GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES
Online ISSN : 2432-096X
Print ISSN : 0286-4886
ISSN-L : 0286-4886
Volume 28
Showing 1-12 articles out of 12 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1977 Volume 28 Pages Cover1-
    Published: 1977
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1977 Volume 28 Pages Cover2-
    Published: 1977
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Yoshihiko SHIRAI
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 28 Pages 1-16
    Published: 1977
    Released: April 15, 2017
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    Recently on the basis of National Land Use Planning Law, the land use planning is being pushed forward. In cities, towns and villages, rural industrialization is thus formulated. Land use is so important as to decide the regional progress. In the case of rural industrialization, unless the land use involved is seriously considered, environmental disruption is caused. Major attention is paid to labor supply and demand in the agriculture and the industry respectively. Little care is taken in plans of land use and environment preservation. There thus results in an industrial siting asdthe enterprise pleases. As a typical instance, in this report Shibata Town as a neighboring farm area of Sendai City is treated where rural industrialization has been introduced. The need is there for facing up to a reality to see any contradictions. To bring up land use on the right track, instances available must be thoroughly studied. First, the conditions underling change of the land use are clarified ; i,e. urbanization in Sendai City, drop of the town finance, depopulation, seasonal migration, and mixture of agriculture, industry and housing. Next, the conditions enabling change of the land use are pointed out ; i. e. from study of the town industry, land resource, traffic condition, labor force, water utilization, and social condition. Second, in connection of making the land use plans beneficial both to agriculture and to industry, the adjustment in land utilization is studied ; i. e. urban planning, rural planning, labor resource and water resource. The results are presented as a schematic model. Third, the results of analysis on Shibata Town as a typical instance are generalized. A 'framework' showing problems involved in rural industrialization and means to solve them is thus formulated. Then, going a step forward, a "check list" to contribute forward the rural industrializatian is presented. The solution of problems in land use, with the check list, is as follows. As is evident, the items listed are not all concerned to a given region ; such differ from one to another region, depending on the conditions. Therefore, those particularly significant, presenting difficulties, are selected, and correction is made subsequently. The check list is useful not only as a guideline in land use planning, but also in the learning of problems solution in planning education.
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  • Tsuneo TERADO
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 28 Pages 17-27
    Published: 1977
    Released: April 15, 2017
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    The purpose of the present investigation is to clarify the relation of rapid landslide, larger than 10^5m^3 in total volume of landslide mass, betweetn ridge or spur of mountain, and valley in the humid temperate zone. The writer's conclusions attained are as follows : 1. Many large landslides occur at or near the former ones, but the scale of the new landslide is similar or somewhat larger than that of the former. 2. The mass of landslide falls down the valley floor and deposits, which makes the slope stable, and the cirquelike landform which is often observed on the higher part of the surrouding mountains is hardly formed. 3. There are some ridges which are retreated by collapsing of those tips as if the top of a nose is cut aslant, but these phenomena scarcely occur by eroding from the side flank. On the other hand, many spurs are easily liable to erode from the side and to retreat by collapsing. 4. Denudation to the river floor is given a greater influence to the large landslides than lateral erosion. 5. It is usually said that landslide occurs by the pressure of weight of the upper mass, but as to landslide on a large scale the writer states that the loss of support of lower blocks causes the land to slide.
