Tetsu-to-Hagane
Online ISSN : 1883-2954
Print ISSN : 0021-1575
ISSN-L : 0021-1575
Volume 75 , Issue 12
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
  • [in Japanese]
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2137-2138
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Shigeo HOSOKI
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2139-2145
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
  • Terufumi MACHIDA
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2146-2158
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Masanobu MATSUMURA, Yoshinori OKA
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2159-2162
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Makio IINO, Itsu FUJINO
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2163-2166
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Shigeta HARA, Mitsuaki KITAMURA, Kazumi OGINO
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2167-2173
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An apparus for measurement of surface viscosity of liquid is made for development of that for high temperature melts, which is resemble to a rotating viscometer for the measurement of bulk phase. The viscometer can be used for the measurement on the surface as well as the bulk phase. Tests of the measurement were carrid out for silicon oils having different values on viscosity, and also for aqueous solutions containing a small amount of saponin on that produces a rigid surface layer on the solution.
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  • Shigeta HARA, Mitsuaki KITAMURA, Kazumi OGINO
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2174-2181
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Viscosities of molten oxides in the systems, Na2O-P2O5, BaO-B2O3, Na2O-B2O3 and Na2O-SiO2 are measured at 1 000°C on the surface as well as in the bulk phase, using a modified rotating viscometer. By the viscometer, existance of highly viscous layer on the surface can be detected when the layer is formed, if the viscosity in the bulk phase is above 5 poise. Most viscous layer on the surface was observed for BaO 17.8 mol% -B2O3 82.2 mol% melt, in which the surface visosity is 2.3 times higher than that in the bulk phase. The highly viscous layer observed on the surface can be expained, assuming that the concentration of surface active component as B2O3 on the surface is higher than that in the bulk phase.
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  • Shigeta HARA, Takayuki YUNOKI, Kazumi OGINO
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2182-2187
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Foaming heights, when an Ar gas was blown into some binary oxide melts in the systems Na2O-P2O5, BaO-B2O3, Na2O3-B2O3 and Na2O-SiO2 through a platinum sapillary, were measured to evaluate the foaminess. The maximum foaminess was observed for 17.8 mol% BaO-82.8 mol% B2O3 melt at 1 000°C, that lies near the two-liquid phase region (1 to 13 mol% BaO). From the results, it is presumably concluded that higher viscosity of melts itself is not enough to stabilize the foam, but higher surface tension depression with change of melt composition is also required, althogh the foaminess of the melts strongly depends on surface viscosities of the melts.
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  • Fujio ISHII, Shiro BAN-YA
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2188-2193
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The deoxidation of liquid nickle with silicon was studied at the temperature ranging from 1 500° to 1 650°C using silica crucible in order to investigate the deoxidation of nickel based alloys.
    The effect of temperature on the equilibrium constant of the deoxidation reaction was found to be :
    log KSi(Ni)=-15 680/ T +1.83 1 5001 650°C
    while the deoxidation product of nickle, log K'Si(Ni) (= [ % Si] [%O]2), was expressed as follows :
    log K'Si(Ni)= log KSi(Ni)-0.06 [% Si]Si<2%, 1 5001 650°C
    The deoxidation of nickle-iron binary with silicon was measured over the all range of the binary system including pure iron at temperatures of 1 600°C and 1 650°C. On the nickle basis, the deoxidation product of nickle-iron alloy, log K' Si(Ni-Fe), which increased by the addition of iron, was empirically represented to be :
    log K' Si(Ni-Fe)=. log K'Si(Ni) -(288/ T-0.197)[%Fe] Fe<20 %, 0.5% Si, 1 600-1 650°C
    The temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant for the deoxidation of iron, log Ksi(Fe), was given by the expression :
    log KSi(Fe)=-30 960/ T + 11.86 15501650°C
    On the iron basis, the value of log K' Si(Fe-Ni) which decreased with increasing nickle content, was calculated as :
    log K' Si(Fe-Ni)= log K Si(Fe)-0.01 [ % Ni] Ni<60%, 0.5%Si, 1 6001 650°C
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  • Shunichi HASHIMOTO, Takahiro KASHIMA, Jing-hui ZHAO
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2194-2201
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: January 18, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of hot rolling in ferrite phase on γ-value and recrystallization texture of cold rolled and annealed extra low carbon steel has been studied. In order to eliminate the inhomogenious texture formation through thickness direction, the hot rolling with good lubrication condition was performed in this experiment.
    The rolling texture was formed for the steels hot rolled in non-recrystallization ferrite region. This rolling texture brought the development of rolling texture after cold rolling and brought high γ-value after annealing. The cold reduction giving highest γ-value was depended on the formation of rolling texture in hot rolled steel sheet.
    Even in the 70 or 80% of cold reduction, γ-value of 2.3, which is as same as the highest value obtained by 90% of cold reduction in the conventional production process, was obtained in Ti or Nb-added extra low carbon steel by applying hot rolling in non-recrystallization ferrite region.
