Little research thus far has focused on the role of parents’ conceptions of learning in children’s academic achievement. We examined the relationship between parents’ household incomes, educational history, conceptions of learning, expectations about their children’s academic achievement, and parenting behaviors. We collected data from 400 parents of elementary school and junior high school students via a web-based survey. Results of a factor analysis showed that the parents’ conceptions about learning varied in terms of the dimension of deep or surface information processing. Moreover, the results of a path analysis revealed that, along with the expectations about their children’s academic achievement, deep conceptions of learning mediated the relationship between a high level of education and high frequency of beneficial parenting behaviors. We discuss how these concepts are involved in cultural reproduction.
Nostalgia is considered to be a source of information about the self. Nostalgia gives a person the sense that his or her current and past self are similar, which results in the sense of self-continuity. Several studies have suggested a relationship between nostalgia and self-continuity, which is highlighted by “sameness.” However, little is known about the relationship between nostalgia and “Self-Event Connection (SEC),” which is featured by the sense of “change.” In this study, we investigated whether SEC was related to nostalgic memories. Moreover, “psychological growth” and “social connectedness” were considered as factors mediating between nostalgia and SEC. Results indicate two findings. First, events triggering nostalgia (nostalgic events) had a high SEC. Second, “psychological growth” mediated the relationship between nostalgic events and SEC. The limitations and future directions of this study are discussed.
This study examined the influence of motivational regulatory strategies on individual interest (i.e., affect-related interest, value-related interest, and knowledge) through a comparison of different motivational problems (either low expectancies for success or low value). We hypothesized that strategies that specifically target task values would enhance individual interest in boring learning situations (low value), whereas strategies that specifically target self-efficacy would enhance interest in difficult situations (low expectancies for success). We conducted a short-term longitudinal survey among Japanese college students (N=572) to test this hypothesis. Results of the multi-group structural equation modeling analysis demonstrated that the enhancement of situational interest and self-reward strategies enhanced affect-related interest in boring learning situations, whereas the enhancement of self-efficacy strategy enhanced affect-related interest in difficult learning situations. These results partly support our hypothesis. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the study.
This study aimed to investigate the relations between the type of children’s best friendships and their emotional problems using the Japanese version of the Friendship Quality Questionnaire (J-FQQ). One thousand and six elementary and junior high school students completed the questionnaire including the J-FQQ and questionnaires used to assess their anxiety and depressive moods. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis revealed a similar six-factor structure with the original FQQ, which comprised five factors which represent positive friendships and a conflict factor in both the elementary and junior high school students. Cluster analyses showed three subgroups of children with different scores of positive factors and conflict of the J-FQQ, namely High-quality (high positive and low conflict), Disengaged (low positive and low conflict), and High-conflict (high positive and high conflict). Moreover, an ANOVA indicated that the High-conflict group had more the emotional problems than the Disengaged group among junior high school students.
This study aimed to develop a redacted version of the Children’s Assertive Behavior Scale (CABS) for use with preschoolers, and to examine the devised scale’s reliability and validity. A total of 270 children (113 in the second year; 157 in the third year) participated in Study 1. Factor analysis revealed a single-factor structure, with a significant test–retest correlation. In Study 2, with 27 participants (14 boys and 13 girls; all in the third year), we examined the criterion-related validity by evaluating the correlation between assertion and empathy. Results showed a relationship between assertion and empathy, supporting our hypothesis. In conclusion, these findings suggest that our adapted version of the CABS for preschool children appears to have adequate psychometric validity and reliability.
This study examined the influence of interpersonal stressors, and interpersonal stress coping methods, on depression among teachers. Interpersonal stressors include 1) interpersonal conflict; 2) interpersonal blunders; and 3) interpersonal friction. Interpersonal stress coping methods are 1) positive-relationship oriented; 2) negative-relationship oriented; or 3) postponed-solution oriented. Participants were 424 teachers from preschools, elementary/middle/high schools, and special needs schools. All three types of interpersonal stressors, and the negative-relationship oriented coping method, had significant and positive influences on depression. In contrast, the postponed-solution coping method had a significant and negative effect on depression.
This study developed a scale for evaluating the self-expression styles of university students and then verified its reliability and validity. Participants were 186 university students who were asked to complete a questionnaire containing questions about self-expression, shyness, aggressiveness, and assertion. The factor analysis revealed a scale consisting of four factors: assertive, aggressive, submissive, and indirect. Internal consistency was found to be sufficient, and partial validity was confirmed. These results indicate that the scale is useful for measuring the tendencies of an individual’s self-expression.
This study aimed to validate a model in which anger-in mediates anger rumination resulting in anger-out by focusing on the subconcepts. Questionnaires including an anger rumination scale and items on anger expression were distributed to 244 female university students. A covariance structure analysis revealed an adequate fit of the assumed model, implying that although anger-in reduced anger-out, it increased anger-out indirectly by mediating anger rumination.
This study investigated the effect of adult attachment on altruistic behavior and the mediating role of empathy. Nine hundred students answered an online survey, in which they were asked about adult attachment, empathy, and altruistic behavior towards family members, friends, and other people. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that while empathic concern mediated negative effects of attachment avoidance and positive effects of attachment anxiety on altruistic behavior, personal distress mediated negative effects of attachment anxiety on altruistic behavior.
The present study examined the relationships of sunshine duration with extraversion and neuroticism. Previous studies suggested that individuals living in regions that receive little direct sunlight tend to experience depression and lack of sleep, which are associated with particular personality traits. Moreover, they are associated with increases in the amount of serotonin with longer daylight durations. We used a Japanese dataset including 18,922 adults (9,227 females; mean age: 47.74) and conducted a prefecture-level analysis. Results of multiple regression analysis indicated that neuroticism was negatively associated with sunshine duration while extraversion was not. The results showed that sunshine duration may explain the variance of regional differences in personality traits.
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the actual circumstances of involvement in gambling, and (b) to investigate the relationships between levels of the gambling problem and the Big Five personality traits among Japanese adults. Nine hundred Japanese adults were asked to complete a web-based questionnaire to measure their levels of involvement in gambling and personality traits. The results indicated that approximately 47% of the participants had engaged in gambling before. In addition, a positive relationship was observed between levels of gambling involvement and Neuroticism, while Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were negatively related to levels of gambling involvement.