Mirei Shigemori is a person who has left a great footprint in the history of modern Japanese gardens. In this article, we discussed the value of his garden built in Toyonaka Osaka, which the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology proposed as a national scenic spot in June 2019. First of all, this garden is worth having abundant materials. We compared the Mirei Shigemori's blueprints with the current situation in the garden and analyzed them by referring to materials such as “Rinsen” and other documents. Also we had hearing survey to the present owner and the gardener. As a result, gardens were constructed in modern suburban residential areas around Osaka and Kobe, and the close relationship between the garden and architecture as well as the owner and gardener could be verified. It was also understood that the garden was influenced by the owner's wishes and restrictions on site conditions, but it still revealed the unique personality of Mirei Shigemori as his early garden. Many kindes of stones and plants were used to express Mirei Shigemori's idea. In this way, we were able to understand the gardening process and its characteristics established in the early works of Mirei Shigemori in 1940.
The aim of this study is to obtain the construction process and its background of Mt. Hakkoda alpine garden, Tohoku Imperial University. The garden was established in 1929 as the branch of the Biological Institute of Tohoku Imperial University. In 1928 and 1929, a lot of rocks were piled up in the alpine garden which remains traditional Japanese design, in a part, by the famous Japanese gardener Toranosuke Shibata. The garden is consisted of many native trees such as shrubs and herbaceous perennials. The rock garden with various kind of alpine plants collected from several high mountains. They are all kept well in the natural conditions and are providing valuable research materials for researchers and precious scenic beauty for plants lovers. The garden was built with the financial support by Aomori prefecture for the purpose of rural promotion of the prefectural government. The landscape of the rock garden with surrounding mountains in the background was similar to that of the Linnaea garden in Switzerland.
This study examined the historical significance of Kushiro Park in Hokkaido, Japan from a sociocultural perspective, utilizing the related literature and interviews. The paper focuses on the following seven points: 1) local autonomy under Hokkaido reclamation polices and trends in Kushiro prior to the idea of a park; 2) the background to the idea of Kushiro Park and the selection of the location by the governor of Miyamoto; 3) the negotiation process between the Hokkaido Government and Kushiro Town for the acquisition of park land; 4) the change of land use on the lanned park site which was allotted for reclamation to make farmland; 5) the utilization of park land by residents/government after opening; 6) the features and realization of park design of Honda Seiroku twice; 7) the separation and reduction of Kushiro Park after World War 2. The three major revelations from the study concern the mining development and urban expansion distribution in the background of the park concept and site selection; the difference in their attitude between the Hokkaido Government and Kushiro Town in the negotiation process, and; the contradiction with continuing to make park facilities against the reclamation led to the introduction of non-park land use.
This paper aimed to clarify the private landscape architectural technicians in Taiwan, in the Japanese colonial period. This paper researched the number, the names and the business contents of them. The results of document analysis led to this paper new findings: (1) There were 66 landscape architectural technicians. The number of them is around 40% of the whole horticulturists in Taiwan. (2) The 66 landscape architectural technicians included 49 Japanese (it includes estimated people as Japanese.) and 17 Taiwanese. The number of Japanese exceeds 70% of the whole landscape architectural technicians. (3) There were 32 technicians who worked as gardeners. The 32 technicians included 31 Japanese (it includes estimated people as Japanese.) and Taiwanese was only 1 person. The result shows that it has a lot of possibilities that many Japanese gardens in Taiwan were constructed by such Japanese technicians. (4) There were 57 technicians who grew landscape architectural trees. The 57 technicians include 40 Japanese (it includes estimated people as Japanese.). The number of them is around 70% of the whole. (5) Some landscape architectural technicians in Japan exported landscape architectural trees to Taiwan. The export of such plants to Taiwan from Japan is one of important points to consider landscape architectural spaces in the period, Taiwan.
In this study, we conducted a survey using the old pictorial maps of Minamikomatsu, in order to identify the land-use, vegetation change, and disaster history situation of the satoyama from the Edo to early Meiji eras. As a research object resource, we used 56 old pictorial maps created from the Edo to early Meiji eras that are stored in Minamikomatsu, Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture. As a result of the analysis, we were able to see it became clear trend showing that wilderness conditions spread around various rivers, lakes, and the lagoon from the Edo to early Meiji eras. These areas also showed evidence of historical flooding, and that they were flooded. In addition, people at the time were taking measures against flood damage by building embankments. Furthermore, since pine trees were distributed along the lakeside and rivers, it was thought that these areas had a natural wilderness environment at that time where pine forests spread out, despite being disturbed by flood damage.
A case study was conducted to discuss landscape settings of historic religious places as their visual relationships with surrounding environment. Mt. Daisen (Tottori pref., 1729m), where is known as one of “Reizan (sacred mountains)”, has been developed by temples and shrines on its north-west mountainside since ancient ages. Including their access roads from other regions, visual relationships of the religious places and surrounding environment was surveyed using DEM and viewshed analyses. First, visual target areas, where were assessed as significant views from the religious places, were identified. Then, high visibility areas to the target areas were extracted, and the relation with the location of religious places were investigated. As the results, strong correspondence of high visibility areas to the targets and the religious places’ setting was observed. The results show that the settings of historic religious places have visual connection with their surroundings. And they inspire the discussion that the landscape what we can see from there could be not a result of the past development, but a contributing factor of the development. The results also suggest the necessity of rethinking of landscape planning at Reizan, where are nowadays likely to be designated as national park.