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  • Kazunari SHINAGAWA, Takashi ISHIKAWA, Yuzo HOSOI
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2202-2209
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The compressive flow stress-strain behavior of duplex stainless steels composed of austenite and ferrite with various volume fractions is studied by static upsetting tests to the extent of large strain in the temperature range of cold working, from 30 to 350°C. The flow stress of duplex stainless steels deformed to large strain at the temperature less than 200°C are higher than that estimated by the law of mixture. This difference is due to prior deformation of the softer austenite phase and its rapid work-hardenig in this temperature range. It is confirmed by a numerical analysis making use of rigid-plastic finite element method ( FEM). As a result of present investigation, the flow stress model of duplex stainless steels is proposed and compared with the experimental data.
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  • Woo-Chang JEONG, Jin-Hwan CHUNG
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2210-2217
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of annealing temperature on the mechanical properties of extra-low carbon cold-rolled steel sheet containing P and Ti was investigated. The obtained results are as follows :
    1) The observed correlation of tensile propeprties with annealing temperature is interpreted in terms of a newly proposed strengthening mechanism which differs from the previously suggested one.
    2) Precipitation strengthening calculated from Ashby-Orowan model for steel sheet continuously annealed in the temperature range of 750-810°C for 30 seconds is about 80 MPa.
    3) In extra-low carbon cold-rolled steel sheet containing P and Ti, effective Ti content can be expressed more realistically by Ti** = Total Ti-(48/14)N-(48/32)S-Ti as (Fe, Ti)P than by the previous equation, Ti* = Total Ti-(48/14)N-(48/32)S.
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  • Yutaka KANETSUKI, Masaaki KATSUMATA, Motoo SATO, Koji HOSOMI
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2218-2225
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of hot deformation on pearlite transformation behavior has been studied in high carbon steels using direct patenting treatment. Patenting after hot deformation showed the refinement of pearlite lamellar spacing and an increase in tensile strength. In order to study the transformation kinetics change due to hot deformation, the Jominy end quench tests have been carried out directry after hot rolling and compared with the usual Jominy curves obtained using reheated specimen with same austenite grain size. This method showed an increase in the hardenability, which was accompanied by suppresion of Widmanstätten ferrite and bainite nucreation and pearlite growth. Furthermore, the magnitude of increase in hardenability depend on the carbon and manganese contents, and the curved austenite grain boundary which was preserved by rapid cooling.
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  • Masao SHIMADA
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2226-2233
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This research was undertaken to clarify effect of phosphorus and boron on cryogenic mechanical properties of a sensitized 17Cr-12.5Ni-2Mo-0.05Nb-0.2N steel. The steel was sensitized at 923 993 K for 270 720 ks and was investigated at low temperature, especially at 4 K. An addition of either phosphorus or boron affected precipitation at grain boundaries during sensitization. Phosphorous increased the grain boundary precipitates. Boron suppressed the phosphorous effect. Both elements, however, did not show clear effect on tensile properties at 4 K of the sensitized steel. In a high phosphorus alloy, Fe2Mo other than CrNbN, M23C6, Cr2N and Nb (CN) precipitated and led to intergranular fracture. Therefore a deterioration of fracture toughness at 4 K for sensitized steel became much evident with an increase in phosphorous content. On the otherhand, boron addition prevented intergranular failure and resulted in high fracture toughness for the sensitized one.
    Segregated phosphorus atoms seem to promote nucleation of precipitation and weaken an interfacial binding of precipitates, especially Fe2Mo. On this assumption, effect of phosphorus and boron addition on mechanical properties at 4 K could be explained.
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  • Takanori NAKAZAWA, Hideo ABO, Hazime KOMATSU, Mitsuru TANINO
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2234-2241
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Creep rupture elongation of type 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels has been investigated at 550°C and 600°C. Rupture elongation of conventional 304 (SUS 304) steels decreases with increasing time-to-rupture (TR) and their rupture elongation decreases to about 10% after 5 × 104 h at 600°C. Although conventional 316 (SUS 316) steels show slight decrease in rupture elongation with increasing TR in a relatively short-TR region, their elongation recovers with TR in a long-TR region. It has been concluded that such differences between SUS 304 and SUS 316 steels are related to the difference in phase stability. In SUS 304 steels, G phase and α phase precipitate on grain boundaries during creep resulting in decreased elongation. On the contrary, in SUS 316 steels, the amount of G phase on grain boundaries is smaller than that of SUS 304 and α phase does not precipitate. In order to increase rupture elongation, low carbon (0.01%) and medium nitrogen (0.07%) steels have been developed (304 MN, 316 MN). Although there is little improvement in rupture strength and elongation between SUS 304 and 304 MN, 316 MN has higher rupture strength and elongation than those of SUS 316. In the case of type 304, phase instability, which is the main cause of elongation loss at a long-TR region, can not be improved by such modification of compositions. Reducing carbon content and increasing nitrogen in type 316 suppress precipitation of carbides, which is the main cause of loss in strength and elongation during creep.
