In our study we analyzed the food safety policy in local governments in Japan, assuming it consists mainly of organizations coordinating various responsibilities, food safety ordinances, and plans of action setting the concrete programs. We have investigated the following set of three questions. First, what is the current situation in local governments as to governing food safety? Secondly, focusing on the food safety ordinances, how are they formulated and diffused among prefectures? And lastly, what is the effect of the food safety policies by local governments? To answer these questions we conducted interviews to the persons in charge of food safety in some of the prefectures. We also sent a questionnaire to 47 prefectures, and received a response from 46 of them. To the first question, we showed the organization and staff involved in ensuring food safety policy in local governments. Regarding the second question, we showed that many prefectures made cross-references when formulating the ordinances. To the last question, the effects on cooperation among many responsibilities, ensuring continuity and lasting improvement of food safety policy and so on have been shown, but we found that new measures ensuring food safety based on risk and science have yet to be actively encouraged.
This research aims to clarify the requirements of rural inhabitants in hilly and mountainous areas for newcomers from city areas. The result of the questionnaire survey conducted to the whole population of the K district in Iga-city, Mie prefecture is as follows. 1) Elderly inhabitants showed a tendency to hope for newcomers, or in-migrants, to be more beneficial to them such as living long term, constructing or buying houses, and acting as a leader of the area. 2) “Adapting to the area" which had been indicated from previous researches as a key requirement for successful migration had two aspects:obtaining membership (being a member of the rural community) and assimilation (assimilating into the daily life of rural inhabitants), and those who stayed in the district longer (e. g. people engaged in agriculture and forestry or self-employed) are likely to place more importance on the latter. 3) Inhabitants who were involved in agriculture (e. g. farmers) were more likely to expect the in-migrants to farm, but those uninvolved in agriculture (e. g. households that had consigned their farmland) had little interest in whether or not the in-migrants would farm.
After the 1990s, farm size in Hokkaido’s dairy farming has exceeded 50 cows. However, familylabor is fixed and farms are short of labor. As a result, the shadow price of labor is expected to exceed the market price of labor. This paper estimated the cost and profit function of Hokkaido’s dairy farming during 1995-2003 and investigated the shadow price of labor. The analysis shows that theshadow price of labor rises as farm size increases, and in farms with over 60 cows, the shadow price of labor exceeds the market price. This means that there is a shortage of family labor on large farms. For the development of dairy farming, transformation of dairy farming is suggested, as well as institutions where workers from the non-agricultural sector can get permanent jobs in dairy farming.
The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of building a local brand wherein production, consumption, and the product (the cake made from the locally grown chestnut “Hokusetsu-guri") are local. The contingent valuation method (CVM) is employed to quantify the consumer’s willingness to pay (WTP) for “Takarazuka Mont Blanc."The results show that consumers positively perceive Takarazuka Mont Blanc. Their average WTP was 49 yen more than the basic price of generalcakes. The effects of socioeconomic variables on the WTP for Takarazuka Mont Blanc are also examined.The consumer who considers the indication of origin important, positively perceives the Takarazuka brand, and purchases vegetables produced in Takarazuka frequently places value on Takarazuka Mont Blanc. The WTP of the consumer who considers general cakes as inexpensive tends to be higher than the WTP of others.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify how approval of the rural community influences the managementof regional cooperatives. My analysis covers the establishment process of the community-building organization and the details of the key person’s activities. The following are the key results: (1) The community building method that takes age into account has been recognized. (2) The key person who is a member of the pre-existing organizationparticipates in the establishment of a new organization. (3) The person who has the required technology for each organization has been added. (4) The person who possesses the necessary technical expertise and tools becomes a part of the management of the cooperative. (5) As the environment changed, the network expanded not only in the region but also outside of it.
Tea farming can be classified into three main categories. In the first category, tea farms produce only fresh leaves; in the second, tea farms produce fresh leaves and process them in tea factories owned by them; and in the third, tea farms produce fresh leaves and participate in processing activities managed by tea farmer cooperatives. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between advantageous tea farming types and the environment surrounding tea farms in Kikugawa region, applying mixed integer programming. The main findings are as follows: (1) if the tea price decreases, the third tea farming type becomes more advantageous, (2) for the farms who can sell processed leaves at a price1.2 times higher than their usual price, the second type is the most advantageous.