This paper reveals the process of the governmental park authorities’ usage of “Chiiki-sei”, as opposed to “Eizoubutsu (public structure)”. “Chiiki-sei” is briefly a system to protect a designated area’s landscape etc. based on public regulations, not ownership or management rights of its land. The results were as follows. ①It is highly possible that the period of discussions on the Natural Parks Law draft in the National Parks Councils’ consultations and reports in 1951 marked the beginning of the usage of “Chiiki-sei” in contrast with “Eizoubutsu”. ②The “Chiiki-sei” was accepted by the park authorities of city parks in the Ministry of the Construction. This is due to the fact that “Chiki-sei” was used by Kashiro Ishigami, who, as the director of the planning division in the Ministry of Health and Welfare, had had experiences in the field of city parks’ establishment and had a network with the authorities of city parks in the Ministry of the Construction through negotiations at the time of establishing peoples’ parks. ③Testsumaro Senge, Ishigami’s successor, used “Chiiki-sei” as the same meaning. It is then probable that the usage of the word started to become popular, as explanatory books about the City Parks Law or the Natural Parks Law etc. were published.
Sendai City (Miyagi Prefecture) is now known to have been called the term of “Mori no Miyako (which refers to forest city)”. Historically, the assembly of the homestead woodlands owned by warriors of Edo period looked like forest and its historical landscape is regarded as being related to the birth of the nickname. The Chinese character of “mori(森)” which refers to forest was used to inscribe “Mori” and the other character of “mori (杜)” replaced gradually. However, the background and meaning of the term is unknown. The purpose of this study is 1) clarify the quantitative change from “mori(森)” to “mori(杜)” using databases and to consider the turning points, 2) to reexamine the changes in green space and to consider the relationship between the changes of notation and green space. The literature examinations and the analysis of green space were employed. As a result, the ratio of the transcription was reversed in literatures in 1950s and the number of term use of “Mori no Miyako” was large more than doubled. Additionally, planar structure of the green space changed to dotted and liner due to Sendai Air Raid. The notation “Mori no Miyako” seems to represent different green spaces depending on the users, that is the first advocate Kobayashi or a current city government.
In local cities in Japan, there are problems in the utilization and management of block parks due to the social situation such as population decline, declining birthrate and aging population, and financial constraints of local governments. The purpose of this study is to evaluation the block park. Questionnaire survey was conducted for residents in the urbanization promotion area in Maebashi city to understand the response to greening policy, satisfaction of living environment, needs of park, frequency of uses and satisfaction. The questionnaire results were modeled by covariance structure analysis. The results were as follows; We quantitatively grasped the relationship between the elements that make up “park satisfaction” and “park use frequency” and“ green policy vision” “satisfaction of living environment” “neighborhood park needs”. In reorganizing the block park, it was important to capture the needs of the existing block park. However, it was suggested that the plan should be based on comprehensive consideration of the greening policy vision and the satisfaction of the environment of living.
In this study, we will understand the actual situation of street trees maintenance management systems in local governments in Japan and the development status of street trees maintenance management plans and management guidelines. Next, this study was to understand the current state of the street trees maintenance management system and its impact, and to investigate the problems of citizen’s participation in street trees maintenance management. As a result, street trees maintenance work is mainly done in the civil engineering road sector. In large local governments, staff specializes in landscaping, while in small local governments, it’s mainly civil engineering. In addition, most street trees management methods are outsourced by contractors, with less than half direct management by staff. The policy to maintain street trees is positioned in many local government green master plans. Since 2015, local governments have developed conservation plans for street trees and are working on sound conservation. Since the 2000s, local governments have been working on maintenance management systems with the participation of residents. Most of them are road beautification activities based on adaptive systems. In the future, the challenge will be to further expand the system and raise citizen’s interest and value perception.
This research investigated opinions and future tasks about techniques for cherry trees maintenance by questionnaire survey to landscaping officials. As a result, it became clear that the techniques considered important especially were “pest control”, “pruning”, “soil improvement”, “replanting” and “fertilization”. For these techniques, it also became clear the opinions that “soil improvement” and “replanting” should be implemented on a regular or systematically and “pruning” and “fertilization” should be implemented on an as needed. Based on the results of testing for differences in opinions due to differences in attributes, we considered “pruning” has big differences in opinions, “replanting” and “fertilization” had differences in opinions, and “soil improvement” had no differences in opinions. As future issues about each technique, we considered the verification of methods and effects and the solving of the difference in opinion. And, the matters about each technique that are expected in the future were sharing implementation examples, technology development and accumulation of research results.
Night lighting is designed based on Japanese Industrial Standards and National Police Agency guidelines, but it has not been verified that it is actually in accordance with the standards. In this study, the night lighting environment in the park was verified from the viewpoint of user safety. The illuminance was measured every 10m mesh in Suminoe Park and Sumiyoshi Park, which are thought to have many users at night. The measurement was performed separately for the leafing period and the defoliation period. At Suminoe Park in the leafing period, 75.6% of the main places with garden roads were below 5 lx and below the JIS standard. In addition, 53.1% of other places were below 1 lx and below the JIS standard. 72.9% at the main locations in Sumiyoshi Park and 34.3% at other locations were below the JIS standard. These illuminance deficiencies are considered to be able to be improved to some extent by plant management techniques.
In this study, we surveyed the utilization and management of waterfront space of Tokyo Marine Parks by designated managers of the parks and clarified the current issues. In the survey, regarding the utilization, we focused on the events using waterfront space held in the parks with sea level. Also, regarding the management, we targeted the parks with the beach and focused on the contents of the management plan of beach maintenance, the recognition and the treatment by designated managers. As a result of the survey, the event was confirmed to be held at seven parks, and 60% of it utilized waterfront space. However, there were the parks that hardly used the waterfront space. Also, events for environmental protection were limited. On the management side, the management plans for problems requiring specialized knowledge, such as sludge accumulation and clogging on the beach, could not be confirmed. And, it was found that the recognition and the treatment of the designated manager were also insufficient.
