The purpose of this paper is to examine the erosion countermeasures which were devoted a large amount of the financial resources and to discuss the theoretical measures of the erosion problem on Ishigaki Island. First of all, to examine the erosion countermeasures in the past, we analyzed the field data of the island from the point of view of cost-benefit. Next, we discussed the theoretical measures in terms of the cost burden involved to achieve erosion protection. As a result, we clarified that the cost benefit of each countermeasure differs greatly and that some erosion countermeasures have been practiced in low risk areas. In order to achieve effective erosion countermeasures, farmers should practice the most cost-effective means selected from the high risk fields. In order for less soil to be eroded away, they should spread the countermeasures from the high risk fields to the low risk ones. So as to accomplish our policy objective, we need to insist that farmers have to practice the erosion countermeasures in the fields which need them. And the reference level divides the cost burden between farmers and government.
This paper hypothesizes that demand factors tend to have a larger effect on the food self-sufficiency rate in the long term than supply factors do. Past changes of the individual food self-sufficiency rate in Japan from 1960 to 2011 are decomposed into demand and supply factors, and the results support our hypothesis.
This paper explores socioeconomic conditions for rice irrigation from a small reservoir (dugout) based on a case study conducted in northern Ghana. The study delved into customary water use and management of small reservoirs as well as farmers’ scope for and interest in intensifying rice production through reservoir-based irrigation. The study found that customary use of reservoir water was multi-purpose and flexible without coordination among users. An institution for coordinating the use of reservoir water used for rice irrigation is thus required. The results also showed the financial needs for reservoir maintenance, tractor services, and agricultural inputs, which are necessary to intensify rice production but currently limited among local producers. In addition, we examined the potential for tackling these financial constraints through borrowing and use of existing farmer organizations.
This study clarifies the influence of social capital on farmers’ participation in community-based-farm corporations. For this study, we selected corporations located in Tottori and Hiroshima prefectures. Between the prefectures, the number of villages that constitute community-based-farm corporations differ: there are less than two villages for each corporation in Tottori prefecture and more than two for those in Hiroshima prefecture. The results indicate that participation in such corporations is associated with social capital, but that such participation in Tottori prefecture’s community-based-farm corporations are more strongly associated with social capital than those in Hiroshima prefecture are.
Community-based group farming is a pillar of regional agriculture in hilly and mountainous areas. Such farms mainly cultivate rice but face risks such as reduced revenue under rice price declines and a reduction in available farm labor. Beef cattle breeding and grazing on rice paddies should improve land utilization and profits of such farms. The authors examine the current management of cattle raising, feed production, and grazing. Most group farms appreciate that cattle breeding and grazing can use abandoned land and save management labor costs for small fields, but cattle raising is low in profit and requires intensive labor in the production of feed. Then, beef cattle breeders must increase their breeding skills, concentrate their fields, and reduce feed production costs.
A radish and sweet potato double cropping system is an effective method for reducing growth injury caused by continuous cropping. In addition, this method enables farmers to reduce working hours and production expenses. By using the ridge continuously for radishes in the winter and sweet potato in the summer, farmers can reduce plowing and ridging work before planting sweet potatoes. This paper evaluates economic effects on an upland farm obtained by introducing this cultivation method using a business analysis of a family-run farm in Southern Kyusyu. The results are as follows: (1) Working hours are reduced by 3.3 hours per 10 a compared with the conventional cultivation method. (2) The costs of radish and sweet potato production are reduced by 19,500 yen per 10 a compared with the conventional cultivation method. (3) Farming income increases by 15%.
This study clarifies the state of agricultural activities introduced in 160 Regional Youth Support Stations (RYSSs) across 47 prefectures using a questionnaire. The results suggest that 74% of the RYSSs have introduced agricultural activities for young unemployed people. However, the conditions for these activities are still insufficient for meeting employment needs. A case study shows that human resources are the most important factor for developing these activities. Then, such agricultural activities could be used not only as job training but also to increase employment.
This research paper analyzes how management systems implementing rural community support have evolved and considers important points and issues seen within these management systems. Then, the cities Fujiyoshida and Hitachiota are empirically studied as established cases for management systems toward rural community renewal cooperative group projects. The analysis results indicate the following critical points in implementation systems: (1) the distribution of activities often undertaken by individuals in central leadership positions to the central support structure; (2) performance evaluations of individuals playing central roles in the systems and allowing for continuous participation; and (3) the establishment of maintainable relationships with university faculty. The following issues were determined: (1) the placement of individuals in central roles of the program and their development is critical; (2) cooperation must be strengthened between local citizens and the organization; and (3) local rural community supporters’ career growth and continued supporter recruitment must be conducted.
In villages, fruits such as persimmons draw animals to the fields. It is expected persimmons were harvested earlier than monkeys would eat them to prevent crop damage. However, persimmons remain for a long time because local residents have not been motivated to use it. We carried out a social experiment to investigate how can local residents collaborate with the outside peoples in the persimmon harvesting. The questionary survey of outside peoples and local residents revealed follows. One is that outside peoples were satisfied both of that they help solve local problems and they can get persimmons. Second is that this event contributed to helping local residents recognize the resource value that persimmons and monkeys have. Finally, local residents want such an event to not only mitigate the damage but also allow for sharing idea about countermeasures and damage among local residents.
In the hilly mountainous regions, outsourcing human resource support based on regional agricultural resource utilization has been the driving force for rural area reactivation. This study has two parts. First, in 2009, a group interview was conducted on seven groups and summarized as a SWOT analysis. Second, in 2011, a questionnaire-based interview was conducted for visitors. With this dataset, a simple cross-table analysis, a correspondence analysis, and the ordered logit analysis were used to investigate the correspondence between the overall satisfaction and the purpose of the visit as well as between those and visit times. Visitors aimed to purchase high-quality wild yams, to meet people who joined, and to enjoy a nice atmosphere. To increase the number of visitors to the area and to improve its attractiveness, new products should be made from the local harvest and a wide-ranged menu should be prepared for events.
This paper focuses on FC Company’s Chinese domestic sales strategies. FC Company produces high-quality edible palm and coconut oil and makes confectionery and bread materials such as margarine, chocolate, and custard from coconut, palm, and other oils. FC Company was founded in Jiangsu province in China in 1995, first selling edible oil to Japanese and foreign companies in China. The price competition in the edible oils market in China is intense, and the number of bakeries and patisseries is increasing. FC Company is rapidly increasing its production of confectionery and bread materials for the Chinese market and expanding its sales network. The strategies are as follows: create joint businesses with a Taiwanese company, produce a wide variety of goods in response to the demands of clients, and create showrooms and demonstrations of product applications.
This study analyzed the functions of buyers at prepared food companies and the relation between menu development and cooking by examining the presence of central kitchens and the scale of their client chains. The results suggest that buyers are involved in menu development at prepared food companies with a large client chain irrespective of whether they have a central kitchen and that buyers at companies with a small central kitchen do not function as menu developers. Furthermore, prepared food companies that do not have a central kitchen but have a large store chain typically develop their menus at their retail stores. In addition, prepared food companies that allow production centers to easily propose marketing activities covering menus and products do not have a central kitchen; rather, they seek out foods and develop menus at their stores.