The spatial structures of a 101-103 m scale on coral reefs were understood by reading aerial photographs and investigating the topography of the fringing reef at the eastern part of Yoron Island, Ryukyu Islands. This study set a new physiographic unit (PGU) at the coral reefs as well as studied zonation. PGU has the following characteristics. (1) In an aerial photo, a linear pattern comprising micro-landform arrangements is recognized on the reef flat; (2) Seawater flowing beyond the reef crest from the open sea and entering the moat before returning to the open sea through a breakout in the reef crest or a channel flowing parallel to the shoreline constitute a very common pattern in the research area; (3) The series of currents observed in the area constitute a water system resembling a drainage water system on land and 4 systems were arranged at the eastern part of Yoron Island ; (4) The movement of seawater is controlled by landforms such as reef crests, channels and lands (a cape), which might qualify as borders of PGUs ; (5) Movements controlled by such landforms are dominant, and tend to be longer in terms of time. In this study, a physiographic unit is defined as follows. (1) A unit that is distinguishable from other adjacent areas by its geomorphological borders ; (2) And, a unit that is distinguishable from other adjacent areas when referring to the movement systems of seawater and materials. The notion of spatial structures of coral reefs of a 101-103 meter scale was substantiated by this research using the overlapping zonation approach known here as PGU on reef flats. The spatial structure makes a frame of the coral reef ecosystem. Therefore, setting a PGU is thought to be effective for application to coral reef conservation.
Four boring cores obtained by boring surveys conducted at Wadabori Park in Suginami Ward (core WDB), Kinuta Park (core KNT) in Setagaya Ward, Tamagawadai Park (core TMG) and Unoki (core UNK) in Ota Ward, southeast part of Musashino upland, Tokyo, were reexamined. Mineral assemblage, shapes of volcanic glass shard, refractive indices of volcanic glass, and heavy minerals and chemical composition of volcanic glass of several tephra layers from these cores were determined. As a result, it is revealed that six tephra layers are correlative with the key tephra layers in the Kazusa Group of the Boso Peninsula and Tama Hills in the Kanto district. The WDB-1 tephra from core WDB is identified as the Kd8 tephra in the upper part of the Kiwada Formation in the Kazusa Group. The KNT-4 tephra from core KNT, the TMG-7 tephra from core TMG and the UNK-1 tephra from core UNK are identified as the Kd16 tephra in the middle part of the Kiwada Formation. The TMG-18 tephra from core TMG and the UNK-8 tephra from core UNK are identified as the Kd18 tephra in the middle part of the Kiwada Formation. Based on the correlation among these tephras, the sediments of ca. 15 m above sea level (a.s.l.) at Wadabori Park is correlative with the upper part of the Kiwada Formation deposited at 1.21-1.27 Ma, and the sediments of ca.-2 m a.s.l. at the Kinuta Park, ca.-20 to-74 m a.s.l. at the Tamagawadai Park and ca.-9 to-44 m a.s.l. at Unoki are correlative with the Kiwada Formation in the Kazusa Group. The sedimentary ages of these sediments are between 1.27 and 1.45 Ma based on stratigraphic relations with the calcareous nannofossil datums.
With 1.3 million people infected and 150, 000 deaths in 2003, the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to greatly impact on the Kenyan society. Sentinel surveillance data since 1990 display a regionally-varying epidemic which suggests disparity in the transmission of HIV/AIDS and in the factors influencing its spatial diffusion and intensity across the country. At the national level, the epidemic has been higher among the urban residents. However, provincially disaggregated prevalence does not show correlation with the percentage population that is urban. In spite of this, circular migration as migrants maintain link with their rural homes could be influencing constant diffusion between the rural and urban areas. High prevalence levels in Nyanza province, which has high poverty incidence, suggest the role of poverty in the spread of the epidemic. However, low prevalence in North Eastern province, which has equally-high poverty incidence, indicates that there is more than poverty in the spatial diffusion dynamics of the epidemic. Positively-strong correlation with the Nilotic ethnic group and negative correlation with the Central Bantu, the Western Hamitic, and the Eastern Hamitic suggest the influence of cultural practices in the spatial patterns of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. An expansive surveillance system at lower administrative level would provide more information to explore further the factors influencing the spatial patterns for better mitigation intervention of the epidemic in Kenya.
In Japan, several American air force bases have raised the problem of aircraft noise pollution. This paper considers how municipalities around American air force bases have dealt with this problem. The study clarifies the relationship between aircraft noise pollution and compensation received in the municipalities around Yokota Air Force Base, an American air force base located near Tokyo, and the political actions taken by the municipalities against such pollution. Yokota Air Force Base was established in 1945. The functions of this base had expanded by the 1960s, so aircraft noise pollution intensified. Only Akishima City Council adopted many resolutions against aircraft noise. Aircraft noise pollution was not eliminated. Some inhabitants of Akishima City went to court to require the United States of America not to fly at night. The aircraft noise pollution intensified in Akishima City and Mizuho Town, which are located in the area where the runway of the base was extended. The national government has granted the municipalities subsidies as compensation for aircraft noise pollution. Fussa City, Musashi-Murayama City, and Mizuho Town have received large national subsidies. These municipalities did not adopt many resolutions against aircraft noise. The national government has increased the subsidies since 1974 in exchange for the consolidation of American air force bases in the Kanto Region into Yokota Air Force Base. The public finances of Akishima City have depended on subsidies because of urbanization. The compensation provided by the national government has been based on territoriality, although the pollution is unterritoriality. The political actions of the municipalities around the base have been segmented so aircraft noise pollution has not been eliminated.
Rock mechanics belong to basic fields of science and technology, and are related to mining, oil, and civil engineering, as well as geology, geophysics, tectonics, and seismology. A national project of the underground caverns for oil storage was conducted throughout the 1980s and 1990s to study suitable construction sites. In this study, data on rock mechanics such as obtained by the rock deformation laboratory of the Geological Survey of Japan proved to be very valuable. These data were obtained from more than 500 rock specimens collected on foot from geologically representative localities nationwide. Finally, three sites, two consisted of granite and one of pyroclastic rock, were selected for construction. Detailed microscopic study of the failure pattern of specimens after the experiment indicated distinguishing brittle and ductile deformation characteristics. Brittle rock such as granite is harder in strength, sometimes with increased permeability; on the other hand, ductile rock such as pyroclastic rock is less permeable.