In recent urban park renovation projects, many private business projects are expected to join in. To invite these projects, it is necessary for city governments to prepare application guidelines to carry out public offering. But these types of guidelines were new and difficult to the most staff of city governments not having enough experiences to prepare. In this research, we carried out interviews and questionnaire to the staff who experienced preparation of application guideline, and analyzed contents of guideline documents, in order to get useful information to unexperienced staff of similar projects. As a result, we found out that they made more efforts to explain about ‘city government’s expectation to applicants’, ‘reason or purpose of introducing private business project and role of the park in the area or role of the facility in the park’, ‘rules and regulations that applicants have to obey’ and ‘items that city government can offer to applicants’, while ‘Urban park act’ and ‘The guidebook of Park-PFI’ don’t put emphasis on these items. According to these researches, it is important to give city government staff these types of information to successfully invite private business project in urban parks.
The purpose of this research is to consider the possibility of ‘businesses-utilizing urban parks’ and the difference between local governments in metropolitan areas and local governments in regional areas, paying attention to the viewpoint of local governments nationwide. The survey method of this research is based on a questionnaire survey distributed and collected by mail and targeting a total of 815 organizations in 20 government-designated cities, 772 cities, and 23 special wards nationwide at the time of the survey (August 1, 2019). Results of the survey show that, in order to disseminate ‘businesses-utilizing urban parks’ in the future, it is highly likely that it will be effective to publicize specific introduction cases rather than abstract information such a philosophy and concepts. Furthermore, it is inferred that formulating a master plan for the park management is effective in facilitating consensus building between local government organizations, and it is important to provide a place of learning for administrative staff and private businesses. In addition, in metropolitan areas, there are many local governments that are keenly aware of ‘businesses-utilizing urban parks’, while in regional areas, it is presumed that there are still few local governments that are conscious of ‘businesses-utilizing urban parks’.
This study aims to discuss the psychological process how the evaluation and perception of residential area or neighborhood parks were connected with the formation of attachment to residential area through neighborhood parks. Concretely, the structural equation modeling was conducted based on the results of questionnaire surveys for the residents in new town. In addition, this study targeted two areas with different resident’s activities, “Suzaku area” and “Sakyo area” in new town where the site of “Basic Parks for Community Use” is planned because the relationship between “evaluation and perception of residential area or neighborhood parks” and “attachment to residential area” is discussed limited to the park. As a result, the following findings were obtained; 1) in both areas, “attachment to residential area” is influenced “attachment to neighborhood parks.” And, the positive “evaluation of neighborhood park environment” and “involvement through participation into neighborhood park activities” encourages “attachment to residential area” through “evaluation of residential environment,” “involvement through participation into residential activities” and “attachment to neighborhood parks.” 2) The difference is revealed that “attachment to residential area” and “attachment to neighborhood parks” have influence on each other only in “Suzaku area” which residents pursue activities.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the concepts of rooftop greening and to clarify the birth of multiple rooftops greening and its concepts and significance in history of rooftop greening. Some 157 examples of rooftop greening were collected from technical books and contests and were analyzed from the viewpoint of place of rooftop greens, spatial relations of rooftop green, accessibility to the rooftop greens, mobility between rooftop greens, presence of natural vegetation, water environment and existence of neighboring ground green spaces. The data set was analyzed through cluster analysis and Hayashi's quantification methods typeⅢ and chronological table on the history of technologies and governmental policies. As a result, it was made clear that the concept of greening the rooftop appeared early works in history of rooftop greening. Afterwards, the concept of rooftop green on the intermediate floor also became popular in 1980s and surrounding natural environments were taken into account in 1990s. After the birth of multiple rooftops greening, rooftop greens became closed to the ground, easier to access, connected visually and biologically and improved between the upper and lower rooftops. In the case of Across Fukuoka of 1995, all concepts were introduced. In conclusion, it’s considered that multiple rooftops greening showed the new concept of continuities.
Ikenobo is considered the origin of Japanese Ikebana. Rikka can be considered one of the major flower arrangement styles of Japanese Ikebana. It first appeared in the 16th century (late Muromachi period) and underwent major developments during the 17th century, illustrating the views of the landscape. The aim of this research is to analyze the evolution in the recognition of landscape from the Edo period to the modern era. Research is based on the study of the evolution of the methodology for expression of landscape views in historical records of Ikenobo Rikka works. In particular, the author will focus on the evolution over time of space scale, and on the focus point of each part of the recognitions of landscape regarding the visual distance of close view, medium view and distant view. The analysis of the methodology for expression of Ikenobo Rikka is based on the study of the written instructions and descriptions of Rikka in various Hanadenshos and Kashos, and also the historical drawings of representative Rikka works of each period. In conclusion Ikenobo Rikka expresses the landscape views in multi-layered space scales of distant view, medium view and close view based on the study of both the written instructions and drawings of each period.
This study aims to clarify the distribution of reed lands that are expected to be abandoned after ten years in the lakeside region of Omi-hachiman; it further aims to estimate the manpower and costs required to maintain these lands with manpower external to the region. Results of interviews with the owners and users of reed lands show that due to a lack of successors in the reed industry, abandoned reed lands are expected to increase by 12.2 hectares after ten years, especially in areas where many reed lands that are owned by a reed producer under individual management are distributed. In calculating the manpower and costs, maintenance scenarios that emphasize landscape, tourism, and vegetation were developed. The trial calculation shows that if tourism is emphasized, the area of the abandoned reed lands can be considerably reduced. However, such a situation will require substantial manpower and costs. As the estimated amount of each scenario is higher than the existing grant amount allocated to reed lands maintenance, it will be necessary to optimize the degree of conservation of the landscape as well as the manpower and costs that can be secured.
