This study uses the case of Nuremberg (Nürnberg) to investigate areal differences of renewal in urban residential areas in Germany since the 1970s when the supply of dwelling units surpassed demand and city authorities introduced urban renewal projects. It focuses on the renewal from the viewpoint of physical and social changes. The analysis of housing data for Nuremberg indicates that “well-cared-for urban residential area” is located within 3 kilometers from the urban center to the northern, eastern and southeastern sectors and “urban residential area in decline” is found within 3 kilometers from the urban center to the western and southern sectors. In a sample area for the former sectors, many reconstructions and renovations in the 1980s and 1990s led to the increase in the number of high quality dwellings, into which many German households, of medium or high socioeconomic status, moved. The physical improvement of dwellings in the area was made mainly by renewal projects, official financial support for social housing units and private investment. In a sample area for the latter sectors, the renewal projects in the 1980s did not contribute to the increase both in reconstruction of old buildings and in renovation by private investment. In the latter area, a large part of dwellings are classified into middle or low quality dwellings with low rent, into which people of low or middle incomes move. The population of this area decreased during and even after the urban renewal projects.
Wine industry in Spain, consolidated as a sector with ancestral traditions, has experienced in the last decades a new dynamism that raises it to a highly competitive position in the international market. However, against what could be expected from the current situation, commercialization of wine production arrived in Spain in relatively recent periods and was limited, at least in the initial stages, to some few areas of the country. In this article, three pioneer regions, Jerez, Penedès and Rioja, are selected to analyze the transition to commercial wine production in a comparative perspective. Special attention is paid to the leading entrepreneurs of each region that played an important role to develop the potential of the sector with modern vinification methods. Careful survey on these three regions reveals that what distinguishes each region from the others is not only the geographical or economic origin of the leading entrepreneurs, but the way they responded to the physical and locational conditions proper to each region. Distinctive behaviors of the leaders also conditioned to a great extent the relationship to be established with the other operators involved in the wine industry. Finally, some spatial implications of this relationship are pointed out through considerations on the physical and functional differences found inside of the region.
The purpose of this study is to examine the changes in outbound tourism from the Visegrád Countries (Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary) to Austria. The number of tourists from these countries to Austria has greatly increased since the late 1980s, especially during winter. A majority of these tourists used to visit cities in Austria, especially Vienna, during the socialist period. However, tourist destinations have now changed. Several areas in the Alpine region have become popular among tourists since 1990. In the province Tyrol, many winter tourists stay in the valleys with large glacial ski areas that always offer good snow conditions. Most of them travel in groups, and there are only a small number of individual travelers. Tourists come to Tyrol by chartered bus and usually opt for cheaper accommodation, when staying for five to six days. Since 1990, tourism from the Visegrád Countries to Austria has been developed on account of winter sports, however, it accounts for approximately 2% of the tourist nights in Austria. This development in tourism can be partly attributed to the accessibility from the Visegrád Countries to Austria and the fact that Austrian resorts are relatively inexpensive, compared with the other Alpine resorts in Switzerland or France. Moreover, many Alpine regions have come to need the new tourist market of the Visegrád Countries, because the regular visitor market, comprising largely German tourists, is unlikely to expand.
This report overviews observations on periglacial geomorphology in central Spitsbergen, which have been undertaken by the Japanese geomorphological groups. Focus is given to permafrost-related processes, including solifluction, thermal contraction cracking and pingo growth. Annual freeze-thaw action dominates the ground, resulting in extensive occurrence of solifluction and shallow landslides on soil slopes. Solifluction shows low surface velocity but large volumetric transport, which respectively reflects infrequent diurnal frost creep and deep movement. The latter partly originates from plug-like flow in the basal active layer, where permafrost temperature is low and muddy sediment is thick. Non-sorted polygons with a wide range of diameters develop on lowlands. In colder inland terrains, large polygons (>7m) have ice wedges, whereas smaller polygons have only soil wedges or cracks confined to the active layer. Significant ice-wedge cracking occurs during rapid and intensive cooling in midwinter. In warmer coastal terrains, ice wedges are not common even below large polygons, because higher winter temperature can produce only shallow cracks. Open-system pingos occur in valley bottoms and near shores. Some pingos are still growing under a low artesian pressure fed by constant supply of sub-permafrost water. Following lateral river erosion, a new frost mound emerged at a side of a pingo, reaching 3m high during three years. The observations demonstrate that central Spitsbergen is situated in a High Arctic but relatively warm permafrost environment. The transitional condition between cold and warm permafrost allows diverse periglacial features to coexist within a small area. Even minor climatic change can switch the two thermal regimes, affecting significantly the type and magnitude of periglacial processes.