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  • Yoshinori OTAKE
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 28 Pages 28-38
    Published: 1977
    Released: April 15, 2017
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    This paper consists of two parts. The first part is to summarize a current of studies on simulation of drainage basin networks by using random walk models and to ascertain the meaning of some studies. Leopold and Langbein (1962) at first introduced the concept of entropy in thermodynamics to discuss the evolution of drainage basin networks and applied random walk models to development of drainage networks. They showed two types of construction of random walks. In the second type random walks are constructed on a rectangular cross-section graph paper by using a table of random numbers As the proceedings was very simple and clear and progress was seen in the techniques of Monte-Carlo or random walk computer simulation which has been applied with considerable success in nuclear and molecular physics, the second type of construction has occupied an important position in the study of random walk computer simulation models since 1962. Schenk (1963) at first, carried out Monte-Carlo or random walk computer simulation basing upon the concept of random walk by Leopold and Langbein. Later, his computer simulation model was taken as a fundamental pattern in the study of drainage basin networks simulated by computer. Smart et al. (1967). Hiramatsu and Shimazu (1970), and Kayane and Shimano (1974) have made contributions to this study. They modified Schenck's random walk computer simulation models in their own ways. Kayane and Shimano simulated drainage basin networks by using biased random walk models. According of their models higher occurrence probability would be given to the down-stream direction taking into account the fact that the consequent stream is liable to develop on an originally inclined land surface. The second part is of the simulation of drainage basin network which is modified in this paper. In this simulation model, some varied probability distributions bounded by some rows are given to the generatron field which has a matrix of 80×160 on a computer and these probability distributions and boundaries are changed several times until the drainage network is completed. By this model, it is found that simulation of drainage network may be performed for various cases assuming that the streams develop on originally complexly-inclined land surfaces and are those effected by crustal movements while networks are developing. Some examples of generated drainage networks are shown in Figs. from 2 to 9. Streams above the third order (by Strahler system) are indicated by thick lines.
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  • Hiroshi FUJII
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 28 Pages 39-45
    Published: 1977
    Released: April 15, 2017
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    Among the developing countries, a marked increase in population is noted and many of them register over 3 percent annual increase. The concentrative increase in population of the capital is noted as an universal trend today. The flow of population to the capital is especially high in these countries with the rate of 2 times the annual papulation increase. Since Algeria was proclaimed independent from the Colonial rule of France, the concentration of its population in the capital, Algiers, has continued to date. At the time of independence the capital's its population was 10,620,OOO including 9,550,OOO Algerians and 1,070,OOO Europeans mainly composed of the French. In a period of 5 years before the independence, the population increase rate per year in average was 3% for the Algerians against 1% for the Europeans. Following the independence, the Europeans returned to France and other countries. During a period of 10 years after the independence up to 1971, the annual average in-crease in population was 3.1% without showing a notable change. Capital Algiers is known for its origin in the Arabian style walled town built in the north-western cape of Algiers Bay in the 16th century. During the colonial ages, France built a European style city keeping the Casbah as its nucleus on the environs of the Bay and hills. The city grew as the center of the colonial rule and a business and industrial center besides and important port city connecting with Marceille. In the early stage the European population outnumbered the others (Algerians-70, OOO Europ-eans-190,OOO in 1926) but since 1926 with the infiow of Algerians increased, this ratio was reversed. Then at the time of independence with the evacuation of Europeans, its population was 460.OOO which grew to 1,200,OOO in 1971 showing 6.9 percent increase per year in an average far surpassing the rate of increase compared with other cities. Such concentration of population in the city has caused a number of problems including the following : 1) shortage in housing, 2) increase in unemployment, 3) shortage in water supply, 4) shortage in schools and teachers, and 5) automolile traffic congestion. For these problems the government proposed 2 countermeasureses : (a) one is to check the inflow of population by building industrial towns in the perimeter areas and (b) the other is a proposal for the Area Development Plan. Thus, its object is to effect dispersion of population by making investments in all localities of the country. The causes for the concentration of population in Algiers are two the first was that even after the independence the center of national administration and economy were concentrated in the capital ; and the second was the fact that no agricultural land re formation was adopted and the rural areas had no capacity to sustain their population, The latter fact is evidenced by a large number of natives emigrating to foreign countries to work. In the situation mentioned above to avoid the concentration of population in the capital, the best remedy is to bring the effectuation of the policy mentioned above in item (b).
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 28 Pages 46-48
    Published: 1977
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1977 Volume 28 Pages 49-50
    Published: 1977
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1977 Volume 28 Pages 51-
    Published: 1977
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1977 Volume 28 Pages 52-
    Published: 1977
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1977 Volume 28 Pages Cover3-
    Published: 1977
    Released: April 15, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1977 Volume 28 Pages Cover4-
    Published: 1977
    Released: April 15, 2017
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