In the last few years, the concern on industrial heritage have been increasing domestically and internationally. There are a large number of mining sites in Japan in which some of them are utilized as tourism resources. However, it is difficult to understand the value of mining sites at the first glance. Therefore, in order to utilize the sites for tourism and regional activation, it is necessary to investigate the utilization methods. This study aims to: 1) identify the characteristics of the mining sites in Japan; 2) identify the issues and current status of the mining sites; 3) consider more effective methods to improve its attractiveness as tourism sites. To sum up, this study has found that: 1) each mining site has various characteristics in terms of size area and remaining functions, yet none of it only end up for production activities, which the common characteristic of the entire mining sites in Japan is that it has various functions around the production area; 2) at the current situation, each mining site has difficulties to transmit the residual mining products due to the poor mechanism, which makes it difficult to understand the real figure of the mining sites; 3) the most important things to make it easier to understand the whole figure of the mining site are considering and implementing the combination of effective methods according to the characteristics of each mining site.
Seventy-four years after the end of World War II, nearly all traces of the War have disappeared, and few living memories remain because of the increasing age of the survivors. However, living war-damaged trees with green leaves can still be found despite their surfaces being carbonized, conveying traces of the War to the present day. We have previously determined the morphological characteristics and existing state of war-damaged trees in the Joto 3 wards in Tokyo, which was devastated by the Tokyo air raid. The present study expanded on that survey by analyzing the distribution of war-damaged trees in 23 wards in Tokyo. We found that war-damaged trees (i) were mostly concentrated around shrines or temples, with rates of 61.5%; (ii) occurred in the vicinity of burnt areas, with rates of 70%; and (iii) were intensively distributed in 5 out of 134 survey points, with rates of 46.5%. Furthermore, among 474 surveyed trees that had the morphological features of war-damaged trees, 200 were considered to have been war-damaged based on the reports of witnesses or presence of materials and a further 150 were likely to have been war-damaged based on the situation.
In the primary educations, studies with experiential activities are expected that they will develop peoples who can take good care of nature. Although previous researches pointed out problems in conducting environmental education, they did not clarify measures to increase implementation number of units in natural environmental education. Therefore, this research analyzed teaching framework helpful to increase the implementation by targeting elementary schools of Kansai area. As a result, it became clear that it was effective to work on teaching in the whole school for improvement of the implementation number of units. However, having a teaching plan and improving teaching process were unrelated to increasing implementation number of units. Although, having a teaching plan has been thought effective to enrich natural environmental education, this result suggested that the current teaching plans did not function well. In order to increase implementation number of units, it seems necessary to share an educational goal by updating a teaching plan or by conducting an in-school training.
This research aimed to quantify and visualize park evaluation by SNS using social listening analysis and to clarify the effectiveness and utilization possibility as a new park evaluation method. First, it was attempted to obtain data on SNS posting data of the 4 national government parks under analysis. Next, the analytical method focused attention on adjectives which are positive evaluations in posts. Furthermore, we analyzed nouns co-occurring with positive adjectives. As data analysis tool, this study uses Excel and reviews analysis soft. Pareto analysis of extracted data was carried out, and the degree of interest, opinion, evaluation of the contributor was weighed. As a result, it was possible to obtain a contributor satisfaction evaluation from a viewpoint different from the questionnaire survey result by social listening of SNS of Showa Kinen Park and Hitachi Seaside Park. It was a difference from the questionnaire survey method that past data was extracted, and analysis was possible and negative information of the park function could not be obtained. Through this analysis, we were able to obtain information on improvement target events and sales promotion which could not be obtained by popular event, questionnaire evaluation. Also, the difference in the characteristics of each park was found out. The future task of SNS analysis is to popularize the name of the park when extracting data. In order to classify extracted words, it is also necessary to create standards.
The possibility of urban green space has been reviewed again for sustainable community development, and there is an urgent need to improve it according to the needs of the residents. In this study, we conducted a large-scale questionnaire survey using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) in Moriya City, Ibaraki Prefecture, and investigated the willingness to pay for the eight functions of the green space. Next, an analysis using a generalized linear model (GLM) examined whether an individual's attributes affect the individual's willingness to pay. As a result, it was shown that the value evaluation for various functions of green space and nature varies depending on the residents. For example, functions related to health and disaster prevention are highly valued by many inhabitants regardless of age and income, and the value of the environment and nature is highly valued by families raising children. These results provide important suggestions for data-based discussions on what green space management and urban planning should be promoted in the future.
This study targeted six exhibition zones with different characteristics at the Yokohama Zoo “Zoorasia ,” which grasped visitor satisfaction at each exhibition zone, clarified the relationship between visitor satisfaction and the purpose and attributes of visitors, identified the management and operation issues at each exhibition zone from a visitor satisfa ction perspective, and examined the factors that led to its occurrence. Ultimately, the aim of this study was to discuss a response policy in relati on to the management and operation policy of Zoorasia. The main results of this study are as follows:(1) Visitor attributes are classified into three types. (2) The degree of visitor satisfaction varies by exhibition zone and visitor type. (3) The factors affecting overall visitor satisfaction vary by exhibition zone and visitor type. (4) The management and operation issues (important improving items) vary by exhibition zone. With the above results, the response policy was discussed by relating issues in the management and operation of each exhibition zone with the current management and operation policy.
