農林業問題研究
Online ISSN : 2185-9973
Print ISSN : 0388-8525
ISSN-L : 0388-8525
45 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の17件中1~17を表示しています
個別報告論文
  • Shoichi Ito, Cuong Nguyen Hung, Kubo Takashi, Bounnad Chandaworn
    2009 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 191-196
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2012/04/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    各穀物の国際価格は2008年初頭から上昇を始め,最高値を更新し続けた.価格の高騰には多くの要因が推測されるが,トウモロコシ(コーン)がエタノール生産に利用されるようになってからは原油価格の高騰が主要因である可能性が高いことが本研究により強く示唆された.2007年7月2日から2008年8月4日までの穀物価格(コメ,コーン,コムギ,ダイズ)と原油価格の毎日の終り値をシカゴ商品取引所およびニューヨーク・マーカンタイル取引所からそれぞれ入手し,最小2乗法による回帰分析を行い,原油価格と穀物価格との日々の連動性を分析した.分析の結果,原油と各穀物の価格変動には有意性1%レベルの正の関係がみられた.エタノールの利用が少ないコメとコムギにおいて将来の国際価格の低迷を防ぐためにも将来はバイオ燃料に活用されることが重要になるのではないか.
  • 松本 典子, 古塚 秀夫, 松田 敏信
    2009 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 197-202
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2012/04/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this paper, we analyzed the demand for dry shiitake mushrooms on the basis of their usage. Following the analysis, we can state the following.
    1. The Japanese dry shiitake mushroom and Chinese dry shiitake mushroom are found to be neither substitutional nor complementary, probably because their usage patterns are different.
    2. Japanese dry shiitake mushrooms meant for domestic consumption and those meant for export are sometimes used substitutionally and sometimes complementarily. When the mushrooms had similar forms, colors, and gloss were harvested around the same time and in particular, were more or less similarly priced, they were used substitutionally. Further, when both the sizes and the prices of the mushrooms were similar, they were used complementarily.
  • 谷 顕子, 草苅 仁
    2009 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 203-206
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2012/04/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    The objective of this paper is to gain a better understanding of recent household food consumption patterns in Japan by focusing on the effects of family scale and taste for food as well as the price and income responses. The price and expenditure elasticities as well as the scale coefficient and biased measures of changes in taste in household food consumption are estimated using the linear-approximated, almost ideal demand system. The system is applied to the 1980–2007 period using the time series of cross-sectional family budget data by age group of household head. The main findings from the empirical results of this study imply that the household food consumption has mostly inelastic price and expenditure responses, and the effect of a change in taste for food strongly depends on the age of household head. In addition, the effect of family scale in household food consumption is also investigated.
  • 住本 雅洋, 草苅 仁
    2009 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 207-211
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2012/04/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    Using the linearized AIDS model, this paper analyzed the Japanese householdfs demand for food, non-food, and leisure products for the years from 1970–2006, in order to estimate the growth in the outsourcing of meals. The food products were classified into restaurant and take-away food and home-cooked food, foodstuff used in home-cooked meals excluding vegetables, and fresh vegetables. Fresh vegetables were further grouped into two categories: vegetables that are roots and/or are used in traditional dishes, which require more time for cooking, and vegetables that are considered to be healthy by consumers and/or are used in Western dishes, which require less time for cooking. The results showed that a change in the wage rate resulted in a little more elastic negative change in demand for the former vegetable group than the latter group. It also had a negative effect on the demand for the foodstuff used in home-cooked food, but not on restaurant and take-away food and home-cooked food. Moreover, changes in consumer taste led to a negative shift in the demand for the vegetable group excluding fresh vegetables and foodstuff, but a positive shift in demand for fresh vegetables, restaurant and take-away food, and home-cooked food.
  • 吉 雅 図, 小野 雅之
    2009 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 212-217
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2012/04/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    The focus of this essay is to outline the issue of grassland desertification in Inner Mongolia, and discuss the recent changes in the region’s sheep-grazing zone management procedures that were preceded by some revisions in the region’s grassland preservation policies.
    One of the important causes of the desertification of the Inner Mongolian grasslands is the decades of overgrazing, which, in turn, has led to major revisions of the regional policies for resource conservation. Recently, it has been observed that grassland desertification and the consequential preservation policies have continuously hindered sustainable development of the traditional pasturage business. Under this circumstance, in order to prevent the further decline of the pasturage business, the regional government and analysts are currently laboring to find a solution to regulate the use of grasslands to control both the damage to the ecosystem (i.e., soil erosion) and pasturage production.
    The case study introduced here is about the XiLingol grasslands area and can serve as an excellent example of this issue. We also consider the future scenario for the pasturage business in Inner Mongolia.
