This study examines the characteristics of the residential locations of working women in the Tokyo metropolitan area, based on a questionnaire survey and some interviews. The spatial differentiation of residential location is discerned among groups of working women. In particular, the residential locations of married women in nuclear family households are more concentrated around inner Tokyo than those of married childless women. This is different from the spatial pattern suggested by the life cycle theory. Restrictions of time in women's everyday lives, location of husbands' workplace, and difference in the resignation rate between inner Tokyo dwellers and suburban dwellers are investigated as the factors that cause the residential location differentiation among groups of working women. Single working women are quite mobile in terms of residence and move mainly around inner Tokyo. Some single women purchase their own houses. Although the circumstances thus far do not easily allow single women to buy their own houses, the number of single female owner occupiers is expected to increase.
Previous studies of residential mobility and housing policies have focused on nuclear families. Recently, however, the number of one-person households has increased in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, mainly due to the increase of late marriage and more working women. The purpose of this study is to examine the residential choice process of single women of the ages of 30-39 and to analyze the factors affecting it. To identify these, this study adopted a multimethod approach combining quantitative and qualitative methods. From the analysis of census data it became clear that single women in their 30's living alone concentrate in the western vicinities of the CBD, which implies that they prefer convenient places to short commutes. Quantitative analysis of the questionnaire data supported this inference by the fact that the most important reason given for their residential choice was accessibility to railway stations. However, the type of residence and working style showed marked differences among income groups. The answers to the open-ended questions of the questionnaire and a focus group interview revealed constraints on the housing choices of single women. Especially, some of the respondents faced difficulty in housing searches and in making contracts with real estate brokers. This could be due to the low confidence of single women, reflecting the conventional patriarchy of Japanese society.
From the Japanese demographic data, it is evident that the category of single women is increasingly constituting a larger segment of the population. Thus far, policies pertaining to housing and social benefits have been targeted at nuclear families based on the “Asian style welfare state, ” and minimum attention has been given to single women. Therefore, in this paper, we attempt to address the factors affecting single women's residential choices by using in-depth interviews. In addition, in order to confirm the research results, triangulation methodologies are applied. Triangulation methods are conducted in two ways. First, my female colleague checks my (male) interpretations against the interview records. Second, my (male) interpretations are compared with the profiles appearing in a non-fiction work by a female writer. As a result, we observe that the residential choices of single women in Tokyo have the following characteristics. 1) Single women are rather myopic in their attitude toward work-and housing-related issues due to their unstable working conditions. 2) They are likely to value easy access to a railway station in their residential choice due to the geographical concentration of job opportunities in the city center and the long working hours. 3) They have limited housing options because most of the available housing stocks cater to nuclear families. Through the triangulation methodologies, other factors affecting their housing choices have been suggested: social contact with their parents and their relationships with their boyfriend. Additionally, the 1996 legislation reform for equal job opportunities and the effects of economic globalization on job opportunities for single women may have affected their working environment.
Recently some single women are purchasing their own houses and the number of houses owned by single women is increasing in Tokyo. The article aims to clarify why single women tend to purchase their houses in Tokyo. The author uses the experience reports of housing ownership by single women in the Tokyo metropolitan region. These experience reports contain their economic conditions, their working conditions and their lifestyle. We can understand the housing demands of single women from these reports, because these sources are collected for marketing research. Furthermore the author tries to clarify the background of housing problems for women in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Single women continue to work after they own their house and want to avoid housing problems in their old age. It is important that they can save housing cost by purchasing houses, because housing loan becomes cheaper than rent, which was caused by low rate of interest rent policy. However all women who purchase their houses are not so rich. They want to own their houses because they are not satisfied with the expensive rent price in Tokyo, the costly and cumbersome charge of broker's procedure and anxiety regarding their old age. Furthermore many single women want to enrich their life by ownership of a house. Because of lack of housing policy for them, single women tend to try to reduce their housing problems in future and to change their life.
The purpose of this study is to recognize and illustrate the presentation of principal developmental trends, regional differences and causal implications of selected population processes, which characterize similar and different features of family behavior of populations in Japan and Slovakia. Our analysis reveals that in spite of a strong influence of family traditions, family behaviour has changed in Slovakia and in Japan. Changes of traditional family behaviour in Slovakia are characterised by a decrease in the marriage rate and a subsequent increase in the age of marriage, a slowly increasing divorce rate, a decrease in abortion levels, and a gradual spreading of informal partner bonds (cohabitations). The past model of early marriage has changed to a model of late marriage. The family in Japan had traditionally economic, cultural, reproductive and educational functions. In spite of certain changes in family behaviour, these functions have been preserved. Changes in family behaviour in Japan include an increasing age of marriage, and an increasing share of “single” households. On the other hand, the low level of the divorce rate, small number of cohabitations, and the low level of extra-marital fertility seems to confirm the conservatism of the family. Changes in family behaviour of inhabitants in Japan and Slovakia seem to have some similarities with those in the West European countries. Further analysis of the 2nd demographic transition is required.