This study investigated rating of a streetscape maintained by a local administrative ordinance. A questionnaire survey was conducted to examine frequency of use and purpose of use on target respondents. The results of the survey were analyzed against the street impression goals set by Kyoto City. We considered whether the landscape elements of the streetscape as desired by the ordinance of the city stimulated intentional application and whether it had an influence on resident perception of the streetscape. The area of study was the Oike-dori street which is also a recommended walk space to town. From the results, the scene component of authority for Oike-dori street was found to be elements of Japanese zelkova row of trees and a flower bed, natural items such as shrubs and the artifact-like thing such as building. Harmony of features in the landscape scenery of Oike-dori street was the man reasons that contributed to strong identity of the study area. It is thought that sense of unity, at such a location within the streetscape will become important in future. The scene component of Japanese zelkova row of trees was the most preferable in this investigation. Through text mining, sense of seasonal changes such as fresh green was found to be critical. Therefore, it is necessary to perform investigation throughout the year. It is important to put into consideration problems associated with high stratification of buildings. The results of current analysis and the new knowledge generated can help towards maintaining space quality and identity of the streetscape.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of the landscape by classifying the landscape elements and other features as viewed from a river. First, the main spatial elements around the target rivers were classified through field surveys and aerial photo interpretation, and they were divided into six areas. Second, the participants sailed on a ship and conducted a survey using visitor-employed photography. After analyzing the photography objects and how to view the objects, it was classified into 17 types of photography objects and eight forms of landscape views. In addition, the number of photos between areas was analyzed by the chi-square test (goodness-of-fit test) and residual analysis. Furthermore, Getis-Ord Gi statistics was performed in order to identify the point where a large number of photographs were taken. The analysis showed that the rear portion of buildings and the spot visible in front of the river channel as an axis are regarded as an unusual landscape that attracts attention. It was also found that the sequence where the enclosed landscape and the view landscape switched continuously was a characteristic of landscape seen from the river, as the spatial extension of the viewpoint changed depending on the river width and the revetment.
This study is the case study which verifies usefulness of the methodology we have developed to score changes in sequential riverscape. We extracted 24 riverbanks worth being part of waterscape viewed from the water surface and riverbank, located in the urban area of Osaka City, created a sequential 2D image of each riverscape, identified important elements of and open spaces, and then scored them in accordance with their features relevant to sequential changes. Through the scoring, the study found that the sequential views from the water surface were categorized into four types, ranging from the richest in scenery variation to the least changeable monotonous type. Furthermore, it discovered that the middle type was divided into two subgroups by the amount of green coverage space in variation, that is, whether it serves as the basis for landscape changes or solely appears as a frequent accent. Our scoring method made it easy to grasp contributors to landscape attractiveness, including a sequence of changes and scenic spot components, as well as human viewing locations along each river. This technique has thus been proved useful in understanding the characteristics of rivers when riverfront improvement is designed and planned.
This study aimed to grasp the current situation of ongoing “tomb dismantling”. Tomb dismantling is to remove remains of ancestor and restitute the division in a graveyard for reasons such as the absence of successor. A questionnaire survey was conducted to all 179 local municipalities in Hokkaido focusing on the current 5-year-state of the number of neglected tomb, group burial sites and transfer of remains. As results, the following insights were obtained. The number of neglected tomb was steadily increasing and the tomb dismantling by administrators increased approximately twice. The restitution of cemeteries from users has increased steadily by about 1.5 times over the past five years, accounting for about half of the relocation of remains. The graveyard officer recognizes that the main reason for tomb dismantling is due to lack of successors, change of residence, and then a change to a new burrials. In recent years, public graves have spread. In the past five years, the total acceptable amount of remains has been tripled, and the actual number of burials has also doubled. The number of remains transferred has increased 1.5 times over the last five years. The move to the public cemetery has increased by a factor of 4.5, and it is becoming the main destination after tomb dismantling. As the remains transferred beyond the scope of local municipalities when new group burial sites are built, the group burial sites are considered to be a major factor in accelerating tomb dismantling.
In recent years, the community development by the childcare support and mutual assistance that contributes to regional revitalization policy is expected to overcome a declining population. Under such a background, we clarified the change of consciousness of users of a model area considering childcare support and mutual assistance in Funahashi Village, Toyama Prefecture. A questionnaire survey was distributed to the service users of the model area to identify (1) factors affecting the rating of the service (satisfaction with each service item), (2)overall rating of the service (overall satisfaction), and (3) changes in user’s consciousness regarding "participation in childcare services", "mutual assistance", "emigration and settlement." After collecting questionnaire responses, covariance structure analysis was conducted to verify the relationship among valuables of these 3 questions. We found that the change of user’s consciousness (3) was directly affected by satisfaction with “each service item” (1) and “overall satisfaction” (2). Considering these findings, we proposed appropriate directions for the future development of the community development by childcare support and mutual assistance and the direction of new business style reform in the landscaping industry.
In the Satochi-Satoyama, located in Urbanization Control Area, it is important that a land use consensus is reached between the residents and the municipalities. This study attempts to clarify points of discussion about land use by comparing local residents’ consciousness of land use and the land use policies of municipalities. Kisawa-area, Hiratsuka-city is adopted as a case study. The local residents’ consciousness of land use is referred to Kojima et al.(2018). A literature survey is conducted to develop an understanding of the municipalities’ land use policy. As a result, there are two areas of discussion between residents and the municipalities concerning the land use policy. The first is the location and scale of developed residential lots. While residents hope to develop residential lots on farmland and forest area in order to improve their living environment and the environment of Satoyama, since 1998 the municipal government has regulated development to conserve farmland and forest areas. Instead, municipality seeks to establish new residential lots within village boundaries. The second is the effect of civic action to conserve the Satoyama environment. While municipalities have published policies to promote civic action to conserve and maintain the Satoyama environment, residents regard such civic action as ineffective.