  • 高橋 卓也
    2009 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 218-223
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2012/04/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to investigate the structure of attitudes toward forests among the residents of the southern watershed region of Shiga Prefecture, a questionnaire survey was conducted. By examining the relationships among the responses, the following issues were clarified: the determinants of one’s familiarity with forests, one’s propensity to participate in forest volunteering, one’s propensity to choose houses built from domestic wood, and how people perceive the functions of forests. An individual’s age was found to be an important factor affecting his/her relationships with forests. Diversities regarding expectations toward the functions of forests were identified among different age groups and residents of different localities.
  • 奥田 郁夫, 古林 英一
    2009 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 224-230
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2012/04/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    Controlling the population of a specific animal has become one of the most important managing strategies to ensure the sustainability of agriculture/forestry development.
    In this case study, we overview recent initiatives related to Yezo deer management in Hokkaido, Japan. For instance, adaptive management, which has been adopted in Hokkaido since 1998, aims to protect Yezo deer from extinction by managing their population. Despite this objective of the management policy, they have not yet succeeded in controlling the overpopulation that has been causing serious damage to agricultural lands and forests.
    In Hokkaido, since 1995, they constructed about 3,300 km of fences to keep deer out of agriculture/ forestry lands. At the same time, they decided to catch deer and make the best use of their meat. However, the number of hunters in Hokkaido is decreasing, and it is not easy to catch enough deer to control their population.
  • Joshi Abhay, Yoshifumi Usami, Jihei Kaneko
    2009 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 231-236
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2012/04/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    インドにおいてニーム農薬の普及活動を行っているニーム財団は,2005年からニーム農薬の製造・販売を開始した。本稿では,ニームの使用経験がある農家を対象にアンケート調査を行うことによって,農業経営規模や作付パターンとニーム農薬の使用状況の関連性について検討を加えた。その結果,(1)経営規模によって綿の作付比率に相違はみられないが,保有家族労働力量を要因として中・大規模農業経営では大豆作の,零細・小規模農業経営では香辛料や野菜の作付比率が高い,(2)ニーム農薬は化学肥料よりも香辛料や野菜にたいして費用面でも防除面でも効果的である,(3)その結果,零細・小規模経営農家ではニーム農薬を使用する割合が高いことがわかった。なお,ニーム農薬が防除面で効果的であるのは,ニーム農薬自体の特徴というよりも,ニーム農薬を使用する農家が農業経営の改善に積極的であることと対応していると考えられた。
  • Md. Asaduzzaman Sarker, Yoshihito Itohara
    2009 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 237-242
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2012/04/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究目的は,有機農業がバングラデシュの小農の家計を改善するか否かを検証することにある.調査は3つの地域で行い,400戸の有機農家から NGO(90戸),非―NGO(60戸)の有機農家をランダムに 150戸抽出し,アンケートを行った.
    結果は,どのグループの有機農家も収入のほぼ40%を有機農業から得ている.ステップワイス回帰分析によれば,有機農業が有機農家の家計に占める割合の強さは,他の収入源である送金,畜産,慣行農業,水産業等に比べて自由度調整済み決定係数 97 .4%のうちの 42 .8%を占めており,有機農業が農家家計の改善に大きな比重を占めている様子が窺われる.
    また,有機農家の所得改善には土地面積,有機農業の継続年限,訓練,市場へのアクセスが意味を持つが, NGOの有機農家では特に有機農業の継続期間が,非― NGO農家の場合には土地面積の広狭が所得改善に大きな意味をもっている様子が示された.
  • A.K.M. Nakibul Islam, Tomohiro Uchiyama
    2009 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 243-247
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2012/04/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    バングラデッシュの人口の多くは,バランスのとれた食生活へのアクセスが保証されていない.このような場合,家庭菜園による野菜生産が,世帯所得を増加させ,貧困から脱出するための第一の投資となりうる.本稿では,貧困層が生活を改善するために小面積の土地を活用して家庭菜園を確立する方法について考察を行った.調査結果によれば,家庭菜園は農村部の人々に食料の供給・現金所得の確保や雇用の創出などを通じて貧困を削減する重要な役割を果たすことができる.したがって,貧困層が家庭菜園にて野菜生産を行うことが出来れば,その所得を家計支出に充当することができ,貧困に対する強力な武器になりうることを示している.
  • 山本 淳子, 大浦 裕二
    2009 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 248-253
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2012/04/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    This article clarifies the buying pattern and food consciousness of consumers based on the number of vegetables purchased, by utilizing the consumer monitor records of food purchase and questionnaires.
    1. There is a large difference of between 2 to 26 items of vegetables purchased in one week between various monitors. However, there was no difference in the working status, family income, or family composition of the monitors.