These days, almost everyone uses the Internet.Communication tools such as Social Networking Service (SNS) have been developed in the last few years. However, information and communication technology (ICT) literacy is a problem, because many people in the rural areas are so old that they find it difficult to use. The purpose of this paper is to improve the user friendliness of SNS specifically designed for community development in rural areas and to consider the effects and problems in a practical case study at three residents’ associations inSasayama city, Hyogo prefecture. The results show that the SNS is satisfied with actual conditions and an easy-to-use interface for the registrant. It acts as another platform for interaction among young residents and the urban people who interact with their community. Additionally, it serves as a management tool for regional information and knowledge.Although SNS will have to be improved with time, it is one of the useful communication systems for rural community development.
Three aspects were described in the study on the basis of the factor that strengthened the “Gemba-Ryoku” by “Mieru-ka” activities in agricultural production organizations. First, keeping records of production leads to reflection, thereby making “Mieru-ka” clear to each member of the organization. Second, the organized system let the personconcerned consciousness lift, and “Mieru-ka” in teams was realized. Third, by creating learning opportunities, “Mieru-ka” was realized in the whole organization.
Aging problems and depopulation in rural areas are said to lead to loss and deterioration of regional knowledge. This study discusses (1) the level of knowledge acquisition among different age groups in villages,(2) the relationship between the level of knowledge and village characteristics, (3) the main factors of village characteristics that contribute to knowledge acquisition. A total of 232 questionnaires were collected from16 villages in Sasayama city, Hyogo prefecture, toexplore the villagers’ knowledge on the natural environment, culture, and village life. Three hypotheses were tested: (A) active villages have a higher level of knowledge acquisition; (B) larger villages have a higher level of knowledge acquisition; and (C) depopulated villages have a lower level of knowledge acquisition. The results differed among age groups, and the age group of 60-70 had tendency of (A) and (B), while the group of 40–50 only showed (B).
With the increasing agricultural damage caused by monkeys, certain countermeasures have been adopted on the basis of existing knowledge. However, the local people’s reaction to how these reactions affect the continuation of the measures is not clear.Through interviews of 19 local people, this study provides an example of victim consciousness in Sasayama city, Hyogo, where measures are taken to control the damage caused by monkeys. In this example, the factors influencing victim consciousness include the ownership of the crops, the amountof crops eaten, and whether the damage is indirect or direct. Mere recognition that monkeys cause damage does not lead to damage-control measures; these measures are adopted when there is direct damage. However, it is possible that these measures continue to be applied because the farmers enjoy interacting with the monkeys. Therefore, providing such ideas as enjoying the interaction with monkeys is needed, and to find regional values as leading model town for monkey damage measures.
Water pollution is a major problem in China.Besides economic growth and development, the increasing demand for sea and fresh water products is considered one of the causes of water pollution.This study focuses on China’s GAP Certification Scheme for Shanghai crab aquaculture. It investigates the consumer attitude towards food safety and water pollution in Lake Taihu, which is near ShanghaiCity and is one of China’s largest lakes. The study conducted market surveys in Shanghai in October2009, and 159 respondents were interviewed. The logit model was used to analyze consumer preference for crab with China GAP certification. The results show that consumers are willing to pay for crabs with GAP certification regardless of the occurrence of water pollution in the lake.
In this study, consumer experiments were used to verify the effects of onomatopoeia used in word-of-mouth reporting among consumers on sensations in the mouth. The results contribute to the knowledge of food companies using word-of-mouth reports that incorporate onomatopoeia for their marketing purposes. (1) The use of onomatopoeia in word-of-mouth reports among consumers improves the expression of the feel of the food in the mouth. (2) However, care should be taken that communication using onomatopoeia reduces, to a bare minimum, the amount of information aside from the onomatopoeia. (3) Consumers experiencing the feel of the food in their mouths, use onomatopoeia more frequently in their word-of-mouth reporting. (4) In particular, the use of onomatopoeia in word-of-mouth reporting persists when onomatopoeic expressions are viewed on product packages.
Recently, a growing number of people have difficulty with daily shopping. As the purchase of perishable food is difficult for people with shopping disadvantages, their healthrisks are increasing. The deterioration of living conditions in farm villages, where the primary industry is major, might weaken the autonomy function, lead to population outflow, and consequently, influence the productive activity. Therefore, shopping support is necessary for them. This report aims to understand the situation ofpeople with the disadvantage of shopping in hilly and mountainous areas, where many of the farm villages are located, and to consider the opportune direction for developing shopping support. The objects of the investigation are the city office and small-scale wholesale market in TakahashiCity, Okayama Prefecture, where the aging of and decrease in population is remarkable; the business of individual delivering of Okayama Copland JA Hiroshima City.