This study surveyed the location characteristics of silkworm egg-producing farms hamlets and mulberry plantations along the middle reaches of Tone River, in Isesaki City of Gunma Prefecture and Fukaya and Honjo City of Saitama Prefecture. The region encompasses the constituent elements for the certification as World Heritage and understanding its surrounding landscape enhances its value. The study was conducted by interpreting old maps surveyed by the Land Survey Department of the Imperial Army (jinsoku-sokuzu) on mid-Meiji Period, surveying documents and studying in the field. The results show that factors behind the formation of silkworm egg-producing farms along rivers include good drainage conditions and suitability for mulberry cultivation to feed silkworms. Moreover, the development of water transportation of Tone River had a strong influence on the location. During the Meiji Period, mulberry plantations spread along and across Tone River, contributing to the high-volume production of silkworm egg-producing industry. The land formerly covered by mulberry plantations is now occupied by industrial parks and dry fields, where the region’s famous green onions are grown.
During the 20th Century, most part of Japanese paddy fields were transformed to productive efficient allotments by the “Agricultural Land Improvement Projects”. However, the rich biodiversity, which was maintained in traditional paddy field forms with nature-near water supply systems, has led to a loss. In this research, the methodology of sustainable paddy field management which is aimed at balancing “efficient paddy field management” and “ecosystem conservation” was proposed by conducting the following three points. The focused site was Asami district in Matsuzaka city. First, the paddy fields were classified into 3 types according to the introduction of the agricultural land improvement project. Secondly, the differences of biodiversity and labor productivity by farmers among the three types were clarified. Thirdly, the future paddy field management scenarios were proposed and examined by considering a compromise point in this trade-off relationship between biodiversity and labor productivity.
This thesis considers whether owners of dilapidated mountainous farmland could have incentive to reuse the land through the use of encroaching trees. Awaji city is investigated as the survey area. We collected Eurya Japonica and exported a total of six shipments. These were sold for profit at a farmer's market in Kobe city. After the sale, the purchaser advised that their future proposal was to use grown Eurya Japonica for private use and displayed an intention for reusing the same. In addition, we conducted a survey with landowners in Awaji island, regarding abandoned cultivation. We analyzed their reasons for abandonment and took into consideration various other factors. We then examined the method's effectiveness. As a result, the possibility that an owner would use dilapidated farmland was higher if appropriate usage was suggested according to particular circumstances. It is contended that managing the usage benefits not only the owner, but also the surr oundings.
Agricultural land in urban areas has been increasingly valued in recent times. As a result, the 2017 amendment of the Urban Green Space Conservation Act clarified that agricultural land is an important component of green space in Green Master Plans (GMPs). The purpose of this study is to examine the current status of agricultural land in GMPs and propose the manner in which policies for the conservation and utilization of agricultural land should be positioned in GMPs. This study analyzed 101 GMPs established by large cities in Japan. The conclusions can be summarized as follows. Newer GMPs had positioned agricultural land more clearly, especially in chapters delineating their current status and programs. Further, the programs can be divided into five categories: conservation, utilization of agricultural land, promotion of agriculture, cooperation with urban development, and measures established in the 2017 amendment. It has been proposed that, especially in cities with higher ratio of agricultural land to urbanization promotion areas and without adequate urban park space per capita, GMPs should clarify targets based on more detailed analysis of the current status, as well as have programs utilizing agricultural land in cooperation with urban development.
The purpose of this case study research is to examine the area-scale implementation of green infrastructure (GI) conducted by Gowanus Canal Conservancy (GCC), a community-based non-profit organization, in the Gowanus Canal watershed of the City of New York (NYC). The study discusses strategies and pathways that may be useful when considering community-wide GI deployments. Based on interviews, field surveys, observations of field programs, and literature surveys on GCC and NYC's Department of Environmental Protection, this paper clarifies the city's GI policy, the characteristics of the study area, GCC organizational structure, GI implementation and maintenance, related volunteer and education programs, and the design process of the area master plan. Conclusions of this paper are as follows: GCC involved various stakeholders, implement various GI reflecting local characteristics, and maintained it; Various programs according to the characteristics of the participants were developed to create various participation opportunities; As a local community group who connects institutions and projects, GCC implement GI according to local conditions.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the structure and characteristics of green infra structure in the upper river basin of the Kanda River in Tokyo from the point of the historical evolution of Green and Water conservation policies, and considers the effective methodology of green infrastructure planning, towards the adaptation of the climate change. The following three points have clarified. The first is the structure of the target area has been developed based on five small watersheds. Through the implementation of various green conservation policies, the structure, namely, core, corridor, and matrix has been gradually formulated. The second is, it is important to develop precise strategies based on the characteristics of each watershed. The third is, for contributing to solve the earth problems, such as enriching bio-diversities, enlarging water permeability, and protecting cultural landscapes, to create GI map is essential, since it would create the common platform between various stakeholders., and it becomes possible to introduce the simulation towards the climate change. By creating several scenarios, we could testify the future of the region, and consider alternative futures for the adaptation of the climate change.
This research aims to analyze the framework of green infrastructure (GI) plans and implementation in the City of Philadelphia, USA. Background of this research are challenges on creating a new type of holistic framework towards strategic GI planning and implementation. Research methods include a detailed literature review and interviews with the City of Philadelphia Water Department GI group, and consulting “Green City, Clean Waters (GCCW)” to understand the development and framework of GI planning. We identified three phases of GI planning and implementation by analyzing selected GI plans in relation to EPA GI planning and policy. In addition, we created a map and charts showing GI implementation in the City. Research results are as follows. First, this research clarified the development of GI planning in Philadelphia. In the timeframe, there are ‘Water quality control period’, ‘GI planning development period’ and ‘GI implementation acceleration period’; GCCW performed key roles in setting GI goals, visions and methods. In addition, GI partnership and the interaction between EPA and the City were confirmed. Second, Philadelphia’s GI planning to implementation framework with planning process, organizational structures, GI incentives and community engagement was revealed. Finally, through this research a holistic framework towards strategic GI planning and implementation was clarified.
