This study investigated the influence of hypervigilant narcissism on the tendency to avoid intimacy, as well as anthropophobic tendency, among Japanese adolescents. Junior college, university, and graduate students (N=443) completed a questionnaire measuring the tendency to avoid intimacy, anthropophobic tendency, and hypervigilant narcissistic tendency. Path analysis using the hypervigilant narcissistic tendency subscales showed that both the tendency to avoid intimacy and the anthropophobic tendency were positively influenced by an “insufficient sense of purpose” and an “inhibition of self-exhibition.” Only the anthropophobic tendency was positively influenced by “hypersensitivity to approval/admiration.” The tendency to avoid intizmacy was negatively influenced by “insufficiency of self-soothing” and positively influenced by “covert sense of entitlement.” These results suggest that the tendency to avoid intimacy involves different aspects of the hypervigilant narcissistic tendency than the anthropophobic tendency, although they both occur in the context of hypervigilant narcissism.
The Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ-I) was administered to 1049 Japanese and 308 US elementary school children in 3rd through 5th grade in order to examine its reliability and validity. A multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the SDQ had an eight-factor structure across the Japanese and American samples. The SDQ had adequate internal consistency and reliability. In both countries, males showed higher levels of self-concept in Physical Ability and Math, whereas females showed higher levels of self-concept in Reading. There was a tendency for the level of self-concept to decline with age in the Japanese sample, but there were no significant age differences in the American sample. The American sample showed significantly higher levels of self-concept for all eight factors than the Japanese sample. The differences of self-concepts between the two countries were discussed from the perspective of cultural psychology. Several advantages of using the SDQ in school settings and for research were proposed.
Basing a sense of self-worth on academic achievement could be detrimental for intrinsic motivation, especially when students face academic failure. The present study examined how the academic contingency of self-worth affected intrinsic motivation related to academic failure. The study focused on the role of state self-esteem and emotions that are known to be influenced by the academic contingency of self-worth in a survey of 125 junior high school students. The results confirmed both undermining and enhancing processes where the contingency of self-worth affected intrinsic motivation. For undermining processes, the academic contingency of self-worth lowered intrinsic motivation, mediated by state self-esteem and incompetence. For enhancing processes, the contingency of self-worth buffered the loss of intrinsic motivation, mediated by regret.
The purpose of this article is to present results of an ongoing longitudinal qualitative study that aims to chart the dynamics of professional identity construction of Estonian psychology students over the period that embraces their studies of psychology in a bachelor's program and two years after obtaining a bachelor degree. The construction of an identity is discussed from socio-cultural perspective, and in terms of the semiotic mediation approach. To investigate dynamics in intra-psychological level, the dialogical self theory (Hermans, 1995) was applied. The results show how the Self <> Self and Self <> Other dynamics set up differentiation of inherently inconsistent parts of the Self (“being myself” <> “being a psychologist”), and that the entry into professional role entails inter-individually different linkage of the features of personal culture with different aspects of the expected role of psychologist.
This study investigated the relationships among optimism, positive orientation, and subjective well-being. Students (N=337) from three universities were administered a questionnaire including the revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), and a scale of positive orientation. Factor analysis of positive orientation yielded two factors of upward orientation and maintenance of undisturbed states. Structural equation modeling showed the following. Optimism was positively related to upward orientation and maintenance of undisturbed states. Upward orientation was positively related to subjective well-being, but maintenance of undisturbed states was not related to subjective well-being. Optimism was directly and positively related to subjective well-being.
Some cognitive therapists have suggested the importance of changing emotions and behaviors caused by delusions, rather than changing the content of the delusions. Based on this view, the present study developed the Emotions with Persecutory Delusions Scale (EPDS). A total of 401 undergraduates (209 males, 192 females) completed the EPDS, and 130 of these participants (60 males, 70 females) also completed the Self-reference Scale and the Delusional Ideation Checklist. A confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modeling was performed. The results showed that the model provided a good fit to the data, indicating the factorial validity. Statistically significant correlations between the EPDS and other measures indicated concurrent validity. In addition, high discrimination power and internal consistency were obtained for the items in the EPDS. These results suggest that the EPDS has sufficient reliability and validity.
The present study examined the roles of two kinds of optimism in an interpersonal stress process (Kato, 2001) based on Lazarus's psychological stress process model. A questionnaire was administered to 361 undergraduate, graduate, and junior-college students. The results revealed two causal processes. First, higher dispositional optimism was associated with higher coping efficacy, resulting in increased coping that was oriented toward positive relationships and postponed-solution coping. Second, a higher optimistic explanatory style was associated with lower perception of threat in events, resulting in reduced coping that was oriented toward negative relationships and postponed-solution coping. The role of each kind of optimism in an interpersonal stress process is discussed.
This study examined the effects that irrational beliefs had on responses to stressors in junior high school students. Irrational beliefs and responses to stressors were measured in a survey of 520 junior high school students. About three month later, responses to stressors were measured again, along with the occurrence of stressors during the interval. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated an interaction effect of irrational beliefs and stressor scores on post-interval depression-anxiety, and high irrational beliefs led to the expression of more depression-anxiety.
This study compared the influence of depressive rumination and negative rumination on depression. In a longitudinal study with a 4-week interval, undergraduates completed measures of depressive rumination, negative rumination, and depression at Time 1, and measures of depression and stressors during the study at Time 2. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that depressive rumination, but not negative rumination, predicted depression at Time 2, even after controlling both for depression at Time 1 and for stressors. These results indicate that depressive rumination is a useful concept for research and clinical practices involving depression.
Ten participants with high schizotypal personality traits and 10 comparison participants completed a general knowledge task to measure monitoring resolution (i.e., the extent to which confidence judgments distinguished between correct and incorrect responses) and control sensitivity (i.e., the degree to which the control process was dependent on the monitoring process). The results showed that scores for monitoring resolution were significantly lower for participants with high schizotypal personality traits than for the comparison participants. There was no significant difference in scores for control sensitivity between the groups. The results suggest that a deficit in monitoring processes is a risk factor for the emergence of delusions.
This study investigated the construct validity of the Japanese version of the BIS/BAS scales. A dot-probe task was used, which examined the degree of attention to a fear-conditioned stimulus. The results showed that the BIS-points, which measure the degree of behavioral avoidance or inhibition, were positively correlated with the degree of attention to the fear-conditioned stimulus. There also was a significant or a marginally significant negative correlation between the BAS-points, which measure the degree of behavioral approach, and the response time. The results indicate construct validity of the Japanese version of the BIS/BAS scales.
The present study examined the relationship between concern about privacy and apprehension of the word “privacy.” A web-based survey was conducted with 221 Internet users about how the respondents considered the word “privacy” using an open-ended question. The results indicated that respondents mainly considered the word “privacy” as referring to “personal information” or “secret”. A chi-squared test showed that the proportion of respondents who considered privacy as a “personal boundary” was greater among those who were more concerned about privacy. Moreover, the proportion of respondents who considered privacy as “secret” was greater among those who were less concerned about privacy.