    2. When comparing the larger number (over 10 items per week) of purchase monitors and the lesser number (less then 10 items a week) of monitors, there was no difference in the frequency of purchase or the type of store they purchased the food at.
    3. The monitors who purchased a larger number of items were more enthusiastic about cooking, but the monitors who purchased lesser number of items leaned towards the opposite end.
  • 大浦 裕二, 山田 伊澄, 片岡 美喜, 山本 淳子
    2009 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 254-257
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2012/04/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    This article analyzes the effects of food education on cooking methods of luncheons at primary schools and that of food and agriculture education on children through questionnaires. The main conclusions were as follows:
    1. Schools where luncheons are cooked in-house or schools that were specified as model schools for food and agriculture education influenced a schoolchild’s knowledge about food and agriculture. However, no effects were observed in their actions and intentions.
    2. Experience of growing vegetables at home or experience with agriculture on trips affects a schoolchild’s knowledge, actions, and intentions about food and agriculture.
    3. In order to promote food and agriculture education, it would be effective to create an environment where students can feel the connection between their food and agriculture.
  • 片上 敏喜
    2009 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 258-263
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2012/04/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present article defines food culture as a local brand after having analyzed its current conditions, problems, and formation factors. The local brand of food culture implies that “both the enterprise and consumer form a local brand by sympathizing with the local image that comprises nature, history, culture, industry, and so on.” This study focused on the activity that was not confined to the production of “one piece of article” such as a perishable or processed food item that had been adopted in the local brand of the conventional food culture. This study considered the example of the formation process in which “Hishio,” fermentation salting specific to Nara, became a local brand of food culture. It was revealed that the NPO, which did not have any specific interests, played an important role in forming the local brand of food culture.
  • 伊藤 寛幸, 増田 清敬, 桟敷 孝浩, 山本 康貴
    2009 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 264-269
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2012/04/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to measure the external costs in a land improvement project involving paddy fields in Hokkaido, Japan. We calculated the environmental loads emitted by fossil fuels and construction materials in the construction stage. We also computed the decreasing environmental loads in the cultivation stage because such a land improvement project has the effect of reducing the fossil fuel consumption of agricultural machines. The environmental loads calculated in this paper were converted into external costs using LIME (Life-cycle Impact assessment Method based on Endpoint modeling).
  • Kaniz Quamrun Chhabi, Takashi Sasaki, Kazi Shek Farid
    2009 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 270-275
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2012/04/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    バングラデシュでは社会的,人口的変化が高齢者数や家族形態に変化をもたらしているが,それは高齢者のサポートは家族が行うという伝統的方式にも変化を与えている.しかし従来は,伝統的サポート方式が維持されているという前提の下にほとんどの考察がなされてきた.本論文では,農村での家族形態と高齢者のサポート関係を明らかにするため 196世帯に対する面接調査を実施した.その際,家族を高齢者世帯,合同家族,拡大家族,高齢者独居世帯に分け,家族形態によりサポートのあり方が異なることを明らかにし,同時に伝統的サポート・システムのみでは不十分になっていることを示した.
  • Md. Saiful Islam, Takashi Sasaki, L. Mozumdar
    2009 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 276-281
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2012/04/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    バングラデシュでは 1990年以降ブロイラー生産者は約 200倍増加した.それは企業による契約生産と農家の小規模生産からなるが,前者は3企業のみで他は後者により担われている.本論文では第1に契約生産が実施されている地域の調査により,当初導入された契約システムの失敗により停滞したこと,そして新たな契約形態により縮小した規模で再開されたが,そのシステムもまだ定着していないことを示した.第2に,ブロイラー生産の大半を担っている小規模生産者を取り上げ,それが農村女性の社会的,経済的役割に大きな変化をもたらしていることを,ブロイラー生産の1中心地であるマイメンシン地区の事例調査を通じて明らかにした.
  • 鈴木 貴裕
    2009 年 45 巻 2 号 p. 282-287
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2012/04/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    Until recently, there has been no rice exchange in the California rice industry.
    It was only in 1999 the CRE (California Rice Exchange) established an online means whereby people could engage in rice exchange. As a result, buyers and sellers could deal in paddy through the Internet. Prior to that, sellers could trade with buyers only by negotiating transactions. However, buyers could get cash earlier than the negotiated transaction in favor of CRE. Besides, a new distribution route of rice mills closely related to the CRE was developed. Thus, members of FRC (Farmer’s Rice Cooperative) could sell paddy through the CRE. As CRE dose paper work for paddy trade, sellers and buyers can deal with it conveniently. Now, buyers and sellers in California negotiate transactions according to the benchmark of paddy price on the Internet (i.e., online paddy exchange) by CRE. Thus, it is evident that the CRE functions as medium rice and short rice for rice exchange.
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