Abstract: By the beginning of the twentieth century, Budapest had become a modern city with large and significant industrial areas. After 1989, when radical political change opened the way for economic and social reforms, these old industrial districts have become the most important scenes of changes. Based on the surveys and interviews carried out in Budapest and Tokyo, the main purposes of this study are to describe the most important structural and functional changes in the industrial areas of Budapest during the last decade and to compare them with the changes in the industrial areas of inner Tokyo. The emphasis is primarily on how industrial restructuring affected the spatial structure of industry, the urban space and the land use. In spite of the significant differences between the two cities there are also similarities in the development and prospects of industrial areas of Budapest and Tokyo. Not only do the urban structure and functional division of the cities transform but also the local society and urban landscape.
Faculty of International Studies, Kyoritsu Women's University, Hachioji 193-8501, Japan The objective of this paper is to analyze the spatial structure of population characteristics and its shift in the province of Gipuzkoa, Spain, which has a particularly high density of Basque speakers. By using data sets from the 1991 and 1996 State Census and applying factor analysis, several principal dimensions which regulate the spatial differentiation of population characteristics in Gipuzkoa were extracted. The spatial distribution and transition patterns of these dimensions were examined and certain processes of shift became obvious, such as major socio-economic change in the industrial and employment structures, rapid demographic change represented by aging and fertility decline, and an advance in reversing language shift. The dimension of social origin was the most important with regard to the spatial differentiation in Gipuzkoa. Furthermore, it is unique and noteworthy that, apart from with regard to social identity, the demo-linguistic dimensions were extracted independently at the 3rd and 4th dimensions which show relative stages of reversing language shift. As compared with the rural-urban contrast in the dimension of social identity, these demolinguistic dimensions can be found typically in areas with a relatively low density of Basque speakers, including some urban areas. This means that the reversing language shift is making a steady advance there.
This paper focuses on the geometrical aspects of intra-urban migration in order to reveal the relationship between residential mobility and urban space. Data on Australian migration careers in Adelaide are used. I propose a method to compare the observed migrations and random migrations in order to recognize the regional and behavioral characteristics of intra-urban migrations. Random migrations obtained by computer simulation determine a “spatial configuration” depending on geometry of study areas. For both distance and direction, measures of the differences between the observed and the possible frequency distributions are introduced. Using these procedures and indices, the spatial patterns of the migrations throughout the whole lives of subjects and those at certain life stages are analyzed. The results show that data from Adelaide has distance bias compared with data from two American cities (Santa Barbara, CA and Lexington, KY), that is, short distance migrations are dominant in Adelaide, although there is no significant directional bias. Examination of residential shifts at house purchase does not always conform to the general picture of outward migrations linked to the progress of family life stages and sectoral bias in intra-urban migrations. Movements from first to present residences have clear bias with respect to distance and direction, and this observation indicates that successive migrations do not always take people farther from their first place of residence. This analysis, based on personal migration-career data and simulation procedures, provides some important foundations for comparative studies among cities and for new urban spatial modeling.
Spatial and sectoral patterns of Japanese-affiliated companies, in both the manufacturing and service sectors, in the Midwest and their strategies have been examined based on a database compiled by the author and field research. Japanese-affiliated companies in the Midwest are likely to be located in large cities, particularly in the Chicago and Detroit Metropolitan Areas, where a suburbanization of location is in progress. Although the service sector surpasses the manufacturing sector in the number of operations in Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Kansas, the manufacturing sector dominates the service sector in the number of employees throughout the Midwest. While the manufacturing sector is pursuing a localization strategy, the service sector is divided into two groups: companies which are adopting or shifting to a localization strategy and those which are maintaining a specialization strategy. For the latter group, the agglomeration of other Japanese-affiliated companies is crucial for their location.