In China, large-scale archaeological sites refer to the archaeological sites which have large scales and significant value, reflecting development and changes of past dynasties. Nowadays, it is noticed that a number of controversial topics arose due to various rapid development projects of real estate and tourism around the large-scale archaeological sites. The objects of this research are firstly to clarify the characteristics of development projects oriented to the large-scale archaeological sites; then secondly, to analyze how government, residents and companies involve and influence the process of development projects by taking Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City and Vanke Liangzhu new town as an example; thirdly, to propose some advice based on the current situation and issues sorted out in the development of Vanke Liangzhu new Town. According to the research, the successful development of Liangzhu Culture Village and the various activities organized by the local people have promoted the improvement of economy and living environment around Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City. However, the positive participation of residents and enterprises in protection aspect of ruins still needs to be improved.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between Chinatown and neighboring areas in terms of the development of facilities in and around Yokohama Chinatown, since the opening of Japan in 1859. Using a literature survey, we examined development projects in and around Yokohama Chinatown, focusing on “pailou (Chinese architectural arch)” and Chinese temples. As a result, we clarified that in Yokohama Chinatown, which was originally a Chinese residential area, Chinese culture is visualized in a straightforward way, through the efforts of Yokohama City and the Chinese residents. Chinatown developed in line with the trend of urban development in the surrounding area. In particular, local residents set up “pailou (Chinese architectural arch)” and then established Chinese restaurants and constructed Chinese-style buildings to accelerate the development of Yokohama Chinatown as a tourist destination. The results of this study indicate that Chinese residents in Yokohama Chinatown have used Chinese culture as a space improvement technique aimed at Japanese tourists and thus, the Chinatown in Yokohama have become a theme park as a result of their continued life in Yokohama.
Sericulture/filature was a leading industry to contribute to Japanese economy in early twenty century. Silk mills have a key role of yarn reeling process and produce high quality silk from cocoon. Gunma Prefecture is called as a “Silk Country” resulting from both cocoon and raw silk production amount. Tomioka Silk Mill in Gu nma was inscribed as a World Cultural Heritage as the presence of reeling technologies. Most of the mills was closed during World War II, but after the war over 30 mills was quickly recovered with domestic market demands. However, the business was slowing down again due to business recession after oil shock and cheaper imported silk. The silk mills shut down year by year and at present only one silk mill is operating. The objectives of this research are to clarify (1) location of the mills, (2) current util ization of the sites, and (3) outcomes from the historical background of the mills. There are five kinds of the site utilization – public facilities, commercial complex, housing district, factories and open space. The major business owners tend to maintain the sites in case but mostly it is not easy to define a trace of silk mills there.
This study aims to clarify the changes of the relationship between Shrines and Temples of Nikko and Higashimachi, where would like to generate community development and landscape as Monzen-machi, the town in front of temples, in tourism. The methodology is literature survey, mainly from travelogues and paintings of Nikko. As a result, the changes of tourist routes in Nikko with the development of transports influenced both on changes of tourism behavior and on recognition of Higashimachi. With the developing of transports, it tended to be shortened that the time at each spot and the whole Nikko. Moreover, the more transports developed, the less objects were written at Higashimachi and Shrines and Temples of Nikko. Compare the number of objects at Higashimachi to that at Shrines and Temples of Nikko, when visitors recognized many objects at Higashimachi, they recognized many objects at Shrines and Temples of Nikko, too. In conclusion, tourism experiences in Higashimachi led to better tourism experiences in Shrines and Temples of Nikko. This is caused by the contrast between sacred landscape in shrines or temples and daily landscape like ordinary buildings, views of mountains, traditional crafts in Higashimachi.
In recent years, it has been often discussed that the community should take part in heritage conservation. But, when a community manages heritage, the historical relationship between the heritage and the community needs to be considered. This study aims to clarify the historical change in the management of cultural heritage, using the example of Ishibutsuan temple along the Kumano pilgrimage route Iseji and based on a literature survey, the analysis of the space structure, and the distribution of the donors. The results show that, in the pre-modern period, Ishibutsuan temple relied on pilgrims and relevant people because the pilgrimage was flourishing then. After the middle of the 19th century, walking pilgrims had disappeared due to the development of the modern transportation system. Therefore, the temple established monuments of local people and acquired the worship of the local community. After the inscription of Iseji on the World Heritage list, the number of walking tourists increased slightly. In conclusion, tourists must contribute to management as was the case in the pre-modern period. Also, Ishibutusuan temple needs to reconstruct the space structure to attract tourists. For instance, it can incorporate a resting place like the one that existed in the past.
Gokayama Washi paper, traditional handmade paper, has a long success story spanning about 600 years in Gokayama, where world heritage historic villages are located. Washi’s raw materials are sourced and harvested from plants which are found in forests and cultivated in fields. As a local industry, Washi production relates to natural resource utilization and local residents’ livelihoods, as well as influencing the cultural landscape. This research aims to clarify the characteristics of cultural landscape as it relates to Washi industry’ transition and the status of Washi production, to discuss the efforts toward regional landscape conservation. Through mapwork and conducting a field survey, we found that land use dramatically changed since the late Meiji Era. This included fields of paper mulberry, the raw material for Washi production. These declined sharply in the middle Showa Era, yet we could still find preserved areas of traditional land use and spatial structure representative of the Meiji Era. The status of production changed from household production to community-based unions. With the revitalization of this industry, we found that there was a noticeable tendency for the output of Washi paper to increase. Part of the traditional cultivation and production process is preserved, which are important factors for cultural landscape conservation.
