The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-reported attachment styles of young adults and their behaviors with an intimate person in an anxiety provoking situation. I hypothesized that it was a separation-reunion situation in which the partner temporarily became unavailable, but not a situation where communication without restriction was possible, that attachment-relevant behaviors was most apparent, and was predicted by self-reported attachment styles. Participants were 18 intimate pairs, with 9 dating cou-ples and 9 close friends; 13 were male and 23 female, with an average age of 22.0. They first experienced anxi-ety and stress, and communicated freely with their partner in a laboratory, which was called ‘waiting room.’ They then were briefly separated and reunited. Finally, they were asked to complete a few questionnaires including an attachment scale. Behaviors in the laboratory was videotaped and rated later by two judges inde-pendently. Results showed that behaviors during the free communication period was not organized in terms of attachment, and not related to attachment styles. On the other hand, behaviors in separation-reunion situation was judged to be more relevant to attachment, and was predicted by attachment styles. It was suggested that individual differences in attachment of young adults as well as infants, would manifest in behavior with an inti-mate person only in a separation-reunion situation.
The purpose of this study was to understand self-development of present-day college undergraduates in terms of ideal self. We used both rating scales and open-ended questionnaires in the study, and combined responses to them for the purpose. Orientation to self-development in the study was defined as the sum of eagerness to realize ideal self and actual movement toward it. Self-esteem score was used as an index of subjective adaptation, and along with the two orientation subscores, eight groups of students in different patterns of self-development were formed. Also, six categories of reasons for selecting the person's own ideal self were identified. We then examined their relationships with specific strategies used and level of motivation toward ideal-self realization. Results indicated that whether the reasons for ideal self selection involved self or others, the person knew specific strategies or not, and degree of their implementation, influenced the level of self-development orientation.
This study investigated the structure of content-based worry of Japanese undergraduates. Two hundred and eight Japanese college students completed a Japanese version of Worry Domain Questionnaire (WDQ: Tallis et al., 1992) along with STAI-Trait. First, in order to assess worry, the Japanese version of WDQ was developed. The scale was found to have good reliability. But factor analysis indicated that the structure of worry on Japa-nese college students might differ from that on people in western culture. Then, the structure of content-based worry was investigated. Cluster analysis revealed that students who were worried about one thing were also worried about other contents, and analysis of variance indicated that students who were worried about many contents showed more anxious than those who were not.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the correlations among three versions of Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality inventory that had been standardized and published in Japan. The three: NEO-PI-R, FFPQ, and BFPI, were administered to 263 students at three universities and a vocational college. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for the 15 scale scores, and results summarized as follows. Three extroversion scores, as well as three conscientiousness scores, correlated highly with each other. Scores of attachment (FFPQ) and agreeableness (BFPI and NEO-PI-R) also correlated highly with each other, and the same was true for those of emotionality (FFPQ), ‘Jocho-anteisei’ (BFPI), and neuroticism (NEO-PI-R). And finally, scores of playfulness (FFPQ) and openness (NEO-PI-R) correlated highly with each other, but these scales had a relatively low correlation with intelligence (BFPI).
The Japan Society of Personality Psychology has been examining ethics in the field of personality psychology through activities of its special committee on ethical issues concerning psychological research. The committee surveyed attitudes concerning research ethics, and obtained responses by 262 psychological researchers and 59 undergraduates of psychology majors. Opinion distributions on 52 ethical issues, along with the comparison between researchers and students, suggested that positions in ethical judgment ranged widely, and researchers were generally more lenient than students. Analysis revealed differences in ethical attitudes among psychologists: fields of psychology, research methodology regularly used, gender, and length of experience influenced their basic as well as specific ethical attitudes. Results suggested that researchers tended to be more lenient toward the issues that were relevant to the conduct of their own studies, and tended to be strict concerning the issues less related to their research. These results should provide important references and suggestions to psychologists of all fields.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between burnout of nurses and their five-factor personality traits. Questionnaires were distributed to nurses at seven general hospitals. Of those 1449 completed Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Results were as follows: Pearson coefficients indicated that Emotional Exhaustion (EE) mainly correlated with Neuroticism (N) and Consciousness (C). Depersonalization (DP) correlated with Agreeableness (A), Neuroticism (N), Extra-version (E) and Consciousness (C). Personal Accomplishment (PA) mainly correlated with Extraversion (E), Consciousness (C) and Openness (O). Furthermore, hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that whereas demographic characteristics (sex, age, having a hobby or not, and having a person to consult with or not) accounted for only 4 to 8% of the variance in burnout scores, personality traits accounted for about 20%.