Japanese colonial environmentalism in early twentieth-century Korea is examined with special reference to academic representations of hwajeon or shifting cultivation. Tracing the progress of the project for the disposal of hwajeon and the accompanying researches in forestry, geography, and agronomy, the author discovered that there was an intricate but strong relationship between the scientific discourses and colonialism in the name of conservation. After the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910, the colonial foresters began to map the condition of the forest areas and to exclude the shifting cultivators in order to save the woody lands from them since these cultivators had apparently destroyed the Korean natural environment from the southern area up to the north for centuries. The disposal project mobilized academic researchers in geography and agronomy and was revised by them in the 1920 s. Hwajeon was found to be more systematic and stable than the foresters had supposed but was definitely represented as a destroyer not only of timber but of the national land itself and then a subject of “improement” in the 1930 s. The serial mapping and researches had a critical influence on the manner of understanding and treatment of the indigenous agriculture, although some of the Koreans and also Japanese considered it to be a debatable issue.
This study examines how married women adapt their way of life to the suburbs and why they choose to hold part-time jobs, to clarify the mechanisms underlying “spatial entrapment” and “spatial mismatch.” Data were collected through a questionnaire survey targeting married couples living in Chiba New Town, located in the northeastern suburb of the Tokyo metropolitan area. Among 107 sampled women, 72 are part-time workers. Many of them preferred the short commute, short and flexible working hours, and lack of overtime responsibilities in their job. Thus they often found jobs by receiving information on the local labor market from news-papers and their insertions, posters and displays, and direct leaflets. Women who found their current jobs through these mediums commute to their workplaces approximately four kilometers away from their home, which corresponds to the distance between stations in the new town. Nevertheless, after commencing work, women realized that their current jobs did not match their preferred ones. Also, full-time homemakers are likely not to need to work outside the home in order to support their households. These results demonstrate that suburban married women become short-distance commuters because they take advantage of the social environment that embeds them in their job search. However, this also reflects unique characteristics of Chiba New Town, such as inaccessibility to central Tokyo, wives' lifestyle of giving priority to their family needs, and the relatively high incomes of their husbands that are sufficient for living.
Unlike developed countries, no enforced attendance areas exist in Iran to guide school selection or allow students to make the most convenient commutes to the nearest schools. Without defined school attendance areas, parents seeking better and more reputable schools often have no choice but to send children to schools outside the local area. In the case of the Northern Iranian city of Rasht, this parental-based system of schools selection has resulted in commutes that are longer than necessary for the female students of junior high school who journey on foot or on the city's public and private transport. Long commutes by vehicle and on foot are a heavy burden on students and parents in terms of travel expenses, stress and the possibility of physical harm. This paper presents the realities of the parental-based system of school selection through the case study of Rasht City using questionnaires. The criteria in the selection of school by parents were clarified through the use of questionnaire surveys. In order to reduce the time and distance of commutes to school, the research proposed to eliminate parental choice and to create school attendance areas that allocate students to the closest possible public female junior high (PFJH) schools of Rasht City. It concluded that through the introduction of school attendance areas based on the multiplicatively weighted Voronoi diagram method, it would be possible to not only eliminate most hazardous vehicle travel but also make walking commute shorter and more convenient.
Japan and neighboring regions experienced record-breaking hot weather during the 2004 summer. Two kinds of teleconnection patterns are considered to account for the anomalous anticyclone over these regions. One, originating from the western North Pacific (WNP), was responsible for the anomalous hot weather during the second half of June. The other, embedded in the mid-latitude Asian Jet, was discernible dúring early July. The Asian summer monsoon (ASM) was stronger than normal, which was consistent with the warmer Asian land surface in the pre-monsoon season. During the boreal spring, enhancement of convection occurred over the tropical Indian Ocean (IO) and WNP. These anomalous tropical heat sources are responsible for anticyclonic circulation extending over the Asian continent and resultant increase in the land surface temperature due to suppression of rainfall. The enhancement of thermal gradient between the Asian continent and the adjacent oceans are consistent with the strong ASM. An east-west asymmetric air-sea heat exchange across South china Sea is newly proposed to explain the connection between the ASM intensity and the localized convection to the east of the Philippines in June.
This study aims to clarify the main ion concentrations in paddy field surface soil from 0 to 100cm in depth along the coast of the Red River Delta, Northern Vi etnam, represented by Nam Dinh Province. There is a relation between total dissolved solid (TDS) and Na+concentration. Na+and Cl- concentrations in paddy fields increase gradually and the abundance of Cl- concentration in soil proclaims the influence of seawater intrusion. Washing is reported to reduce the high salinity in the cultivation-layer soil of paddy fields. Furthermore, the impact of seawater intrusion on soil salinity of coastal paddy fields has been considered. The top soil layer of coastal salt-affected paddy fields has the highest sodium absorption ratio (SAR) values, and shows the strongest salinity influence in both the flood season and the dry season. Soil samples near the Day River mouth have high SAR values with considerable Na+ concentrations in the dry season. The exchange selectivity between Ca2+, Mg2+and Na+ has also been studied by considering changes in the SAR under different conditions of soil composition and land cover. In coastal agricultural land, the SAR in the surface soil layer can be used to evaluate the influence of salinity. The SAR in cultivated soil is used to assess the influence of salinity problems on the paddy field.