In order to clarify the long-term phenological shift caused by the urban heat island phenomenon, this study investigated the relationships between flowering dates of Cerasus × yedoensis ‘Somei-yoshino’ and the air temperatures in 24 cities in Japan. It was confirmed that the flowering date was accelerated as the temperature rises during the flower-bud growing period. The actual number of flowering acceleration days tended to be smaller than the expected ones. This is thought to reflect the delay in dormancy breaking due to the rise in temperature during the dormancy breaking period, and this tendency was particularly observed in cold sites. This result shows that there is a difference between sites in the flowering acceleration for the same temperature rise, it should be considered when comparing phenological shifts between some cities. In the group of sites where the average temperature during the flower-bud growing period and the average lowest temperature during the dormancy breaking period were medium, the temperature rise tended to be small. Within each group with similar air temperature condition, the features of “large decrease in NDVI” or “small NDVI in 1985” were commonly seen at sites where the temperature rise were large. However, these features did not explain the relationship between land cover change and temperature rise at all points.
We investigated the effects of large-scale typhoons on the main tree species in a mature urban forest, Tadasu-No-Mori Forest, Shimogamo-Jinja Shrine. As a result, 284 trees of 25 species were directly damaged by the typhoons. Of the trees that survived when the typhoons occurred, the ratio of trees directly affected by the typhoons was 39.6% for Lithocarpus glaber and was 23.8% for Castanopsis spp., respectively. Typhoon direct damages were seen in 10.4% to 14.9% for Aphananthe aspera, Celtis sinensis and Zelkova serrata, the dominant tree species in the canopy layer. On the other hand, there was little direct typhoon damage in Cinnamomum camphora trees (5.5%). Trees with tall height or with large diameters tended to be affected by typhoons directly for most main tree species. Many uprooted trees were observed in Quercus myrsinifolia and C. sinensis. A large number of stem breakage trees were seen in L. glaber and C. spp.. Most main tree species tended to be more severely affected by typhoons under the condition that the density of neighborhood trees was low. This result suggests that forest management with high tree stand density is effective in avoiding human damage caused by fallen trees in urban forest.
For the purposes of biodiversity conservation it is becoming increasingly important to evaluate urban fringe forests as protected areas. From now on, it is essential to clarify the characteristics of high priority forests for conservation, including their governance. In this study, we conducted evaluations based on spatial distribution of urban fringe forests and individual governance in the southern region of Ibaraki Prefecture. Here we show sites with high value for conservation by the index Vh-h, which evaluate surrounding forests and urban land cover. Furthermore, we evaluated governance by land ownership based on the local forest planning. As a result, the proportion of area with the local forest planning was significantly lower for highly evaluated forests by Vh-h. This means that there are many urban fringe forests that are not subject to the governance for the local forest planning. We suggest that the evaluation based on such index for establishing ecosystem networks in urban landscapes.
Application of seed-containing plant material is a major technique to transfer plant species onto restoration sites. The present study intended to clarify the effects of application timing and the amounts of the plant material on the subsequent vegetation development. Plant material mown from a semi-natural grassland, where Miscanthus sinensis dominated, was taken in late October. Harvested material was scattered onto soil in three different dates ( November, March and July) and two levels of amounts (app. 500 g/m2 and volume-reduced to app. 250 g/m2). A total of 23 target species appear ed from the plant material, which includes most of flowering species, species flowered earlier in the donor site, and those flower ing or flowered nearby. Thicker litter inhibited the emergence of non-target species, while neither positive nor negative effect on the richness and the cover of target species. Under thicker-litter treatment, Lespedeza pilosa was a primary dominant species at any application timing. The number of target species was not associated with the timing of application, although occurrence of several target species was inhibited in July-application treatment. This study demonstrated that thicker-litter treatment is preferable for the better restoration outcome, while effect of application timing appeared less important.
The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in the habitat of the harvest mouse (Micromys minutus) with the change in grassland due to development, targeting the green spaces in rural areas with history of development, and subsequent management status. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain knowledge on effective nature restoration and conservation of green spaces through continuous grassland management to improve the quality of the habitat of harvest mice. Subsequently, the information about the habitat of harvest mice in the managed grassland was obtained, and an increasing frequency of ball nests was confirmed. Therefore, it is clearly possible to effectively regenerate their habitat and improve its quality. In areas where artificial land use is increasing, the habitat and number of harvest mice have decreased. Hence, active habitat conservation and management is required. The study provided certain knowledge regarding these aspects. As implemented in this study, it is important to select target species according to the uniqueness and characteristics of the region, based on the history of development on green spaces.
In secondary forests that have been abandoned, clear-cutting bamboo and thinning increase the species diversity of forest floor plants. However, the effects on ground beetles have not been sufficiently studied. In this study, we set up survey traps at four areas: Sasa (Pleioblastus chino) mowing area, Sasa standing area, bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) clear-cutting area, and bamboo standing area in Tama hill, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. A total of 80 traps were set up to capture ground beetles: 10 traps in each area with two replicates. The number of species was greater in the case of management in the Sasa mowing area and bamboo clear-cutting area than in the case of no management in the Sasa standing area and bamboo standing area. In particular, the number of ground beetles was higher in the Sasa mowing area than in the Sasa standing area, bamboo clear-cutting area, and bamboo standing area. The ground beetles belonging to Pterididae were the most common, and the most common species were Carabus insulicola, Synuchus cycloderu, and Pterostichus yoritomus. In particular, C. insulicola comprised over 90% of the total ground beetles collected from the Sasa mowing area, suggesting that this beetle can be used as an indicator of biodiversity in an abandoned secondary forest.