them to use, and as the field for them to participate, and it is suggested that these two factors should be taken into consideration in the planning process of parks for which the participation by the citizens is regarded desirable.
In this study, we clarify the tasks needed to enlarge the urban parks management system in Makuhari Bay Town district, Chiba city. By interviewing people from civic groups, park administration, and other organizations, we understand the process and actual situation of the urban parks management system with public participation. On the basis of this research, we discuss the recent developments and tasks needed for enlarging the urban parks management system, ranging from individual activities to public participatory activities in the regional community. The results are as follows: 1) Civic groups organized by residents who were interested in theme-oriented activities have led the management system of urban parks in Makuhari Bay Town district. 2) Recently, neighborhood residents of urban parks organized a civic group for park management. In the beginning of the activity, existing organizations supported the civic group by conducting activities such as skill coaching, and so on. 3) To further develop the management system of urban parks with public participation in the regional community, opportunities are needed to enhance communication and mutual cooperation among the civic groups, and to strengthen the partnership between the civic groups and the administration.
Recently, the increase of heat stress by the urban heat island or global warming is being pointed out. Increase of heat stress raises the danger of the heat stroke in daily life. Especially infants are strongly influenced by thermal radiation from the ground compared with adults and, therefore, infant's heatstroke risk could be considered very high. The purpose of this study was set to clarify the change in the Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT) with the passage of time from a viewpoint of infant by analyzing MRT at the height of 50cm and infant’s behavior. First, we gathered spatial geometry and material data in a park and constructed a 3D-CAD model, and calculated the spatial distribution of MRT. We also recorded the change in location of infant in the park. Then, we analyzed the change in the MRT with the passage of time from the viewpoint of infant. The results indicated that MRT for infants scored 38 degrees or more in bad condition and the condition continued 5 minutes or more. On the other hand, MRT for the parents scored the value from 33 to 35 degrees. The difference of MRT between for infant and for parent was 5 degrees at the maximum.
In an era where half of the world’s population lives in cities, biodiversity conservation in an urban area is a major global issue. Honeybee projects implemented in cities has increased its numbers recently, and they are thought to play a certain role for creating chances to experience nature and result to raising awareness of biodiversity. In this study, the purpose, contents of activity, and current status of domestic honeybee projects were researched to consider the most suitable environmental education program that enhances understanding of nature and enlightens biodiversity issues. The program was actually carried out in a honeybee project and the effect was examined by a consciousness survey that illustrates the change of ideas of local residents before and after the project. The survey revealed that the environmental education program resulted in change of impressions of the honeybee itself, enhanced the communication regarding nature, and raised the recognition of biodiversity. The 3 factors considered important for the realization of a successful and sustainable honeybee project were, the correct communication regarding safety issues, interactive activities such as observation of hive boxes, and creating chances to experience the value of ecological services such as the tasting of honey.
Spaces for children to freely play in, such as fields and empty lots, have been diminishing due to urbanization. In this study, outdoor activities and nature experiences which remain in university students’ memories have been categorized, an d the activity areas have been identified. For the survey of outdoor activities, information of activity details and illustration of play areas were collected from 101 respondents. With regard to the survey of nature experiences, descriptions of nature experience and information on activity areas were collected from 70 respondents. Respondents themselves also participated in a workshop to categorize the nature experiences. The types of play area remaining in memories are in rather close proximity in everyday life as compared with locations such as large scaled parks. In particular, elementary schools (42%), parks (17%), and streets (13%) remained in university students’ memories. As for activity areas for nature experiences, nature land (31%) counted the highest figure, followed by parks (13%), neighborhoods (12%), elementary schools (11%), and fields (9%). It is important to consider areas which remain in university students’ memories even after ten years since their childhood. It is necessary to equip activity locations appropriately according to outdoor acti vities and nature experiences.
NEAP (National Ecotourism Accreditation Program) in Australia started in 1996. This is the first ecotourism accreditation program in the world. In this study, the system and characteristics of NEAP have been clarified. The study was conducted mainly through worldwide literature research and perusal of the official website. In addition, field survey and interviews were conducted for 10 days from March 3rd to 12th in 2010. Development of NEAP was initiated by Ecotourism Association of Australia together with related industries and the government. NEAP is a program which accredits accommodation facilities, tours, and attractions in nature areas, based on a standard established by NEAP itself. Four hundred and twenty-three quality ecotourism products have been accredited as of January 2010. The increasing number of accredited ecotourism products has been contributing to raise consciousness among the tourism related industries. As a result of study on benefits of NEAP, the system where environment conservation translates to economical profitability has been revealed. The relationship with economy is important for ecotourism, which strives for sustainable developments. On the other hand, it was revealed that there were cases where understanding about NEAP was lacking, based on field study results and interviews with tourists. Also, some facilities had problems with facility maintenance related to environmental consciousness.
The transitions of biodiversity policies in national environmental policies and/or of the influence of national trends on local plans have been clarified by the other previous researches gradually. However, recently many local governments have been discussing local biodiversity strategies based on Japan’s Basic Law on Diversity. In order to consider effectual quantitative information for biological diversity policy at the local government level, this study focused on extracting quantitative information used in basic environmental initiatives by local governments including all of cities designated by government ordinance, which could indicate the natural environment, and examining its characteristics and roles. As a result, it was clarified that many local governments set numerical targets for a large number of policies, and indicated concrete administrative action for the future. On the other hand, the information on the state of the environment for policy evaluation was limited, and the policies had not reached a stage where evaluation was possible on how they contributed to maintaining the environment. Also, it was suggested that the effectual quantitative information could be different by the space scale of each plan for nature conservation.
Chocolate Hills is a tourist spot in Bohol, Philippines. There are two viewing resorts offering two unique panoramic views of the hills. This study aims to investigate the landscape preference of tourists in its present condition and for future development. A survey was conducted on tourists in two viewing decks to identify the most interesting part in the existing panoramic view and evaluate the attractiveness and importance of the landscape elements in the present land use, and to determine the landscape expectation of tourists for reference in future developments. The informants were provided with a camera, a questionnaire and landscape illustrations as research tools during the survey. An area in the panoramic view was identified by tourists as the most interesting part of the panoramic view. The study suggests that special attention should be given to the identified part in the management of the landscape. Tourists gave equal importance to hills (grasslands), forests, and farmlands, but expressed preference for viewing hills that are uncovered with trees. The reason of this preference, as a result of Correspondence Analysis, is to give emphasis on the physical characteristics of the features. This is supported by another part of the survey when tourists were asked to choose their preferred landscape from the different possible landscape illustrations.