Nagasaki University has been engaged in technical co-operation in Kenya from 1966 in the medical field. Through the clinical investigation of disease distribution among the tribes resided near Nakuru, some hundred miles westwards of Nairobi, it was clarified that certain tribes have very high incidences of certain diseases. Higher incidence of malaria was seen among Bantu, Luo, particularly Kamba tribes. Amebiasis was commonly seen in Tugen, Nandi and Kisii tribe. Kala-Azar cases were also seen mainly in Tugen and 12 out of 13 cases of the disease were Nilo-Hamitics. Schistosomiasis, which widely spreads in East Africa, was seen relatively many times in spite of dry weather of Nakuru area. Thirth eight cases out of 45 were S. mansoni. Kamba was the highest reservoir of S. mansoni and Luo was the second. Hydatid disease was seldom seen in the medical wards but 9 cases of the disease were admitted in the wards from 1966 to 68. Five cases out 9 were Masai, famous tribe in East Africa. Factors which might affect on the out-breaks and spreading of these protosoan and parasitic diseases were discussed from meteorological, geographical and sociological point of view.
The Ethiopia highland is surrounded by desert and tropical forest-rain areas, and the highland itself surpass 2, 000m in average from sea level. Because of this geographic feature, miscellaneous infectious and parasitic diseases are seen in this country depending on the individual locations. There is not only a plenty of oral and respiratory infections of bacterial, rickettsial, protozoal and helminthic diseases, but also various arthropods-transmitted diseases which are scattered widely by various insects vectors. The shortage of medical facilities and staffs in this country prolongs unfortunately prompt improvement of the present situations. It should be moral obligation for the so-called developed countries to relieve inhabitants from these infectious and parasitic diseases. It seems that those who love Ethiopia and Ethiopians should frankly suggest and recommend people the possible means for the improvement from medical and administrative view points. It does not only mean to help the people under miserable conditions, but it does mean to help ourselves, because all of us are equally involved in mankind.
A parasitological investigation was performed at Brazzaville, Congo Republic, from April 1968 to September 1968 (dry season). Ascaris lumbricoides and hook worms are most common among intestinal parasites. A culture method was used with filter paper for the detection of species of hook worm in feces, and the results were shown as a map of hook worm distribution in Brazzaville city. On examination of blood smears, the most popular parasites are Plasmodium falciparum. P. ovale was seen in 9 per cent of patient with malaria. About filariae, Loa boa is very common and on the other hand Acanthocheilonema perstance is scarcely seen. On urinaly examination, Schistosoma haematobium was found. However intermediate host of S. haematobium could not seen in Brazzaville city. This means that effective removal of the parasites from this area is possible. For the purpose of complete removal of these parasites an importance of spreading the knowledge of public health to the original inhabitants has been much impressed during this work, although the usual medical treatment will be effective temporarily.
The medical practice and religion of Gã people were studied and discussed. The territory of Gã people spreads from Accra, Osu, Labadi, Nungua, Temma to Kpong holding the Gulf of Ginea in front of their land. Their means of living had been provided and are still obtained mainly by fishing and manufacturing salt from nearby lagoons at dry season. The majority of health schemes and medical practices for the Gã people in these days are of course a favor of the latest scientific progress, however it is also true that the witchcraft and old medical practices are still existing and give strong influences to the Gã people. The author stayed in the Gã land for 6 months as an ILO expert and had an opportunity to observe some old religious and medical traditions overthere. This report will give some fragmental ideas on remaining influences of misterious way of thinking to the god or ill-health in the people of the Gã land.
Over a six-month period during 1971-1972, I was able to revisit Hanang District in northern Tanzania and carry out an extensive survey in order to compare the Iraqw with the surrounding tribes, particularly the Gorowa (Southern Cushitic), the Datoga (Nilotic), the Mbugwe (Bantu). As result of this field work, for the purpose of understanding contemporary African tribes, it has been found necessary to throw light on their past. Generally speaking, the history of the Southern Cushities, Nitotes, and other related groups, has been reconstructed mainly from archaeology and linguistics, with the utilization of oral history hitherto largely neglected. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to illustrate the process of tribal expansion and mixing through the medicine men's struggle for power, by using oral tradition as a useful tool. According to traditions, I think there are four historical stages of expansion of Southern Cushities as follows. first stage: Integrated as Southern Cushities, locating in the vicinity of Kondoa-Irangi. second stage: divided into four tribes (Iraqw, Gorowa, Burunge, Alawa) at the foot of Mt. Hanang. ....The Datoga attacked them..... third stage: confined to an extremely restricted region (for example, Mamaisara for the Iraqw, or Gallapo for the Gorowa) ....The Masai cattle raids occured frequently..... fourth stage: extened to the neighbouring land occupied by the pastoral peoples. ....German rule was established.... In each stage, peoples have been territorially organized and politically ruled, through the relation of the giving and receiving of medicines with various rituals, by foreign medicine men-the Datoga, the Isanzu, the Irangi-except in first stage. It is most remarkable, in the third stage, that a rainmaker of Isanzu origin was welcomed into the Iraqw and Gorowa also. The clans known as Manda Hay Irqa or Manda Hay Bayo and Haryambi in the Gorowa althouth originally from the same area and having the same ancesters, have gradually widened the spheres of their influence with the expansion of these cushitic peoples. The process went on throughout the German period and continued under the British colonial administration. Expansion areas of the Iraqw had, by about 1900, included nearly the entire Dongobeshi area regarded as being primarily the country of the Gisamijanga (subtribe of the Datoga) and perhaps by 1920 had reached to the Barabaiga region (the most territorially defined subtribe of the Datoga) in the vicinity of Mt. Hanang. These settlers have established regional compound communities together with the Datoga, and have vital common interests. More important, the peripheral Iraqw has begun to be linked with foreign medicine men-Geragendo Gidamowsa of the Datoga, Muna Sora of the Gorowa-both organizationally and ritually, due to the background of social interaction. The social character of medicine men has been steadily changing, though the peak of ritual leadership has been based on tribal bonds, in northern Tanzania.