The summary of the analysis in this paper is given below. 1. In this paper, the group farming based on the village as the ideal one, namely cooperative one, among various types of the group farming based on the village is investigated. It has the utilization right of farmland. And its management is independent of each individual farm house-hold as a member. 2. The necessity to form the group farming based on the village is increasing. But its position as a farm management is very minor at present. 3. Compared especially with the individual family farm, the group farming based on the village has many economic, social, and public significances. They are as follows: for example, the cost-down and the earnings increase in the village as a whole, the maintenance of the village itself, cultivation of water resources and flood prevention. 4. The important tasks on formation of the group farming based on the village are as follows: (1) ensuring its own successor, (2) progressing the earning power, (3) rationalizing the distribution method of earnings, (4) enlightening a consciousness and making on consensus on formation, (5) adjusting relations between the group farming based on the village and the existing group farmings, machinery and facilities, (6) the various supports by the national government and the local autonomy. 5. In the future with the collapse of the family farms various types of the group farmings based on the village will turn into the cooperative type, and it will turn into the incorporated one. The development directions of various types of the group farming based on the village vary from one agricultural region to another.
Recently, from the viewpoint of the fostering and securing the core farmers and modernization of farm managements, the agricultural corporation has been discussed and proposed in Japan. The object of this paper is to discuss the potential to secure the core farmers by agricultural corporation. To make clear these points, I investigated six agricultural production corporations in Hokuriku district which has rapidly developed the land-extensive agricultural management. The major result are as follows: First, personal linkage in agricultural production corporation has been five patterns and developed various operations. Second, by securing younger core farmers, the farm output has been increased. Third, as the countermeasure for these agricultural production corporation, methods of generation change, balance of incentive and contribution are considered. The outline of measures to promote and sup port new entrants to agriculture are summarized as follows: First, to improve and strengthen the farmer's attitude for the farming activities with respect to manpower policy of corporation. Second, they must train the professional manager for total business. Third, under the rural system, the management scale should be expanded based on the coorperation with the area. Fourth, working condition must be improved to be attractive for young people.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the backgorund, problems and prospects of Agricultural Corporation set up by municipal government, which is expected as a new form of the farm management in recent years. The outline of this paper is as follows. (1) In Japanese agriculture, especially in mountainous areas, successors of farm households tend to work in cities, leaving very unproductive farmers behind in their home towns. This results in lower agricultural productivity by farm household. Land has rapidly eroded, and in some regions, even rural community is hard to be maintained. Group farming set up to meet the situation does not function effectively because of aging of the members. (2) As a countermeasure to cope with these problems, the Agricutual Public Corporation (APC) system was adopted at the municipal lebel in May, 1992. This system enables the Corporation to cultivate the lands temporarily on behalf of the land owners who have no farmers. (3) This APC has such function to maintain arable lands and to promote agricultural production in surrounding areas. (4) However, APC has faced to some problems yet to be solved. For example, with respect to agricultural production, APC needs to coordinate with family farms. Moreover, as regards agricultural promotion, APC must act in concert with agricultural cooperatives. Without overcoming these difficulties, there is no hope for APC to succeed in mountainous areas.