In order to investigate the vegetation response to global warming, experimental research was carried out on a high mountain of Japan for three years from 1997 to 1999. The experimental site was in the alpine zone at 2, 780m above sea level, near the peak of Mt. Norikura (3, 026m) in central Japan. Vegetation growing period is about 4 months without snow cover from early June to early October. Five open top chambers with a diameter of 80cm and a height of 30cm were used for temperature enhancement, and another five places were selected as controls outside the chambers. The main objectives were to clarify the differences in vegetation growth, phenology, biomass and coverage of plant between temperature-enhanced chambers and controls. To prove temperature enhancement, air temperature at vegetation height of 5cm high above ground and ground temperature at root layer of 3cm depth were recorded every hour in each chamber and at each control. Vegetation growth and phenology of several alpine species were measured at about four-week intervals, and biomass and coverage were measured on the last experimental day every year. The mean air temperature at vegetation height and mean ground temperature at root layer in chambers were about 0.65°C and 0.25°C higher than in the controls, respectively. Vegetation growth was significantly accelerated, and phenology was surely affected by the extension of growth period due to temperature enhancement for most of the plants observed. Vegetation growth and phenology, however, varied with species, indicating that species vary in response to warming. Differences in biomass between chambers and controls were not significant for all years, suggesting that the total growth of plants in the unit area is controlled by nutrient conditions of the soil. Through three years of experiment, coverage of Loiseleuria procumbens (Ericaceae) recognizably increased, overcoming other species in chambers, while there were no conspicuous changes in controls. It suggests that L. procumbens whose canopy expands horizontally over the other forbs might be more physiologically active than others under warming conditions, although vegetation growth showed positive response to temperature enhancement for most species.
Meteorological parameters were measured in mahogany (mogno)-black pepper (pimenta) agro-forestry sites at Parque Ecológico de Gunma in Santa Bárbara do Pará, Brazil in September 2001 in order to investigate the differences in microclimatic mitigation in relation to forest structure and growth. In site mogno africano (MAF) where African mogno and pimenta were planted four years ago, the tree height (H) was 14.9±0.9m and the canopy coverage (CC) was 59.40±9.22%. Likewise, in site mogno amazônico (MAM) where an agro-forestry of Amazonian mogno and pimenta has been tested for six years, H was 6.6±0.8m and CC was 35.48±5.36%. In site mato reservado (RES), which is a 30-year-old secondary forest with 24 woody species, H: 13.3±7.8m, CC: 72.39±8.23%, and in site rocado (ROC), which was clear-cut 10 months ago, eight perennial herbs and 21 pioneer woody species were found, but CC was the smallest (6.21±1.09%). With respect to the radiation balance, downward short wave radiation (SWdown) was ROC>MAM>MAF>RES, while upward short wave radiation was ROC>MAM>MAF_??_RES. Both net radiation and photosynthetically active radiation had a similar phase to SWdown. Temperature was also dependent on SWdown. But dew point temperature (Tdp) decreased faster in ROC and MAM than at the other sites because radiative cooling due to upward long wave radiation (LWup) was larger in the nighttime. When temperatures reached Tdp in ROC and MAM, the relative humidity became 100% and the absolute humidity kept decreasing as long as dew formation continued. From these circumstances, it is clear that the diurnal fluctuation of microclimatic environments near ground surfaces depends on CC, and it is believed that pimenta, which are fond of the shade, should be planted in RES with high microclimatic mitigation effects.
The development of a quantitative method to predict regional extreme high temperature due to global warming is necessary. In this study, a statistical downscaling model for estimating monthly mean daily maximum temperature in August in Japan was proposed and examined. The model related the local variable with the principal components of large-scale climate variables over the region using stepwise multiple regression analysis. The principal components of air temperature and zonal wind at 850hPa level, sea level pressure, and geopotential height at 500hPa level were selected as eligible predictors. The statistical model was evaluated by the cross validation procedure. The correlation coefficients between the observation and the regression estimates were significant at most stations, and the model estimated the observation fairly well. Therefore it was confirmed that the method is applicable to the estimation of high temperature in the region. The method was then applied to the output of NCAR-CSM. The 1×CO2 climate downscaled from the global model output was generally cooler than the observation due to the underestimate of 850hPa air temperature to the north of Japan showing that the downscaling model reflects deviations in the global model.
The purpose of this study is to examine socio-cultural aspects of international migration from Tonga and its impact based on the behavioral approach, which has thus far been neglected in existing literature associated with the country's migration. An interview and questionnaire survey of 150 households from the three island groups in Tonga was conducted. As a result, the following findings were obtained. Household size has recently decreased due to transformation from the extended family to the nuclear family and emigration from Tonga. Consequently, the number of migrants per household is larger than before. The individual or nuclear family rather than the extended family plays a greater role in migration decisionmaking now. With respect to the reason for migration, an increasing motivation to migrate for study abroad since the 1990s is remarkable. Reliance on remittance is not significant partially due to the increase in student migration. Furthermore, there is an obvious tendency for migrants to marry persons with Tongan nationality, and, thus, they are quite likely to settle in their host countries and not return to Tonga.