There is an important bone matrix with remodelling between dentate and edentulous samples of the human maxilla for bone metabolism. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is useful for structural analysis of bone. The objective of this study was to investigate morphological data of donor cadavers in detail using CBCT imaging and principal component analysis (PCA). We analysed 38 donor cadavers using a CBCT apparatus. The analytical results defined differences in skull measurement parameters and dentate and edentulous levels using PCA. We observed cortical bone, trabecular bone, and the distance from the bottom of the maxillary sinus to the oral mucosa at a right angle to the palatal plane of the first molar region between dentate and edentulous samples of the human maxilla using CBCT imaging. In the dentate sample of the maxilla, component 1 was defined by negative contributions from gender (−0.84) and age (−0.54) to positive contributions such as cortical bone structure (CBS, 0.68) and trabecular bone structure (TBS, 0.50). There was a difference in CBS between dentate and edentulous human maxilla samples. This study of CBCT data provides useful basal information for planning dental implant surgery using PCA.
Microfocus X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) has been applied as a method for the nondestructive and detailed assessment of trabecular bone patterns and tooth structure. Voxel values obtained from micro-CT are not absolute values. Therefore, voxel values were assessed using hydroxyapatite (HA) blocks with a different vesicle rate to quantify voxel values of micro-CT images in the present investigation.
HA blocks with 4 levels of porosity and a block with a soft tissue-equivalent density were used, and the voxel values of each block were measured. Correlations between voxel values of micro-CT and HA densities were analyzed. Also, black and white binary images were produced, and the ratios of white pixels to pixels in regions of interest (ROIs) were calculated. The relationship between voxel values of micro-CT and HA densities could be regressed using a linear equation, and the correlation coefficient was high. Also, there were no significant differences in the regression equations between the first and second times. Voxel values of micro-CT might be convertible to HA densities using a regression equation.
We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult Chapman's zebra by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papillae of the lingual apex consisted of a main papilla and smaller secondary papillae. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. The filiform papillae of central region of the lingual body were needle-like in shape. The filiform papillae of posterior region of the lingual body were hair-like in shape. Many grooves were observed on posterolateral regions and the fungiform papillae were observed on the inside of some grooves. The vallate papillae were located on both sides of the posterior region and surrounded by a groove. The anatomical characteristic of the lingual surface of the Chapman's zebra is the fungiform papillae on the inside of some grooves.
We microscopically examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult Asian golden cat (Catopuma temminckii). The papillae on the margin of the lingual apex were horny-shaped and fungiform. The filiform papillae on the anterior part of the lingual body were large and cylindrical; the connective tissue core of each of these comprised a large conical papilla. The filiform papillae on the central part of the lingual body were large and conical-shaped on the medial side and dome-shaped on the lateral side. The connective tissue core of each medial filiform papilla comprised a large main process and some secondary processes, while processes were absent on the lateral side. These findings are peculiar to the tongue of members of the family Felidae.