This study considered the following issues involved in the export of dry shiitake mushroom. 1)The price of the standard for export should be comparable with other standards. 2)The development of spawn that can produce “Dong-gu” (winter mushroom) in the case ofglobal warming 3)A stable supply to the Hong Kong market 4)The Japanese export of Chinese products disguised as Japanese ones should be prevented. 5)It was important to first fill the domestic demand for export promotion and promote theproduction of dry shiitake mushroom for the domestic demand. 6)The reduction in production and distribution costs should be considered. 7)In order to ensure that the price of the standard for export is comparable with other standards,it is necessary to expand into the international market.
In China, with rapid economic development, nonagricultural employment has increased. Moreover, surplus farmers can be absorbed by the nonagricultural sector, and it is common for farmers to engage in part-time labor. However, because of the agricultural labor force is decreasing in the household and the problems of the agricultural production, so the inefficiency and non-cultivated plough have becoming serious. Against this background, this paper clarifies the relation between agricultural production and part-time labor in the suburbs ofinland China. For this purpose, we perform a regression analysis on the data from the Xi’an Statistical Yearbook and from a primary field survey conducted in the suburbs of inland China. We conclude that those who engage in only agricultural activities in the suburbs of a city find it difficult to escape poverty. Moreover, part-time work, which is essential for funding necessary investments in agriculture, is also very important for farmers.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the problems of local farmer participation in a support system for the new entrants into farming. This study analyzed the intention of the local farmers about expectation and support for the new entrants in Kumakogen-cho, Ehime. The following solutions are proposed Improve supporting activity of “the mediator" for three or four years even after the training is over. Promote interchange with the new entrants and the local farmers from an early stage. Organize the support system in a farming group and residents’ association.
In recent years, the demand for vegetables has been decreasing. However, owing to the development of externalization and the need for simplicity and ease in meal preparation, the market size of vegetables for business and processing has increased.Thus, food makers in the domestic vegetables production district focus on the production of vegetables for business and processing. However, it is not easy for the production district to meet this new demand. It is hoped that the Japanese agricultural cooperatives that have supported farmers for many years now will play an important role in meeting the demand.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the skills and knowledge of the experts managing water inrice farming and to determine how these skills and knowledge can be acquired. The main results of the study are as follows: (1) The skills and knowledge required in the management of water in rice farming are composed of five field 18 items, the content includes a number of items, which exceeds 100 intotal. (2) The acquisition of non-expert skill and knowledge was advanced in general knowledge and motor skills. However, the acquisition for other items is insufficient. Moreover, the different problems regarding the succession of skills and knowledge became clear; (3) we presented the method of attaining the required skills and knowledge on the basis of the survey results.
The effect of farmland accumulation by “large-scale business farms" decreases with the expansion of the farmland and with decentralization advances.We administered a questionnaire survey on leased land choice and found that for farmers the distance from existing cultivated land or their homes is important. They do not prioritize how to grow better crops. Then, we calculated real-time location information data using GPS. A comparison of transplantation and direct sowing showed an improvement of 45% in direct sowing with regard to work efficiency.The factor has improved by the shortening of 17% of the travel time between fields. In conclusion, large-scale business farms give importance to distance and not the yields or breeding of crops. This result has been demonstrated by significantly lowering the efficiency of the agricultural field by moving the waste of time.
The photo projective method has an advantage over the questionnaire method in terms of its temporal or spatial closeness to subjects and in that the test subjects find it easier to answer the questions. Therefore, this method has been applied to obtain the spatial information of a sightseeing area. However, few attempts have been made at analyzing spatial images of a sightseeing area. The purpose of this study is to obtain information on a spatial image of a sightseeing area by usingthe photo projective method. For this purpose, weimprove on the original method by incorporating the step of photo data profiling and statistical analysis of these profile data. In a case study on the Matsue Castle area, as a beginning, we collected 1,922 photos shot by 91visitors and then converted this photo data into profile data by using 20 concepts of spatial imaging.Finally, we categorized the aspects of the landscape by cluster analysis and then clarified the spatial image provided by each landscape type.
In Africa, the consumption of rice has been increasing rapidly in recent years, but the self-sufficiency ratio remains low. This paper attempted to investigate the profitability of rice and its limiting factor to expansion in the northern part of Ghana. The results show that farmers were highly motivated to participate in rice production, as rice can be converted into money as a cash crop. However, several problems, including the shortage of fundsfor materials, charge for use of tractors, unreliable tractor operation, labor shortage, and conflicts with other plantations, were hindering rice development in the lowlands. A cost analysis showed that the cost of using tractors accounted for almost 60% of the total cash expenditure in rice production. Therefore, the invention of low-input cultivation technology in accordance with the local environment is required for the promotion of rice cultivation.