This field work was undertaken during late September to early November, 1980, and was financially supported by the Overseas Scientific Research Fund in 1980 of the Ministry of Education, Japanese Government. Members of the party include: S. SAKAGAMI (Leader of the Project): Paleozoic and Mesozoic bryozoans. J. YANAGIDA: Paleozoic and Mesozoic brachiopods. T. KASE: Paleozoic and Mesozoic molluscs. K. NAGAI: Sedimentology of Paleozoic and Mesozoic Groups in the Central Andes. C. RANGEL: Stratigraphy of Paleozoic and Mesozoic Groups in Peru. M. URDININEA: Stratigraphy of Paleozoic and Mesozoic Groups in Bolivia. The purpose of the study is to provide a more detailed biostratigraphy for the region covered in “Upper Paleozoic of Peru” by NEWELL, CHRONIC and ROBERTS (1949, 1953), and to compare the Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic faunas in Central Andes with those of the Asian region. Knowledge of the Paleozoic bryozoan fauna in South America is especially poor. Although the Upper Paleozoic fauna of South America has been correlated mainly with that of North America, closer paleogeographic relationships can be anticipated between the South America and Eurasian regions in the Upper Paleozoic based on the Continental Drift Theory by Plate Tectonics. A more detailed paleontological study in South America is necessary to evaluate those relationships. The journeys in Peru and Bolivia are shown in Fig. 1. In Peru, the route between Lihuirco (ca. 11km north from Abancáy) and Quisuar (northern foot of Mt. Ampáy), where the Permian Copacabana Group is well developed, was measured and collected in detail. We also made a route map of this area at a scale of 1:2, 500. Many kinds of fossils such as fusulinaceans, bryozoans, brachiopods, molluscs and others were collected from 34 outcrops. Rock samples for sedimentary petrography were taken from 150 points along the route. As shown in the route map (Fig. 2), the outcrops were not seen in succession because of the strongly curved road and steep topography (Photo. 1). The columnar section will be compiled after the detailed study of the fossils and lithology. At present, it is considered that the Copacabana Group developed in the Lihuirco-Quisuar route forms the synclinal structure having an axis of WNW-ESE trend at the median part of this route. The shale facies is dominant near to the axis (upper part) and the limestone facies is rich far from the axis (lower part), namely: Upper: Mostly shale Middle: Alternation of shale and limestone facies (Qu-1-Qu-10; Qu-11-Qu-18) Lower: Mostly limestone (Qu-19-Qu-34) In Bolivia, we had the field trips to Yaurichambi and Tiquina, both situated near Lago Titicaca. Abundant fossils of the Copacabana Group occur, especially at Yaurichambi, not only fusulinaceans and corals, but also bryozoans, brachiopods, gastropods and others in many horizons. These faunas have yet to be studied. The results of paleontological and sedimentological studies will be published successively as soon as they are ready by each partakers. More field work is planned. Problems include: 1) choice of the best season, 2) proper field methods, 3) transportation of samples to Japan, and 4) permission of local governments.
It is a well-known fact that the Dutch people were the most active in the world trade in the mid-seventeenth century. For their East Indian trade they established the Dutch East India Company which was granted the monopoly of the trade by the Dutch Government. Their main purpose was to obtain pepper and other spices, the most important trade articles at that time, in the East Indies and supply them to the Western Europe where there was a great demand for them. Encountering strong resistance of trade enemies, such as Portuguese, English and even natives there, the Dutch had been extending the area of their trade gradually and in 1650 it covered from Mocha in Arabia through Persia, India, Siam, China, Taiwan to Japan. This area was not “un espace homogene” but “un espace polarisée”. The whole business was managed by the supreme organization named “Heeren XVII”(Seventeen Gentlemen) at the head office in Amsterdam. In the East Indies “Gouveneur-Generaal”(Governor-General) at the main office in Batavia supervised all the factories which were located in the main trading posts there. They tried to sell the goods imported from Batavia at the highest possible prices and, in return, obtain the produces in demand as much as possible and ship them to Batavia. At the port of Batavia her traffic was heavy with ports located in Java, Sumatra, etc. But the vessels used there were small-sized, while those used for the Netherlands or Japan were pretty large-sized. So the volume of her trade with each port is hard to be estimated only by the numbers of the vessels in-and-out the port of Batavia. There was traffic throughout the year between Batavia and ports in Java and Sumatra, but her traffic with the Netherlands or Japan was seasonally restricted, as the ocean-going sailing boats had to rely mostly on the Monsoon in the ocean.(Ref. Table 1). Table 2 shows the names of the articles arrived at or left the port of Batavia in 1636. The majority of the imported goods were re-exported from Batavia; pepper and other spices being shipped for the Netherlands and the Chinese manufactures and the Indian cotton textiles for many other places in the East Indies. In order to obtain spices in Molucca Islands, the Dutch had to deliver the goods demanded by the natives, since the money was not used in transaction by them. So the Dutch tried hard to obtain the necessary goods somewhere else in the East Indies. Consequently, the trade among the countries in the East Indies was also important to the Dutch in addition to the trade with their homeland. In Table 3 are listed the names of the main factories with their respective business results. Not all factories could make profit. It looks that the factories which were more active in importation than in exportation made good profit in general. The Dutch trade in the East Indies seems not always so profitable as is usually considered. As shown in Table 4, the ratio of the profit to the East Indian capital (investment) was only 10% or less. There was, what is worse, some loss caused by the “perils of the seas”. and yet no insurance was covered on shipment at all. Therefore, their trade was very risky at that time. It must be mentioned that the trade was operated by a kind of “Barter” system, bringing the goods to the East Indies and, in return, collecting the produces as much as possible for the European market. Finally their trade began to decrease and the English people came to take over the Dutch trade area, when the main trade articles changed from pepper and other spices to cotton textile around the end of the seventeenth century.
Paleozoic rocks exposed in the Fukuji district, Kamitakara Village, Yoshiki County, Gifu Prefecture consist of Silurian to Permian strata. Among which Devonian Fukuji Formation and Carboniferous Ichinotani Formation are very fossiliferous and were studied in detail. Recently, Ordovician fossils have been found from the Yoshiki Formation. In this paper, we summarized historical review and present status of the geological investigation of this district and pointed out several unsolved problems for the future study.
Japan Meteorological Agency has recently introduced the developed scientific and technical achievements and, as a result, the operational system of weather forecarting has been changed conspicuosly. Among those changes the NWW (National Weather Watch) and probability expression of weather forecast are the highlights. The outline of this project and expression is described in the present note.