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  • Koji YAMAGUCHI, Kiyoshi IJIMA, Kazuo KOBAYASHI, Satoshi NISHIJIMA
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2242-2249
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: January 18, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Isothermal long term creep-fatigue and combined temperature-strain cycling tests under simulated thermal stresses of high temperature components were carried out with newly developed testing machines suitable to long running. Materials examined were three heats of turbine rotor 1Cr-Mo-V forged steel with different impurity contents. The obtained results were evaluated by the life prediction method proposed by the authors which was based on the linear damage rule looking at the creep rupture ductility of materials after long exposure at high temperatures.
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  • Takao HORIYA, Hirowo G. SUZUKI, Teruo KISHI
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2250-2257
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: January 18, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effect of microstructure, impurity content and testing temperature on crack initiation (δi) and crack extension (slope of R curve) properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloys was examined. δi values and R curves were obtained by accurate measurement of microcrack length at a notch tip of unloaded specimens.
    At 0°C, microcracks of 10 -1 800μm in length preceded unstable fracture at a notch tip irrespective of microstructures examined. Specimens with a variety of microstructures had almost the same δi values, but showed a remarkable defference in the slope of R curves. A specimen with acicular microstructure, which have a higher fracture toughness (δc) at a given strength, showed a greater crack extension resistance than one with equiaxed microstructure.
    At -196°C, little difference in the crack initiation was obtained among the specimens with different kinds of microstructures and differnce in the crack extension resistance was also greatly reduced. But specimens with lower impurity contents, ELI grade, which had a higher δc, showed a greater crack extension resistance than specimens with standard impurity contents.
    It is concluded that the difference in fracture toughness at a given strength for Ti-6Al-4V alloy was largely dependent on crack extension resistance of microcracks preceding unstable fracture rather than crack initiation property.
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  • Yutaka KANETSUKI, Masaaki KATSUMATA, Motoo SATO, Fuzhen LI
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2258-2265
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Hot deformation conditions to obtain ultrafine grain austenite, the effect of austenite grain size on transformation behavior, and mechanical properties and the spheroidizing behavior of ultrafine grain medium carbon steels were studied by uniaxial compression and laboratory rolling of 0.45 C-0.71 Mn, 0.48 C-0.75 Mn-0.03 Nb, 0.44 C-1.58 Mn and 0.26 C-1.35 Mn steels.
    Manganese suppressed the recrystallization of austenite. Niobium addition or reduction of carbon content also slightly suppressed the recrystallization. Ultrafine asutenite grains under 10 μm were obtained by hot deformation of medium carbon-low manganese steels with an initial grain size of about 20 μm at deformation temperature of 850°C under a strain rate of 10 s-1. This suggests that a fine austenite grain of about 20 μm by rolling on the rough and the intermediate trains, low rolling temperature on the finishing train and appropriate strain rate are necessary conditions to obtain ultrafine austenite grain in practical rolling. The refinement of austenite grains induced an increase in the volume fraction of ferrite and a refinement of ferrite grains and pearlite nodules. Consequently, toughness and yield strength increased and better spheroidized microstructure was obtained in the ultrafine grain steels.
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  • Kunio ITO, Fumie SEKI
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2266-2271
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A hot rolled metastable β phase 15 V-3 Cr-3 Al-3 Sn titanium alloy plate was cold rolled to 90% reduction. The sheet was aged prior to recrystallzation, recrystallization annealed, and aged after recrystallization. Crystallographic textures of both α and β phases were followed during the process by a pole figure method. Both cold rolling and recrystallization textures of the β phase are similar to those of α -iron treated similarly. Effects of the precipitation ageings on recrystallization textures are not observed in the experimental conditions applied. There are orientations derived from β mother orientations through Burgers' lattice relationship in the textures of the α phase precipitated in the cold worked matrix, which vary a little with ageing temperatures. A comparison of the present results of α phase texture with those reported on hot rolled α and α + β titanium alloys suggest that the textures of α phase in hot rolled sheets are affected by a selection of variants of the lattice relationship characteristic of the phase transformation during plastic working. A texture of α phase precipitated in recrystallized β matrix coincides qualitatively with orientations derived through Burgers' relation without variants selection. The results indicate that a majority of α phase precipitated in both cold worked and recrystallized matrices is so-called orientation related type 1 α.
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  • Masahiko ITOH, Heihachiro MIDORIKAWA, Tomoaki KIMURA, Teruo YAMAGUCHI, ...
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2272-2274
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Oliver Bernard WRIGHT
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2275-2276
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1989 Volume 75 Issue 12 Pages 2278-2278,2284
    Published: December 01, 1989
    Released: June 19, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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